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@c This is part of the GNU Mailutils manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1999-2004, 2006-2007, 2009-2012, 2014-2016 Free
@c Software Foundation, Inc.
@c See file mailutils.texi for copying conditions.
@comment *******************************************************************

@code{Libmu_sieve} is GNU implementation of the mail filtering
language Sieve. The library is built around a @dfn{Sieve Machine} --- an
abstract computer constructed specially to handle mail filtering tasks.
This computer has two registers: program counter and numeric accumulator;
a runtime stack of unlimited depth and the code segment. A set of
functions is provided for creating and destroying instances of Sieve
Machine, manipulating its internal data, compiling and executing a
sieve program.

The following is a typical scenario of using @code{libmu_sieve}:

@enumerate
@item Application program creates the instance of sieve machine.

@item Then @code{mu_sieve_compile} function is called to translate
the Sieve source into an equivalent program executable by the
Machine

@item A mailbox is opened and associated with the Machine

@item The Machine executes the program over the mailbox

@item When the execution of the program is finished, all messages upon which
an action was executed other than @code{keep} are marked with the delete
flag. Thus, running @code{mailbox_expunge} upon the mailbox finishes
the job, leaving in the mailbox only those messages that were preserved
by the filter.

@item Finally, the instance of Sieve Machine is destroyed and the
resources allocated for it are reclaimed.

@end enumerate

The following sections describe in detail the functions from the
Sieve Library.

@menu
* Sieve Data Types::
* Manipulating the Sieve Machine::
* Logging and Diagnostic Functions::
* Symbol Space Functions::
* Memory Allocation::
* Compiling and Executing the Script::
* Writing Loadable Commands::
@end menu

@node Sieve Data Types
@subsection Sieve Data Types

@deftp {Data Type} sieve_machine_t
This is an opaque data type representing a pointer to an instance of
sieve machine. The @code{sieve_machine_t} keeps all information necessary
for compiling and executing the script.

It is created by @code{sieve_machine_create()} and destroyed by
@code{sieve_machine_destroy()}. The functions for manipulating this data
type are described in @ref{Manipulating the Sieve Machine}.
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_data_type
This enumeration keeps the possible types of sieve data. These are:

@table @code
@item SVT_VOID
No datatype.

@item SVT_NUMBER
Numeric type.

@item SVT_STRING
Character string.

@item SVT_STRING_LIST
A @code{mu_list_t}. Each item in this list represents a character string.

@item SVT_TAG
A sieve tag. See @code{mu_sieve_runtime_tag_t} below.

@item SVT_IDENT
A character string representing an identifier. 

@item SVT_POINTER
An opaque pointer.
@end table
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_value_t
The @code{mu_sieve_value_t} keeps an instance of sieve data. It is defined
as follows:

@smallexample
@group
typedef struct 
@{
  mu_sieve_data_type type;        /* Type of the data */
  union @{
    char *string;                 /* String value or identifier */
    size_t number;                /* Numeric value */
    mu_list_t list;               /* List value */
    mu_sieve_runtime_tag_t *tag;  /* Tag value */
    void *ptr;                    /* Pointer value */ 
  @} v;
@} 
mu_sieve_value_t;
@end group
@end smallexample

Depending on the value of @code{type} member, following members of the
union @code{v} keep the actual value:

@table @code
@item SVT_VOID
Never appears.

@item SVT_NUMBER
The numeric value is kept in @code{number} member.

@item SVT_STRING
The string is kept in @code{string} member.

@item SVT_STRING_LIST
The list itself is pointed to by @code{list} member

@item SVT_TAG
The tag value is pointed to by @code{tag} member.

@item SVT_IDENT
The @code{string} member points to the identifier name.

