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@c This is part of the GNU Mailutils manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1999-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c See file mailutils.texi for copying conditions.
@comment *******************************************************************
@pindex mail
@UNREVISED

@command{Mail} is an enhanced version of POSIX @command{mailx} program.
The program operates in two modes: @dfn{read} and @dfn{send}.

@command{Mail} enters @dfn{send} mode when at least one email address
was specified in its command line.  In this mode the program waits
until user finishes composing the message, then attempts to send it to
the specified addresses and exits. @xref{Composing Mail}, for a
detailed description of this behavior.

If the command line contained no email addresses, @command{mail} switches
to reading mode.  In this mode it allows the user to read and manipulate the
contents of the user system mailbox.  Use the @option{--file} (@option{-f})
option to specify another mailbox name.  For more detail, see
@ref{Reading Mail}.

In addition to the Mailutils configuration file, @command{mail} reads
the traditional @samp{mailrc}-style configuration files.  @xref{Mail
Configuration Files}, for a detailed description of their format.

@menu
* Invoking Mail::            Command Line Options.
* Reading Mail::             Reading Mail.
* Composing Mail::           Composing Mail.
* MIME::                     How to Attach Files.
* Scripting::                Scripting.
* Mail Variables::           How to Alter the Behavior of @command{mail}.
* Mail Configuration Files:: Personal and System-wide Configuration Files.
@end menu

@node Invoking Mail
@subsection Invoking @command{mail}

General usage of @command{mail} program is:

@example
      mail [@var{option}...] [@var{address}...]
@end example

@noindent
If [@var{address}...] part is present, @command{mail} switches to
mail sending mode, otherwise it operates in mail reading mode.

@command{Mail} understands the following command line options:

@table @option
@item -A @var{file}
@itemx --attach=@var{file}
Attach @var{file} to the composed message.  The encoding, content
type, and content description are controlled by the
@option{--encoding}, @option{--content-type}, and
@option{--content-name} options, correspondingly.

The option @option{--attach=-} instructs @command{mail} to read the
file to be attached from the standard input.  Interactive shell is
disabled in this case.

@item --attach-fd=@var{fd}
Read attachment body from the file descriptor @var{fd}.  The
descriptor must be open for reading.  This option is useful when
calling @command{mail} from another program.

See the options @option{--encoding}, @option{--content-type}, 
@option{--content-name}, and @option{--content-filename}.

@item -a @var{header}:@var{value}
@itemx --append=@var{header}:@var{value}
Append the given header to the composed message.

@item --content-type=@var{type}
This options sets the content type to be used by all subsequent
@option{--attach} options.

@item --content-filename=@var{name}
Set the @samp{filename} parameter in the @samp{Content-Disposition}
header for the next @option{--attach-fd} option.

@item --content-name=@var{text}
Set the @samp{name} parameter (description) in the @samp{Content-Type}
header for the next @option{--attach} or @option{--attach-fd} option.

@item -E @var{command}
@itemx --exec=@var{command}
Execute @var{command} before opening the mailbox.  Any number of
@option{--exec} options can be given.  The commands will be executed
after sourcing configuration files (@pxref{Mail Configuration Files}),
but before opening the mailbox. 

@item -e
@itemx --exist
Return true if the mailbox contains some messages.  Return false
otherwise.

This is useful for writing shell scripts.

@item --encoding=@var{enc}
Sets content transfer encoding for use by the subsequent
@option{--attach} options.

@item -F
@itemx --byname
Record outgoing messages in a file named after the first recipient.
The name is the login-name portion of the address found first on the
@samp{To:} line in the mail header.  This option sets the @samp{byname}
variable, which see (@pxref{byname}).

@item -f
@itemx --file
Operate on the mailbox given by the first non-optional command line
argument.  If there is no such argument, read messages from the
user's @file{mbox} file.  @xref{Reading Mail}, for more details about
using this option.

@item -H
@itemx --headers
Print header summary to stdout and exit.

@item -i
@itemx --ignore
Ignore interrupts when composing the message.

@item -M
@itemx --mime
@itemx --no-mime
The @option{--mime} option instructs @command{mail} to compose MIME
messages.  It is equivalent for @option{-E 'set mime'}, except that it
is processed after all other options.  The @option{--no-mime} disables
the MIME compose mode, and is a shortcut for @option{-E 'set nomime'},

@item -N
@itemx --nosum
Do not display initial header summary.

