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\input texinfo	@c -*- Texinfo -*-
@comment $Id$
@comment %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@setfilename gdbm.info
@include version.texi
@settitle gdbm
@dircategory Programming & development tools
@direntry
* GDBM: (gdbm).			The GNU database manager.
@end direntry
@c @setchapternewpage odd
@comment %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)

@iftex
@finalout
@end iftex

@ifinfo
This file documents the GNU dbm utility.

Copyright (C) 1989-1999, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being ``The GNU Database
Manager,'' and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
License.''

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to
copy and modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF
supports it in developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
@end quotation
@end ifinfo

@titlepage
@null
@sp 6
@center @titlefont{GNU dbm}
@sp 2
@center A Database Manager
@sp 2
@center by Philip A. Nelson, Jason Downs and Sergey Poznyakoff
@sp 4
@center Manual by Pierre Gaumond, Philip A. Nelson, Jason Downs
@center and Sergey Poznyakoff
@sp 1
@center Edition @value{EDITION}
@sp 1
@center for GNU @code{dbm}, Version @value{VERSION}
@page
@null
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1993-1999, 2007-2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@sp 2

This is Edition 1.6 of the @cite{GNU @code{dbm} Manual}, for @code{gdbm}
Version @value{VERSION}. @*
Last updated @value{UPDATED}

Published by the Free Software Foundation @*
675 Massachusetts Avenue, @*
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA @*

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of
this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also that
the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a
permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual
into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved
by the Free Software Foundation.
@end titlepage
@page

@node Top, Copying, (dir), (dir)
@ifinfo
GNU @code{dbm} is a library of functions implementing a hashed database
on a disk file.  This manual documents GNU @code{dbm} Version @value{VERSION}
(@code{gdbm}).  The software was written by Philip A. Nelson. This
document was originally written by Pierre Gaumond from texts written by
Phil.
@end ifinfo


@menu
Introduction:

* Copying::                    Your rights.
* Intro::                      Introduction to GNU dbm.
* List::                       List of functions.

Functions:

* Open::                       Opening the database.
* Close::                      Closing the database.
* Store::                      Inserting and replacing records in the database.
* Fetch::                      Searching records in the database.
* Delete::                     Removing records from the database.
* Sequential::                 Sequential access to records.
* Reorganization::             Database reorganization.
* Sync::                       Insure all writes to disk have competed.
* Errors::                     Convert internal error codes into English.
* Options::                    Setting internal options.
* Locking::                    File locking.

Programs

* testgdbm::                   Test and modify a GDBM database. 
* gdbmexport::                 Export a database into a portable format.  

Other topics:

* Variables::                  Two useful variables.
* Compatibility::              Compatibility with UNIX dbm and ndbm.
* Bugs::                       Problems and bugs.
* GNU Free Documentation License::	Document license.

* Index::			Index
@end menu

@node Copying, Intro, Top, Top
@chapter Copying Conditions.
This library is @dfn{free}; this means that everyone is free to use
it and free to redistribute it on a free basis.  GNU @code{dbm} (@code{gdbm})
is not in the public domain; it is copyrighted and there
are restrictions on its distribution, but these restrictions are
designed to permit everything that a good cooperating citizen would want
to do.  What is not allowed is to try to prevent others from further
sharing any version of @code{gdbm} that they might get from
you.@refill

  Specifically, we want to make sure that you have the right to give
away copies @code{gdbm}, that you receive
source code or else can get it if you want it, that you can change these
functions or use pieces of them in new free programs, and that you know
you can do these things.@refill

  To make sure that everyone has such rights, we have to forbid you to
deprive anyone else of these rights.  For example, if you distribute
copies @code{gdbm}, you must give the recipients all
the rights that you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or
can get the source code.  And you must tell them their rights.@refill

  Also, for our own protection, we must make certain that everyone finds
out that there is no warranty for anything in the @code{gdbm} distribution.
If these functions are modified by someone else and passed on, we want
their recipients to know that what they have is not what we distributed,
so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on our
reputation.@refill

@code{gdbm} is currently distributed under the terms of the GNU General
Public License, Version 3.  (@emph{NOT} under the GNU General Library
Public License.)  A copy the GNU General Public License is included with
the distribution of @code{gdbm}.

@node Intro, List, Copying, Top
@chapter Introduction to GNU @code{dbm}.