@item SVT_POINTER
The data are pointed to by @code{ptr} member.
@end table

@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_tag_def_t
This structure represents a definition of a tagged (optional) argument
to a sieve action or test. It is defined as follows:

@smallexample
@group
typedef struct 
@{
  char *name;                 /* Tag name */
  mu_sieve_data_type argtype; /* Type of tag argument. */
@} 
mu_sieve_tag_def_t;
@end group
@end smallexample

The @code{name} member points to the tag's name @emph{without leading
colon}. The @code{argtype} is set to @code{SVT_VOID} if the tag does
not take argument, or to the type of the argument otherwise.
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_runtime_tag_t
This structure represents the tagged (optional) argument at a runtime.
It is defined as:

@smallexample
@group
struct mu_sieve_runtime_tag 
@{
  char *tag;                   /* Tag name */
  mu_sieve_value_t *arg;       /* Tag argument (if any) */
@};
@end group
@end smallexample

The @code{arg} member is @code{NULL} if the tag does not take an argument.
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_locus_t
Objects of this type represent a location in the Sieve source file:

@smallexample
@group
typedef struct
@{
  const char *source_file;
  size_t source_line;
@}
mu_sieve_locus_t;
@end group
@end smallexample
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_handler_t

This is a pointer to function handler for a sieve action or test.
It is defined as follows:
@smallexample
typedef int (*mu_sieve_handler_t) (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach},
                                   mu_list_t @var{args}, 
                                   mu_list_t @var{tags});
@end smallexample

The arguments to the handler have the following meaning:

@table @var
@item mach
Sieve machine being processed.
@item args
A list of required arguments to the handler
@item tags
A list of optional arguments (tags).
@end table
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_printf_t
A pointer to a diagnostic output function. It is defined as follows:
@smallexample
typedef int (*mu_sieve_printf_t) (void *@var{data}, 
                                  const char *@var{fmt}, va_list @var{ap});
@end smallexample

@table @var
@item data
A pointer to application specific data.  It is set using
the @code{mu_sieve_set_data} call.
@item fmt
Printf-like format string.
@item ap
Other arguments.
@end table
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_parse_error_t
This data type is declared as follows:
@smallexample
typedef int (*mu_sieve_parse_error_t) (void *@var{data},
                                       const char *@var{filename}, 
                                       int @var{lineno},
                                       const char *@var{fmt}, 
                                       va_list @var{ap});
@end smallexample

It is used to declare error handlers for parsing errors. The
application-specific data are passed in the @var{data}
argument. Arguments @var{filename} and @var{line} indicate the location
of the error in the source text, while @var{fmt} and @var{ap} give
verbose description of the error.
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_action_log_t
A pointer to the application-specific logging function:

@smallexample
typedef void (*mu_sieve_action_log_t) (void *@var{data},
                                       const mu_sieve_locus_t *@var{locus},
                                       size_t @var{msgno}, 
                                       mu_message_t @var{msg},
                                       const char *@var{action},
                                       const char *@var{fmt}, 
                                       va_list @var{ap});
@end smallexample

@table @var
@item data
Application-specific data.

@item locus
Location in the Sieve source file.

@item script
Name of the sieve script being executed.

@item msgno
Ordinal number of the message in mailbox, if appropriate. When execution
is started using @code{sieve_message()}, this argument is zero.

@item msg
The message this action is executed upon.

@item action
The name of the action.

@item fmt
@itemx var
These two arguments give the detailed description of the action.
@end table
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_relcmp_t
@deftpx {Data Type} mu_sieve_relcmpn_t
@smallexample
typedef int (*mu_sieve_relcmp_t) (int, int);  
typedef int (*mu_sieve_relcmpn_t) (size_t, size_t);  
@end smallexample
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_comparator_t
@smallexample
typedef int (*mu_sieve_comparator_t) (const char *, const char *);
@end smallexample

A pointer to the comparator handler function. The function compares
its two operands and returns 1 if they are equal, and 0 otherwise.
@emph{Notice}, that the sense of the return value is inverted
in comparison with most standard libc functions like @code{stcmp()}, etc.