@item -n
@itemx --norc
Do not read the system-wide mailrc file.  @xref{Mail Configuration
Files}.

@item -p
@itemx --print
@itemx --read
Print all mail to standard output.  It is equivalent to issuing following
commands after starting @samp{mail -N}:
@example
@group
print *
quit
@end group
@end example
@noindent
except that @command{mail --print} does not change status of the messages.

@item -q
@itemx --quit
Cause interrupts to terminate program.

@item -r @var{address}
@itemx --return-address=@var{address}
Sets the return email address for outgoing mail.
@xref{return-address}.

@item --skip-empty-attachments
@itemx --no-skip-empty-attachments
Don't create attachments that would have zero-size body.  This
option affects all attachments created by @option{--attach} and
@option{--attach-fd} options appearing after it in the command line,
as well as the body of the original message.

To cancel its effect, use the @option{--no-skip-empty-attachments} option.

@item -s @var{subj}
@itemx --subject=@var{subj}
Send a message with a Subject of @var{subj}.  Valid only in sending
mode.

@item -t
@itemx --to
Read recipients from the message header.  Ignore addresses listed in
the command line.

@item -u @var{user}
@itemx --user=@var{user}
Operate on @var{user}'s mailbox.  This is equivalent to:

@example
mail -f/@var{spool_path}/@var{user}
@end example

@noindent
with @var{spool_path} being the full path to your mailspool directory
@*(@file{/var/spool/mail} or @file{/var/mail} on most systems).
@end table

The program also understands the common mailutils options
(@pxref{Common Options}. 

@c *********************************************************************

@node Reading Mail
@subsection Reading Mail

@cindex system mailbox, @command{mail}
@cindex personal mailbox, @command{mail}
@cindex secondary mailbox, @command{mail}
@cindex mailbox, @command{mail}
@kwindex MBOX, environment variable
The @command{mail} utility operates on three kinds of mailboxes.  The
@dfn{user system mailbox} is the mailbox where the incoming mail for
the user is stored.  Its location is system-dependent and is
determined using the common mailutils rules (@pxref{mailbox
statement}).  The @dfn{personal mailbox} (or @dfn{mbox}, for short) is
the default location for saving messages that have been read.  By
default it is @file{$HOME/mbox} or whatever file specified by the
@env{MBOX} environment variable.  Any other mailboxes are called
@dfn{secondary mailboxes}.

@xopindex{file, @command{mail} option}
When called without arguments, @command{mail} opens the system mailbox
for the invoking user.  The @option{--file} (@option{-f}) used without
arguments instructs @command{mail} to operate on the personal mailbox
instead.  When this option and a single command line argument are used
together, @command{mail} treats the argument as the pathname of the
secondary mailbox to operate upon.

Notice that this argument is not an argument to the 
@option{--file} (@option{-f}) option itself, but rather the first
non-optional argument on the command line.  This means that any
number of additional options are allowed between the @option{--file}
option and the mailbox file name.  For example, the
following three invocations are equivalent:

@example
$ mail -fin mymbox
$ mail -f mymbox -in
$ mail --file -in mymbox
$ mail --file -i mymbox -n
@end example

Additionally, for conformance to the GNU standards, the
following form is also accepted:

@example
$ mail --file=mymbox -i -n
@end example

@xopindex{user, @command{mail} option}
The @option{--user} (@option{-u}) option allows the system
administrator to assume another user identity for operating on this
user's mailboxes.  Obviously, it is available only to system
administrators.  For example:

@example
mail --user=tom
@end example

@noindent
reads mail from the system mailbox of the user @samp{tom}, and

@example
mail --user=tom --file
@end example

@noindent
reads mail from the personal mailbox of this user.