GNU @code{dbm} (@code{gdbm})is a library of database functions that use
extendible hashing and works similar to the standard UNIX @code{dbm}
functions.  These routines are provided to a programmer needing to
create and manipulate a hashed database. (@code{gdbm} is @emph{NOT} a
complete database package for an end user.)

The basic use of @code{gdbm} is to store key/data pairs in a data file.
Each key must be unique and each key is paired with only one data item.
The keys can not be directly accessed in sorted order.  The basic unit
of data in @code{gdbm} is the structure:

@example
  typedef struct @{
             char *dptr;
             int  dsize;
          @} datum;
@end example

This structure allows for arbitrary sized keys and data items.

The key/data pairs are stored in a @code{gdbm} disk file, called a
@code{gdbm} database.  An application must open a @code{gdbm} database
to be able manipulate the keys and data contained in the database.
@code{gdbm} allows an application to have multiple databases open at the
same time.  When an application opens a @code{gdbm} database, it is
designated as a @code{reader} or a @code{writer}.  A @code{gdbm}
database opened by at most one writer at a time.  However, many readers
may open the database open simultaneously.  Readers and writers can not
open the @code{gdbm} database at the same time.

@node List, Open, Intro, Top
@chapter List of functions.

The following is a quick list of the functions contained in the @code{gdbm}
library. The include file @code{gdbm.h}, that can be included by the user,
contains a definition of these functions.

@example
#include <gdbm.h>

GDBM_FILE gdbm_open(name, block_size, flags, mode, fatal_func);
void gdbm_close(dbf);
int gdbm_store(dbf, key, content, flag);
datum gdbm_fetch(dbf, key);
int gdbm_delete(dbf, key);
datum gdbm_firstkey(dbf);
datum gdbm_nextkey(dbf, key);
int gdbm_reorganize(dbf);
void gdbm_sync(dbf);
int gdbm_exists(dbf, key);
char *gdbm_strerror(errno);
int gdbm_setopt(dbf, option, value, size);
int gdbm_fdesc(dbf);
@end example

The @code{gdbm.h} include file is often in the @file{/usr/local/include}
directory. (The actual location of @code{gdbm.h} depends on your local
installation of @code{gdbm}.)

@node Open, Close, List, Top
@chapter Opening the database.

Initialize @code{gdbm} system. If the file has a size of zero bytes, a file
initialization procedure is performed, setting up the initial structure in the
file.

The procedure for opening a @code{gdbm} file is:

@example
GDBM_FILE dbf;

dbf = gdbm_open(name, block_size, flags, mode, fatal_func);
@end example

The parameters are:

@table @asis
@item char *name
The name of the file (the complete name, @code{gdbm} does not append any
characters to this name).
@item int block_size
It is used during initialization to determine the size of various constructs. It
is the size of a single transfer from disk to memory. This parameter is ignored
if the file has been previously initialized. The minimum size is 512.
If the value is less than 512, the file system blocksize is used, otherwise the
value of @code{block_size} is used.
@item int flags
If @code{flags} is set to GDBM_READER, the user wants to just read the
database and any call to @code{gdbm_store} or @code{gdbm_delete} will fail.
Many readers can access the database at the same time. If @code{flags} is
set to GDBM_WRITER, the user wants both read and write access to the database
and requires exclusive access. If @code{flags} is set to GDBM_WRCREAT, the
user wants both read and write access to the database and if the database does
not exist, create a new one. If @code{flags} is set to GDBM_NEWDB, the
user want a new database created, regardless of whether one existed, and wants
read and write access to the new database.  The following may also be logically
or'd into the database flags: GDBM_SYNC, which causes all database operations
to be synchronized to the disk, and GDBM_NOLOCK, which prevents the library
from performing any locking on the database file.  The option GDBM_FAST is
now obsolete, since @code{gdbm} defaults to no-sync mode.  Any error detected
will cause a return value of NULL and an appropriate value will be in
@code{gdbm_errno} (see Variables). If no errors occur, a pointer to the
@code{gdbm} file descriptor will be returned.
@item int mode
File mode (see chmod(2) and open(2) if the file is created).
@item void (*fatal_func) ()
A function for @code{gdbm} to call if it detects a fatal error. The only
parameter of this function is a string. If the value of NULL is provided,
@code{gdbm} will use a default function.
@end table

The return value, @code{dbf}, is the pointer needed by all other functions to
access that @code{gdbm} file. If the return is the NULL pointer,
@code{gdbm_open} was not successful. The errors can be found in
@code{gdbm_errno} for @code{gdbm} errors and in @code{errno} for file system
errors (for error codes, see @code{gdbm.h}).