@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_retrieve_t
@smallexample
typedef int (*mu_sieve_retrieve_t) (void *item, void *data, int idx,
                                    char **pval);
@end smallexample

A pointer to generic retriever function. See description of
@code{mu_sieve_vlist_compare()} for details of its usage.
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_destructor_t
@smallexample
typedef void (*mu_sieve_destructor_t) (void *data);
@end smallexample

A pointer to destructor function. The function frees any resources
associated with @code{data}. See the description of
@code{mu_sieve_machine_add_destructor()} for more information.
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} mu_sieve_tag_checker_t
@smallexample
typedef int (*mu_sieve_tag_checker_t) (const char *@var{name}, 
                                       mu_list_t @var{tags}, 
                                       mu_list_t @var{args})
@end smallexample

A pointer to tag checker function. The purpose of the function is to
perform compilation-time consistency test on tags. Its arguments are:

@table @var
@item name
Name of the test or action whose tags are being checked.

@item tags
A list of @code{mu_sieve_runtime_tag_t} representing tags.

@item args
A list of @code{mu_sieve_value_t} representing required arguments to
@var{name}.
@end table

The function is allowed to make any changes in @var{tags} and
@var{args}. It should return 0 if the syntax is correct and non-zero
otherwise. It is responsible for issuing the diagnostics in the latter
case. [FIXME: describe how to do that]

@end deftp

@node Manipulating the Sieve Machine
@subsection Manipulating the Sieve Machine

This subsection describes functions used to create an instance of the
sieve machine, read or alter its internal fields and destroy it.

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_machine_create (mu_sieve_machine_t *@var{mach})

The @code{mu_sieve_machine_create()} function creates an instance of a sieve
machine.  A pointer to the instance itself is returned in the argument
@var{mach}. The function returns 0 on success, and a non-zero error
code otherwise.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_machine_destroy (mu_sieve_machine_t *@var{pmach})

This function destroys the instance of sieve machine pointed to by
@var{mach} parameter. After execution of @code{mu_sieve_machine_destroy()}
@var{pmach} contains @code{NULL}. The destructors registered with
@code{mu_sieve_machine_add_destructor()} are executed in @sc{lifo}
order.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_machine_add_destructor (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_sieve_destructor_t @var{destr}, void *@var{ptr});

This function registers a destructor function @var{dest}. The purpose
of the destructor is to free any resources associated with the item
@var{ptr}. The destructor function takes a single argument --- a
pointer to the data being destroyed. All registered destructors are
called in reverse order upon execution of
@code{mu_sieve_machine_destroy()}. Here's a short example of the use
of this function:

@smallexample
@group
static void
free_regex (void *data)
@{
  regfree ((regex_t*)data);        
@}

int
match_part_checker (const char *name, list_t tags, list_t args)
@{
  regex_t *regex;

  /* Initialise the regex: */
  regex = mu_sieve_malloc (mach, sizeof (*regex));
  /* Make sure it will be freed when necessary */
  mu_sieve_machine_add_destructor (sieve_machine, free_regex, regex);
  .
  .
  .
@}
@end group
@end smallexample
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun {void *} mu_sieve_get_data (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
This function returns the application-specific data associated with
the instance of sieve machine. See @code{mu_sieve_machine_create()}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun mu_message_t mu_sieve_get_message (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
This function returns the current message.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun size_t mu_sieve_get_message_num (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
This function returns the current message number in the mailbox.
If there are no mailbox, i.e. the execution of the sieve code is started
with @code{mu_sieve_message}, this function returns 1.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_get_debug_level (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
Returns the debug level set for this instance of sieve machine.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun mu_ticket_t mu_sieve_get_ticket (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
Returns the authentication ticket for this machine.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun mu_mailer_t mu_sieve_get_mailer (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
Returns the mailer.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_get_locus (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_sieve_locus_t *@var{locus})
Returns the locus in the Sieve source file corresponding to the code pointer 
where the Sieve machine currently is.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun {char *} mu_sieve_get_daemon_email (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
This function returns the @dfn{daemon email} associated with this
instance of sieve machine. The daemon email is an email address used in
envelope from addresses of automatic reply messages. By default its local
part is @samp{<MAILER-DAEMON>} and the domain part is the machine name.
@end deftypefun