Unless you have started mail with @option{--norc} command line option,
it will read the contents of the system-wide configuration file.
Then it will read the contents of user configuration file, if it exists.
For detailed description of these files, see @ref{Mail Configuration Files}.
After this initial setup, @command{mail} displays the first page of header
lines (unless the @option{-N} option has been given), followed by a prompt,
indicating that it is waiting for regular commands.  Upon receiving a
command, @command{mail} parses and executes it, displays the result on
the screen, prints the prompt and waits for the next command.  This
process is continued until @command{mail} receives any of the commands
@samp{quit}, @samp{exit} or the end-of-file character (ASCII 4, or
@kbd{C-D}).

@anchor{mail message states}
Each message in the mailbox has a state that affects how it is
retained or deleted upon closing the mailbox when terminating the
program (@pxref{the quit command}) or when switching to another mailbox
(@pxref{the file command}).  The state is reflected in the header
listing and can be changed during the session.  The states are:

@table @dfn
@item new
The message is present in the system mailbox and has not been read
by the user or moved to any other state.  When @command{mail}
terminates, messages in this state are retained in the system
mailbox.  If the mailbox is closed, such messages are moved to the
@samp{unread} state.

@item unread
The message has been present in the system mailbox for more than one
invocation of @command{mail} and has not been read by the user or
moved to any other state.  When @command{mail} terminates, messages in
this state are retained in the system mailbox.

@anchor{read messages}
@item read
The message has been read by the user, i.e. processed by one of the
following commands: @code{copy}, @code{mbox}, @code{next},
@code{pipe}, @code{prev}, @code{print}, @code{Print}, @code{struct},
@code{top}, @code{type}, @code{Type}, @code{undelete}, or any of the
following escapes (in message compose mode): @code{~f}, @code{~m},
@code{~F}, @code{~M}.

When @command{mail} terminates, messages in this state are handled
depending on the mailbox they are in. 

If @command{mail} was operating on the user system mailbox, all
messages in state @samp{read} are preserved.  The location where
they are preserved is determined by the @code{hold} variable
(@pxref{Mail Variables}).  If it is not set (the default), the
messages are moved to the user's @file{mbox}.  If @code{hold} is set,
the messages are held in the system mailbox instead.

The @samp{read} messages in any other mailbox will be retained in
their current location. 

@item deleted
The message has been processed by one of the following commands:
@samp{delete}, @samp{dp}, @samp{dt}.  Messages in this state are
ignored by any command, excepting @samp{undelete}, which changes their
state back to @samp{read}.  When closing the mailbox, deleted
messages are permanently removed from the mailbox.

@item preserved
The message has been processed by the @code{preserve} (@code{hold})
command.  When closing the mailbox, such messages are retained in
the mailbox.

@anchor{saved messages}
@item saved
The message has been processed by one of the following commands:
@code{save}, @code{write}.  When @command{mail} terminates, messages
in this state are handled depending on the mailbox they are in. 

If @command{mail} was operating on the user system mailbox, the
default behavior for @samp{saved} messages is to remove them 
from the system mailbox.  If, however, the @code{keepsave} variable
is set, they are preserved using the same rules as for @samp{read}
messages (see above).

Saved messages in non-system mailboxes are retained in their current
location.
@end table

Unless the mailbox is empty, exactly one of its messages will be
marked as @dfn{current message}.  Upon startup, current message is
set to the first new message, if there is any, or the first unread
message if there is any, or to the first message in the mailbox.  In
the header listing, current message is marked with the @samp{>} sign
at the beginning of the line.  Current message is changed by any of
the following commands: @samp{dp}, @samp{prev}, @samp{next}.

@menu
* Command Syntax::           Syntax of mail internal commands.
* Quitting the Program::
* Obtaining Online Help::
* Moving Within a Mailbox::
* Changing mailbox/directory::
* Controlling Header Display::
* Displaying Information::
* Displaying Messages::
* Marking Messages::
* Disposing of Messages::
* Saving Messages::
* Editing Messages::
* Aliasing::
* Replying::
* Controlling Sender Fields::
* Incorporating New Mail::
* Shell Escapes::
@end menu

@c **********************************
@node Command Syntax
@subsubsection Syntax of mail internal commands

Commands have the following syntax:

@example
@var{command} [@var{msglist}] [@var{argument} ...]
@end example

A command is terminated by a newline character.  Empty command (i.e. a
newline character alone) is equivalent to @samp{next} (@pxref{Moving
Within a Mailbox, next}).