In all of the following calls, the parameter @code{dbf} refers to the pointer
returned from @code{gdbm_open}.

@node Close, Store, Open, Top
@chapter Closing the database.

It is important that every file opened is also closed. This is needed to
update the reader/writer count on the file. This is done by:

@example
gdbm_close(dbf);
@end example

The parameter is:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@end table

Closes the @code{gdbm} file and frees all memory associated with the file 
@code{dbf}. 

@node Store, Fetch, Close, Top
@chapter Inserting and replacing records in the database.

The function @code{gdbm_store} inserts or replaces records in the database.

@example
ret = gdbm_store(dbf, key, content, flag);
@end example

The parameters are:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item datum key
The @code{key} data.
@item datum content
The data to be associated with the key.
@item int flag
Defines the action to take when the key is already in the database. The value
GDBM_REPLACE (defined in @code{gdbm.h}) asks that the old data be replaced by
the new @code{content}. The value GDBM_INSERT asks that an error be returned
and no action taken if the @code{key} already exists.
@end table

The values returned in @code{ret} are:

@table @asis
@item -1
The item was not stored in the database because the caller was not an
official writer or either @code{key} or @code{content} have a NULL dptr field.
Both @code{key} and @code{content} must have the dptr field be a non-NULL value.
Since a NULL dptr field is used by other functions to indicate an error, a NULL
field cannot be valid data.
@item +1
The item was not stored because the argument @code{flag} was GDBM_INSERT and
the @code{key} was already in the database.
@item 0
No error. @code{content} is keyed by @code{key}. The file on disk is updated
to reflect the structure of the new database before returning from this
function.
@end table

If you store data for a @code{key} that is already in the data base,
@code{gdbm} replaces the old data with the new data if called with
GDBM_REPLACE. You do not get two data items for the same @code{key} and you do
not get an error from @code{gdbm_store}.

The size in @code{gdbm} is not restricted like @code{dbm} or @code{ndbm}. Your
data can be as large as you want.

@node Fetch, Delete, Store,Top
@chapter Searching for records in the database.

Looks up a given @code{key} and returns the information associated with that
key. The pointer in the structure that is  returned is a pointer to dynamically
allocated memory block. To search for some data:

@example
content = gdbm_fetch(dbf, key);
@end example

The parameters are:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item datum key
The @code{key} data.
@end table

The datum returned in @code{content} is a pointer to the data found. If the
dptr is NULL, no data was found. If dptr is not NULL, then it points
to data allocated by malloc. @code{gdbm} does not automatically free this data.
The user must free this storage when done using it. This eliminates the
need to copy the result to save it for later use (you just save the pointer).

You may also search for a particular key without retrieving it, using:

@example
ret = gdbm_exists(dbf, key);
@end example

The parameters are:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item datum key
The @code{key} data.
@end table

Unlike @code{gdbm_fetch}, this routine does not allocate any memory, and
simply returns true or false, depending on whether the @code{key} exists,
or not.

@node Delete, Sequential, Fetch, Top
@chapter Removing records from the database.

To remove some data from the database:

@example
ret = gdbm_delete(dbf, key);
@end example

The parameters are:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item datum key
The @code{key} data.
@end table

The ret value is -1 if the item is not present or the requester is a reader.
The ret value is 0 if there was a successful delete.

@code{gdbm_delete} removes the keyed item and the @code{key} from the database
@code{dbf}. The file on disk is updated to reflect the structure of the new
database before returning from this function.

@node Sequential, Reorganization, Delete, Top
@chapter Sequential access to records.

The next two functions allow for accessing all items in the database. This
access is not @code{key} sequential, but it is guaranteed to visit every
@code{key} in the database once. The order has to do with the hash values.
@code{gdbm_firstkey} starts the visit of all keys in the database.
@code{gdbm_nextkey} finds and reads the next entry in the hash structure for
@code{dbf}.