@deftypefun void mu_sieve_set_error (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_sieve_printf_t @var{error_printer})
This function sets the error printer function for the machine. If it is
not set, the default error printer will be used. It is defined as
follows:

@smallexample
int
_sieve_default_error_printer (void *unused, const char *fmt, 
                              va_list ap)
@{
  return mu_verror (fmt, ap);
@}
@end smallexample
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_set_parse_error (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_sieve_parse_error_t @var{p})
This function sets the parse error printer function for the machine. If it is
not set, the default parse error printer will be used. It is defined as
follows:

@smallexample
@group
int
_sieve_default_parse_error (void *unused,
                            const char *filename, int lineno,
                            const char *fmt, va_list ap)
@{
  if (filename)
    fprintf (stderr, "%s:%d: ", filename, lineno);
  vfprintf (stderr, fmt, ap);
  fprintf (stderr, "\n");
  return 0;
@}
@end group
@end smallexample
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_set_debug (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_sieve_printf_t @var{debug});
This function sets the debug printer function for the machine. If it is
not set, the default debug printer is @code{NULL} which means no
debugging information will be displayed.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_set_debug_level (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_debug_t @var{dbg}, int @var{level})
This function sets the debug level for the given instance of sieve
machine. The @var{dbg} argument is the @code{mu_debug_t} object to be
used with mailutils library, the @var{level} argument specifies the
debugging level for the sieve library itself. It is a bitwise or of
the following values:

@table @code
@item MU_SIEVE_DEBUG_TRACE
Trace the execution of the sieve script.

@item MU_SIEVE_DEBUG_INSTR 
Print the sieve machine instructions as they are executed.

@item MU_SIEVE_DEBUG_DISAS
Dump the disassembled code of the sieve machine. Do not run it.

@item MU_SIEVE_DRY_RUN
Do not executed the actions, only show what would have been done.
@end table
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_set_logger (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_sieve_action_log_t @var{logger})
This function sets the logger function. By default the logger function
is @code{NULL}, which means that the executed actions are not logged.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_set_ticket (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_ticket_t @var{ticket})
This function sets the authentication ticket to be used with this machine.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_set_mailer (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_mailer_t @var{mailer})
This function sets the mailer. The default mailer is @code{"sendmail:"}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_set_daemon_email (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{email})
This functions sets the @dfn{daemon email} for @code{reject} and
@code{redirect} actions.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_is_dry_run (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
The @code{mu_sieve_is_dry_run()} returns 1 if the machine is in @dfn{dry
run} state, i.e. it will only log the actions that would have been
executed without actually executing them. The dry run state is set
by calling @code{mu_sieve_set_debug_level()} if its last argument has
the @code{MU_SIEVE_DRY_RUN} bit set.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun {const char *} mu_sieve_type_str (mu_sieve_data_type @var{type})
Returns the string representation for the given sieve data type. The
return value is a pointer to a static constant string.
@end deftypefun

@node Logging and Diagnostic Functions 
@subsection Logging and Diagnostic Functions 

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_error (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{fmt}, @dots{})
Format and output an error message using error printer of the machine @var{mach}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_debug (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{fmt}, @dots{})
Format and output a debug message using debug printer of the machine @var{mach}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_log_action (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{action}, const char *@var{fmt}, @dots{})
Log a sieve action using logger function associated with the machine @var{mach}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_abort (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
Immediately abort the execution of the script.
@end deftypefun