In the syntax above, @var{command} is the command verb.  Each command
has long and short (abbreviated) form.  Each of them can be used to
invoke the command. 

@anchor{Specifying Messages}
@anchor{message list}
Many mail commands take a list of messages (@var{msglist}) to operate
upon, which defaults to current message.

The list of messages in its simplest form is one of:

@multitable @columnfractions 0.2 0.7
@item .  @tab Selects current message.  It is equivalent to empty message list.
@item *  @tab Selects all messages in the mailbox.
@item ^  @tab Selects first non-deleted message.
@item $  @tab Selects last non-deleted message.
@end multitable

In its complex form, the @dfn{message list} is a comma or whitespace-separated
list of @dfn{message specifiers}.  A @dfn{message specifier} is one
of

@table @asis
@item @var{n}
(integer number)
This specifier addresses the message with the given ordinal number
in the mailbox.

@item @var{n}-@var{m}
All messages with ordinal numbers between @var{n} and @var{m}, inclusive.

@item :@var{t}
All messages of type @var{t}, where @var{t} can be any of:

@table @samp
@item d
Deleted messages.
@item n
New messages.
@item o
Old messages (any message not in state @samp{read} or @samp{new}).
@item r
Messages in state @samp{read}.
@item u
Messages in state @samp{unread}.
@item t
Selects all tagged messages.
@item T
Selects all untagged messages.
@item s
Selects all messages in state @samp{saved}.
@end table

@item [@var{header}:]/@var{string}[/]
Header match.

Selects all messages that contain header field @var{header} matching
given @var{string}.  If the variable @code{regex} is set, the
@var{string} is assumed to be a POSIX regexp. (All comparison is
case-insensitive in either case).

If @var{header}: part is omitted, it is assumed to be @samp{Subject:}.

@item :/@var{string}[/]
Message body match.

Selects all messages with body matching the @var{string}.  The matching
rules are the same as described above.
@end table

A @dfn{message specifier} can be followed by @dfn{message part
specifier}, enclosed in a pair of brackets.  A @dfn{message part
specifier} controls which part of a message should be operated upon.
It is meaningful only for multipart messages.  A @dfn{message part
specifier} is a comma or whitespace-separated list of part numbers
or ranges.  Each part number can in turn be @dfn{message part specifier},
thus allowing for operating upon multiply-encoded messages.

The following are the examples of valid message lists:

@table @asis
@item 3
Third message.

@item 1-4 10
Messages from 1 through 4 and message 10.

@item 4-*
All messages starting from message 4.

@item /watch
All messages with the word @samp{watch} in the subject.

@item /watch :/watch
All messages with the word @samp{watch} in the subject or body.

@item /watch :/watch $
Same as above plus the last message in the mailbox.

@item 10[2]
Part 2 of the multipart message 10.
@end table

@node Quitting the Program
@subsubsection Quitting the Program

Following commands quit the program:

@anchor{the quit command}
@deffn {Mail command} quit
Terminates the session.  The messages, marked with @code{delete} are
removed.  The messages in state @samp{read} and @samp{saved} are
processed depending on the mailbox they are in.

If @command{mail} was operating on the user system mailbox, all
messages in state @samp{read} are preserved.  The location where
they are preserved is determined by the @code{hold} variable.  If
it is not set (the default), the messages are moved to the user's
@file{mbox}.  If @code{hold} is set, the messages are held in the
system mailbox instead.

The default behavior for @samp{saved} messages is to remove them
from the system mailbox.  If, however, the @code{keepsave} variable
is set, they are preserved using the same rules as for @samp{read}
messages.

For non-system mailboxes, both @samp{read} and @samp{saved} messages
are retained in their current location.

The same rules are followed when the mailbox is switched using the
@code{file} command.

The program exits to the shell, unless saving the mailbox fails, in
which case user can escape with the exit command.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} exit
@deffnx {Mail command} ex
@deffnx {Mail command} xit
Program exits to the shell without modifying the mailbox it operates
upon.
@end deffn

Typing EOF (@samp{C-D}) alone is equivalent to @samp{quit}.