@example
key = gdbm_firstkey(dbf);

nextkey = gdbm_nextkey(dbf, key);
@end example

The parameters are:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item datum @code{key}
@item datum nextkey
The @code{key} data.
@end table

The return values are both datum. If @code{key}.dptr or nextkey.dptr is NULL,
there is no first @code{key} or next @code{key}. Again notice that dptr points to
data allocated by malloc and @code{gdbm} will not free it for you.

These functions were intended to visit the database in read-only algorithms,
for instance, to validate the database or similar operations.

File @code{visiting} is based on a @code{hash table}. @code{gdbm_delete}
re-arranges the hash table to make sure that any collisions in the table do not
leave some item @code{un-findable}. The original key order is NOT guaranteed to
remain unchanged in ALL instances. It is possible that some key will not be
visited if a loop like the following is executed:

@example
@group
   key = gdbm_firstkey ( dbf );
   while ( key.dptr ) @{
      nextkey = gdbm_nextkey ( dbf, key );
      if ( some condition ) @{
         gdbm_delete ( dbf, key );
         free ( key.dptr );
      @}
      key = nextkey;
   @}
@end group
@end example

@node Reorganization, Sync, Sequential, Top
@chapter Database reorganization.

The following function should be used very seldom.

@example
ret = gdbm_reorganize(dbf);
@end example

The parameter is:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@end table

If you have had a lot of deletions and would like to shrink the space
used by the @code{gdbm} file, this function will reorganize the database.
@code{gdbm} will not shorten the length of a @code{gdbm} file (deleted file space will be
reused) except by using this reorganization.

This reorganization requires creating a new file and inserting all the elements
in the old file @code{dbf} into the new file. The new file is then renamed to
the same name as the old file and @code{dbf} is updated to contain all the
correct information about the new file. If an error is detected, the return
value is negative. The value zero is returned after a successful
reorganization.

@node Sync, Errors, Reorganization, Top
@chapter Database Synchronization

Unless your database was opened with the GDBM_SYNC flag, @code{gdbm} does not
wait for writes to be flushed to the disk before continuing.  This allows
faster writing of databases at the risk of having a corrupted database if
the application terminates in an abnormal fashion.  The following function
allows the programmer to make sure the disk version of the 
database has been completely updated with all changes to the current time.

@example
gdbm_sync(dbf);
@end example

The parameter is:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@end table

This would usually be called after a complete set of changes have been
made to the database and before some long waiting time.
@code{gdbm_close} automatically calls the equivalent of @code{gdbm_sync}
so no call is needed if the database is to be closed immediately after
the set of changes have been made.

@node Errors, Options, Sync, Top
@chapter Error strings.

To convert a @code{gdbm} error code into English text, use this routine:

@example
ret = gdbm_strerror(errno)
@end example

The parameter is:

@table @asis
@item gdbm_error errno
The @code{gdbm} error code, usually @code{gdbm_errno}.
@end table

The appropiate phrase for reading by humans is returned.

@node Options, Locking, Errors, top
@chapter Seting options.

@code{Gdbm} supports the ability to set certain options on an already
open database.

@example
ret = gdbm_setopt(dbf, option, value, size);
@end example

The parameters are:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item int option
The option to be set.
@item int *value
A pointer to the value to which @code{option} will be set.
@item int size
The length of the data pointed to by @code{value}.
@end table

The valid options are:

  GDBM_CACHESIZE - Set the size of the internal bucket cache.  This
  option may only be set once on each GDBM_FILE descriptor, and
  is set automatically to 100 upon the first access to the database.

  GDBM_FASTMODE - Set fast mode to either on or off.  This allows
  fast mode to be toggled on an already open and active database.
  value (see below) should be set to either TRUE or FALSE.
  @emph{This option is now obsolete.}

  GDBM_SYNCMODE - Turn on or off file system synchronization operations.  This
  setting defaults to off; value (see below) should be set to either TRUE or
  FALSE.

  GDBM_CENTFREE - Set central free block pool to either on or off.
  The default is off, which is how previous versions of @code{Gdbm}
  handled free blocks.  If set, this option causes all subsequent free
  blocks to be placed in the @emph{global} pool, allowing (in theory)
  more file space to be reused more quickly.  value (see below) should
  be set to either TRUE or FALSE.
  @emph{NOTICE: This feature is still under study.}

  GDBM_COALESCEBLKS - Set free block merging to either on or off.
  The default is off, which is how previous versions of @code{Gdbm}
  handled free blocks.  If set, this option causes adjacent free blocks
  to be merged.  This can become a CPU expensive process with time, though,
  especially if used in conjunction with GDBM_CENTFREE.  value (see below)
  should be set to either TRUE or FALSE.
  @emph{NOTICE: This feature is still under study.}

The return value will be -1 upon failure, or 0 upon success.  The global
variable @code{gdbm_errno} will be set upon failure.