@node Symbol Space Functions
@subsection Symbol Space Functions

@deftypefun {mu_sieve_register_t *} mu_sieve_test_lookup (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{name})
Find a register object describing the test @var{name}. Returns
@code{NULL} if no such test exists.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun {mu_sieve_register_t *} mu_sieve_action_lookup (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{name})
Find a register object describing the action @var{name}. Returns
@code{NULL} if no such action exists.
@end deftypefun
                                           
@deftypefun int mu_sieve_register_test (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{name}, mu_sieve_handler_t @var{handler}, mu_sieve_data_type *@var{arg_types}, mu_sieve_tag_group_t *@var{tags}, int @var{required})
@end deftypefun
                             
@deftypefun int mu_sieve_register_action (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{name}, mu_sieve_handler_t @var{handler}, mu_sieve_data_type *@var{arg_types}, mu_sieve_tag_group_t *@var{tags}, int @var{required})
@end deftypefun
                               
@deftypefun int mu_sieve_register_comparator (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{name}, int @var{required}, mu_sieve_comparator_t @var{is}, mu_sieve_comparator_t @var{contains}, mu_sieve_comparator_t @var{matches}, mu_sieve_comparator_t @var{regex}, mu_sieve_comparator_t @var{eq})
@end deftypefun
                                   
@deftypefun int mu_sieve_tag_lookup (mu_list_t @var{taglist}, char *@var{name}, mu_sieve_value_t **@var{arg})
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_load_ext (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{name})
@end deftypefun

@node Memory Allocation
@subsection Memory Allocation

The following functions act as their libc counterparts. The allocated
memory is associated with the @var{mach} argument and is automatically
freed upon the call to @code{mu_sieve_machine_destroy (@var{mach})}.

@deftypefun {void *} mu_sieve_malloc (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, size_t @var{size})
Allocates @var{size} bytes and returns a pointer to the allocated memory.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun {char *} mu_sieve_strdup (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{str})
This function returns a pointer to a new string  which is a duplicate of the
string @var{str}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun {void *} mu_sieve_realloc (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, void *@var{ptr}, size_t @var{size})
Changes the size of the memory block pointed to by @var{ptr} to
@var{size} bytes. The contents will be unchanged to the minimum of the
old and new sizes; newly allocated memory will be uninitialized. If
@var{ptr} is @code{NULL}, the call is equivalent to
@code{mu_sieve_malloc(@var{mach}, @var{size})}; if @var{size} is equal to
zero, the call is equivalent to @code{mu_sieve_free(@var{ptr})}. Unless
@var{ptr} is @code{NULL}, it must have been returned by an earlier
call to @code{mu_sieve_malloc()} or @code{mu_sieve_realloc()}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mu_sieve_free (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, void *@var{ptr})
@code{mu_sieve_free()} frees the memory space pointed to by @var{ptr} and
detaches it from the destructor list of @var{mach}. The @var{ptr} must
have been returned by a previous call to @code{mu_sieve_malloc()} or
@code{mu_sieve_realloc()}. Otherwise, or if @code{mu_sieve_mfree(@var{ptr})}
has already been called before, undefined behaviour occurs.

If @var{ptr} is @code{NULL}, no operation is performed.
@end deftypefun

@node Compiling and Executing the Script
@subsection Compiling and Executing the Script

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_compile (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, const char *@var{name})
Compile the sieve script from the file @var{name}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_mailbox (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_mailbox_t @var{mbox})
Execute the code from the given instance of sieve machine @var{mach}
over each message in the mailbox @var{mbox}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_message (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach}, mu_message_t @var{message})
Execute the code from the given instance of sieve machine @var{mach}
over the @var{message}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mu_sieve_disass (mu_sieve_machine_t @var{mach})
Dump the disassembled code of the sieve machine @var{mach}.
@end deftypefun

@node Writing Loadable Commands
@subsection Writing Loadable Commands

This section contains an example of how to write external loadable
commands for GNU libmu_sieve.

@smallexample
@include numaddr.inc
@end smallexample

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