For instance, to set a database to use a cache of 10, after opening it
with @code{gdbm_open}, but prior to accessing it in any way, the following
code could be used:

@example
int value = 10;
ret = gdbm_setopt(dbf, GDBM_CACHESIZE, &value, sizeof(int));
@end example

@node Locking, testgdbm, Options, Top
@chapter File Locking.

With locking disabled (if @code{gdbm_open} was called with GDBM_NOLOCK),
the user may want to perform their own file locking on the database file
in order to prevent multiple writers operating on the same file
simultaneously.

In order to support this, the @code{gdbm_fdesc} routine is provided.

@example
ret = gdbm_fdesc(dbf);
@end example

The single valid parameter is:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@end table

The return value will be the file descriptor of the database.

@node testgdbm, gdbmexport, Locking, Top
@chapter Test and modify a GDBM database.

The @command{testgdbm} utility allows you to view and modify an
existing @acronym{GDBM} database or to create a new one.

@cindex default database, @command{testgdbm} 
@cindex @option{-g}, @command{testgdbm} option
When invoked without options, it tries to open a database file called
@file{junk.gdbm}, located in the current working directory.  You can
change this default using the @option{-g} command line option.  This
option takes a single argument, specifying a file name to open, e.g.:

@example
$ testgdbm -g file.db
@end example

@cindex read-only mode, @command{testgdbm}
@cindex @option{-r}, @command{testgdbm} option
The database will be opened in read-write mode, unless the @option{-r}
option is specified, in which case it will be opened only for reading.

@cindex creating a database, @command{testgdbm}
@cindex @option{-n}, @command{testgdbm} option
If the database does not exist, @command{testgdbm} will create it.
There is a special option @option{-n}, which instructs the utility to
create a new database.  If it is used and if the database already
exists, it will be deleted, so use it sparingly.

@menu
* invocation::
* shell::
@end menu

@node invocation
@section testgdbm invocation

The following table summarizes all @command{testgdbm} command line
options:

@table @option
@item -b @var{size}
Set block size.
@item -c @var{size}
Set cache size.
@item -g @var{file}
Operate on @var{file} instead of the default @file{junk.gdbm}.
@item -h
Print a concise help summary.
@item -n
Create the database.
@item -r
Open the database in read-only mode.
@item -s
Synchronize to the disk after each write.
@item -v
Print program version and licensing information and exit.
@end table

@node shell
@section testgdbm interactive mode
After successful startup, @command{testgdbm} starts a loop, in which
it reads commands from the user, executes them and prints the results
on the standard output.  If the standard input is attached to a console,
@command{testgdbm} runs in interactive mode, which is indicated by its
@dfn{prompt}:

@example
com -> _
@end example

The utility finishes when it reads the @samp{q} command (see below) or
it detects end-of-file on its standard input, whichever occurs first.

A @command{testgdbm} command consists of a @dfn{command letter},
optionally followed by one or two @dfn{arguments}, separated by any
amount of white space.  An argument is any sequence of non-whitespace
characters.  Notice, that currently there is no way to enter arguments
containing white space.  This limitation will be removed in future
releases.

Each command letter takes at most two @dfn{formal parameters}, which can be
optional or mandatory.  If the number of actual arguments is less than the
number of mandatory parameters, @command{testgdbm} will prompt you to
supply missing arguments.  For example, the @samp{s} command takes two
mandatory parameters, so if you invoked it with no arguments, you
would be prompted twice to supply the necessary data, as shown in 
example below:

@example
com -> @kbd{s}
key -> @kbd{three}
data -> @kbd{3}
@end example

However, such prompting is possible only in interactive mode.  In
non-interactive mode (e.g. when running a script), all arguments must
be supplied with each command, otherwise @command{testgdbm} reports an
error and exits immediately.

@anchor{pager}
@cindex pager, @command{testgdbm}
@cindex @env{PAGER}.
Some commands produce excessive amounts of output.  To help you follow
it, @command{testgdbm} will use a pager utility to display such
output.  The name of the pager utility is taken from the environment
variable @env{PAGER}.  The pager is ivoked only in interactive mode
and only if the estimated number of output lines is greater then the
number of lines on your screen.  

@anchor{nul-termination}
Many of the @command{testgdbm} commands operate on database key and
data values.  The utility assumes that both keys and data are
@acronym{ASCII} strings, either nul-terminated or not.  By default,
it is assumed that strings are nul-terminated.  You can change this
by using @code{z} (for keys) and @code{Z} (for data) commands.

The following table summarizes all available commands:

@table @code
@item c
Print the number of entries in the database.
@item d @var{key}
Delete entry with a given @var{key}
@item e @var{file-name} [truncate]
Export the database (similar to @command{gdbmexport},
@pxref{gdbmexport}) to file @var{file-name}.  This command will not
overwrite an existing file, unless the word @samp{truncate} is given
as its second argument.

@item f @var{key}
Fetch and display a record with the given @var{key}.

@item i @var{file-name} [replace]
@anchor{import}
Import data from a flat dump file @var{file-name}
(@pxref{gdbmexport}).  If the word @samp{replace} is given
as the second argument, any records with the same keys as the already
existing ones will replace them.

@item l
List the contents of the database (@pxref{pager}).

@item n [@var{key}]
@itemx 2
Sequential access: fetch and display a next record.  If @var{key} is
given, a record following one with this key will be fetched.
Otherwise, the key supplied by the latest @code{1}, @code{2} or
@var{n} command will be used.

The second form, @code{2} is a synonym for @code{n} without arguments.

See also @code{1}, below.

@xref{Sequential}, for more information on sequential access.

@item q
Close the database and quit the utility.

@item s @var{key} @var{data}
Store the @var{data} with @var{key} in the database.  If @var{key}
already exists, its data will be replaced.

@item 1
Fetch and display the first record in the database.  Subsequent
records can be fetched using @code{n} (or @code{2}) command (see above). 
@xref{Sequential}, for more information on sequential access.

@item < @var{file} [replace]
Read entries from @var{file} and store them in the database.  If the
word @samp{replace} is given as the second argument, any existing
records with matching keys will be replaced.

@item r
Reorganize the database (@pxref{Reorganization}).

@item z
Toggle key nul-termination.  Use @code{S} to inspect the current
state. @xref{nul-termination}.

@item A
Print avail list.

@item B @var{num} 
Print a bucket number @var{num}.  This command uses pager
(@pxref{pager}).

@item C
Print current bucket.  This command uses pager (@pxref{pager}).

@item D
Print hash directory.  Uses pager (@pxref{pager}).

@item F
Print file header.

@item H @var{key}
Compute and display the hash value for the given @var{key}.

@item K
Print the bucket cache.  Uses pager (@pxref{pager}).

@item S
Print current program status.  The following example shows the
information displayed:

@example
Database file: junk.gdbm
Zero terminated keys: yes
Zero terminated data: yes
@end example

@item V
Print version of @command{gdbm}.

@item Z
Toggle data nul-termination.  Use @command{S} to examine the current
status.

@xref{nul-termination}.

@item ?
Print a concise command summary, showing each command letter with its
parameters and a short description of what it does.  Optional
arguments are enclosed in square brackets.

@item q
Quit the program.
@end table

@node gdbmexport, Variables, testgdbm, Top
@chapter Export a database into a portable format.

The @command{gdbmexport} utility converts the database into a portable
``flat'' format.  Files in this format can be used to populate
databases using the @code{i} command of @command{testgdbm} utility
(@pxref{import}).  In many cases files in this format are suitable for
sending over the network to populate the database on another machine.
The only exception to this are databases whose records contain
non-@acronym{ASCII} data (e.g. @acronym{C} structures, integers
etc.).  For such databases you will be better off by writing a
specialized utility to convert them to an architecture-independent
format.

If @command{gdbmexport} is linked with @file{libgdbm}
version 1.8.3, it can be used to convert databases from old to new
format.

The utiity takes two mandatory arguments: the name of the database
file to convert and the output file name, e.g.:

@example
$ gdbmexport junk.gdbm junk.flat
@end example

In addition two options are understood:

@table @option
@item -h
Display short usage summary and exit.

@item -v
Display program version and licensing information, and exit.
@end table

@node Variables, Compatibility, gdbmexport, Top
@chapter Two useful variables.

The following two variables are variables that may need to be used:

@table @asis
@item gdbm_error gdbm_errno
The variable that contains more information about @code{gdbm} errors
(@code{gdbm.h} has the definitions of the error values).
@item char * gdbm_version
The string containing the version information.
@end table

@node Compatibility, Bugs, Variables, Top
@chapter Compatibility with standard @code{dbm} and @code{ndbm}.

GNU @code{dbm} files are not @code{sparse}. You can copy them with the UNIX
@code{cp} command and they will not expand in the copying process.

There is a compatibility mode for use with programs that already use UNIX
@code{dbm} and UNIX @code{ndbm}.

GNU @code{dbm} has compatibility functions for @code{dbm}. For @code{dbm}
compatibility functions, you need the include file @code{dbm.h}.

In this compatibility mode, no @code{gdbm} file pointer is required
by the user, and Only one file may be opened at a time. All users in
compatibility mode are assumed to be writers. If the @code{gdbm} file is a
read only, it will fail as a writer, but will also try to open it as a reader.
All returned pointers in datum structures point to data that @code{gdbm} WILL
free. They should be treated as static pointers (as standard UNIX @code{dbm}
does). The compatibility function names are the same as the UNIX @code{dbm}
function names. Their definitions follow:

@example
int dbminit(name);
int store(key, content);
datum fetch(key);
int delete(key);
datum firstkey();
datum nextkey(key);
int dbmclose();
@end example

Standard UNIX @code{dbm} and GNU @code{dbm} do not have the same data
format in the file. You cannot access a standard UNIX @code{dbm} file with GNU
@code{dbm}!  If you want to use an old database with GNU @code{dbm}, you must
use the @code{conv2gdbm} program.

Also, GNU @code{dbm} has compatibility functions for @code{ndbm}. For
@code{ndbm} compatibility functions, you need the include file @code{ndbm.h}.

Again, just like @code{ndbm}, any returned datum can be assumed to be static
storage. You do not have to free that memory, the @code{ndbm} compatibility
functions will do it for you.

The functions are:

@example
DBM *dbm_open(name, flags, mode);
void dbm_close(file);
datum dbm_fetch(file, key);
int dbm_store(file, key, @code{content}, flags);
int dbm_delete(file, key);
datum dbm_firstkey(file);
datum dbm_nextkey(file);
int dbm_error(file);
int dbm_clearerr(file);
int dbm_dirfno(file);
int dbm_pagfno(file);
int dbm_rdonly(file);
@end example

If you want to compile an old C program that used UNIX @code{dbm} or @code{ndbm}
and want to use @code{gdbm} files, execute the following @code{cc} command:

@example
cc ... -L/usr/local/lib -lgdbm -lgdbm_compat
@end example

@node Bugs, GNU Free Documentation License, Compatibility, Top
@chapter Problems and bugs.

If you have problems with GNU @code{dbm} or think you've found a bug,
please report it. Before reporting a bug, make sure you've actually
found a real bug. Carefully reread the documentation and see if it
really says you can do what you're trying to do. If it's not clear
whether you should be able to do something or not, report that too; it's
a bug in the documentation!

Before reporting a bug or trying to fix it yourself, try to isolate it
to the smallest possible input file that reproduces the problem. Then
send us the input file and the exact results @code{gdbm} gave you. Also
say what you expected to occur; this will help us decide whether the
problem was really in the documentation.

Once you've got a precise problem, send e-mail to
@email{bug-gdbm@@gnu.org}.

Please include the version number of GNU @code{dbm} you are using. You can get
this information by printing the variable @code{gdbm_version} (see Variables).

Non-bug suggestions are always welcome as well. If you have questions
about things that are unclear in the documentation or are just obscure
features, please report them too.

You may contact the authors and maintainers by e-mail:
@example
@file{phil@@cs.wwu.edu}, @file{downsj@@downsj.com}, @file{gray@@gnu.org.ua}
@end example

@node GNU Free Documentation License, Index, Bugs, Top
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License

@include fdl.texi

@node Index, , GNU Free Documentation License, Top
@unnumbered Index

@printindex cp

@bye

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