@node Obtaining Online Help
@subsubsection Obtaining Online Help

Following commands can be used during the session to request online
help:

@deffn {Mail command} help [@var{command}]
@deffnx {Mail command} hel [@var{command}]
@deffnx {Mail command} ? [@var{command}]
Display detailed command synopsis.  If no @var{command} is given, help for
all available commands is displayed.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} list
@deffnx {Mail command} *
Print a list of available commands.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} version
@deffnx {Mail command} ve
Display program version.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} warranty
@deffnx {Mail command} wa
Display program warranty statement.
@end deffn

@node Moving Within a Mailbox
@subsubsection Moving Within a Mailbox

@deffn {Mail command} ^
Move to the first undeleted message.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} $
Move to the last undeleted message.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} next
@deffnx {Mail command} n
Move to the next message.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} previous
@deffnx {Mail command} prev
Move to the previous message.
@end deffn

@node Changing mailbox/directory
@subsubsection Changing Mailbox/Directory

@deffn {Mail command} cd [@var{dir}]
@deffnx {Mail command} chdir [@var{dir}]
@deffnx {Mail command} ch [@var{dir}]
Change to the specified directory.  If @var{dir} is omitted, @env{$HOME} is
assumed.
@end deffn

@anchor{the file command}
@deffn {Mail command} file [@var{mailbox}]
@deffnx {Mail command} fi [@var{mailbox}]
@deffnx {Mail command} folder [@var{mailbox}]
@deffnx {Mail command} fold [@var{mailbox}]
When used without argument, prints the information about the current
mailbox: the mailbox file name (or URL), total number of messages and
the number of unread messages, e.g.:

@example
@cartouche
? fold
"/var/spool/mail/gray": 23 messages 22 unread
@end cartouche
@end example

Otherwise, closes the current mailbox and opens the mailbox named
by the @var{mailbox} argument.  When closing the current mailbox,
its messages are processed according to their state (@pxref{mail
message states}).

@anchor{Mailbox shortcuts}
The @var{mailbox} argument can be the name of the existing file, a
mailbox URL (@pxref{Mailbox}), or any of the following shortcuts:

@table @asis
@item %
The system mailbox for the invoking user.

@item %@var{user}
The system mailbox for @var{user}.

@item #
The previous file.

@item &
The user's personal mailbox.

@item @@
Secondary mailbox, given using the @option{-f} command line option.

@item +@var{file}
The named @var{file} in the folder directory. @xref{folder variable}.
@end table
@end deffn

@node Controlling Header Display
@subsubsection Controlling Header Display

To control which headers in the message should be displayed, @command{mail}
keeps two lists: a @dfn{retained} header list and an @dfn{ignored}
header list.  If @dfn{retained} header list is not empty, only the
header fields listed in it are displayed when printing the message.
Otherwise, if @dfn{ignored} header list is not empty, only the headers
@emph{not listed} in this list are displayed.  The uppercase variants
of message-displaying commands can be used to print all the headers.

The following commands modify and display the contents of both lists.

@deffn {Mail command} discard [@var{header-field-list}]
@deffnx {Mail command} di [@var{header-field-list}]
@deffnx {Mail command} ignore [@var{header-field-list}]
@deffnx {Mail command} ig [@var{header-field-list}]
Add @var{header-field-list} to the ignored list.  When used without
arguments, this command prints the contents of ignored list.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} retain [@var{header-field-list}]
@deffnx {Mail command} ret [@var{header-field-list}]
Add @var{header-field-list} to the retained list.  When used without
arguments, this command prints the contents of retained list.
@end deffn

@node Displaying Information
@subsubsection Displaying Information

@deffn {Mail command} =
Displays the current message number.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} headers [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} h [@var{msglist}]
Lists the current pageful of headers.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} from [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} f [@var{msglist}]
Lists the contents of @samp{From} headers for a given set of messages.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} z [@var{arg}]
Presents message headers in pagefuls as described for @code{headers}
command.  When @var{arg} is @samp{.}, it is generally equivalent to
@code{headers}.  When @var{arg} is omitted or is @samp{+}, the next
pageful of headers is displayed.  If @var{arg} is @samp{-}, the
previous pageful of headers is displayed.  The latter two forms
of @code{z} command may also take a numerical argument meaning the
number of pages to skip before displaying the headers.  For
example:

@example
? z +2
@end example
@noindent
will skip two pages of messages before displaying the header summary.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} size [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} si [@var{msglist}]
Lists the message number and message size in bytes for each message in
@var{msglist}.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} folders
Displays the value of @code{folder} variable.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} summary
@deffnx {Mail command} su
Displays current mailbox summary.  E.g.:

@example
@cartouche
? summary
"/var/spool/mail/gray": 23 messages 22 unread
@end cartouche
@end example
@end deffn

@node Displaying Messages
@subsubsection Displaying Messages
@deffn {Mail command} print [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} p [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} type [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} t [@var{msglist}]
Prints out the messages from @var{msglist}.  The variable @code{crt}
determines the minimum number of lines the body of the message must
contain in order to be piped through pager command specified
by environment variable @code{PAGER}.  If @code{crt} is set to a numeric
value, this value is taken as the minimum number of lines.  Otherwise,
if @code{crt} is set without a value then the height of the terminal
 screen is used to compute the threshold.  The number of lines on
screen is controlled by @code{screen} variable.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} Print [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} P [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} Type [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} T [@var{msglist}]
Like print but also prints out ignored header fields.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} decode [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} dec [@var{msglist}]
Print a multipart message.  The @code{decode} command decodes and prints
out specified message parts.  E.g.

@example
@cartouche
? decode 15[2]
+---------------------------------------
| Message=15[2]
| Type=message/delivery-status
| encoding=7bit
+---------------------------------------
Content-Type: message/delivery-status
...
@end cartouche
@end example
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} top [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} to [@var{msglist}]
Prints the top few lines of each message in @var{msglist}.  The number
of lines printed is controlled by the variable @code{toplines} and
defaults to five.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} pipe [[@var{msglist}] @var{shell-command}]
@deffnx {Mail command} | [[@var{msglist}] @var{shell-command}]
Pipe the contents of specified messages through @var{shell-command}.
Without arguments, pipe the current message through the command given
by the @samp{cmd} variable (which must be set).
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} struct [@var{msglist}]
Prints the @acronym{MIME} structure of each message from
@var{msglist}.  Empty @var{msglist} means current message.

Example:

@example
@cartouche
? struct 2
2      multipart/mixed            14k
2[1]   text/plain                 296
2[2]   application/octet-stream    5k
2[3]   text/x-diff                31k
@end cartouche
@end example
@end deffn

@node Marking Messages
@subsubsection Marking Messages

@deffn {Mail command} tag [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} ta [@var{msglist}]
Tag messages.  The tagged messages can be referred to in message list
using @samp{:t} notation.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} untag [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} unt [@var{msglist}]
Clear tags from specified messages.  To untag all messages tagged so far
type
@example
? untag :t
@end example
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} hold [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} ho [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} preserve [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} pre [@var{msglist}]
Marks each message to be held in user's system mailbox.  This command
does not override the effect of @code{delete} command.
@end deffn

@node Disposing of Messages
@subsubsection Disposing of Messages

@deffn {Mail command} delete [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} d [@var{msglist}]
Mark messages as deleted.  Upon exiting with @code{quit} command these
messages will be deleted from the mailbox.  Until the end of current
session the deleted messages can be referred to in message lists using
:d notation.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} undelete [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} u [@var{msglist}]
Clear delete mark from the specified messages.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} dp [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} dt [@var{msglist}]
Deletes the current message and prints the next message.  If
@var{msglist} is specified, deletes all messages from the list and
prints the message immediately following last deleted one.
@end deffn

@node Saving Messages
@subsubsection Saving Messages

@deffn {Mail command} save [[@var{msglist}] @var{mailbox}]
@deffnx {Mail command} s [[@var{msglist}] @var{mailbox}]
Takes a message list and a file or mailbox name and appends each
message in turn to that file or mailbox.  The syntax for @var{mailbox}
is the same as for the @code{file} command (@pxref{Mailbox
shortcuts}).  The name of the mailbox and number of lines and
characters appended to it is echoed on the terminal.  When writing to
file, the numbers represent exact number of lines and characters
appended to the file.  When @var{file} specifies a mailbox, these
numbers may differ by the amount of lines/characters needed to
represent message envelope for that specific mailbox type. 

Each saved message is marked for deletion as if with @code{delete}
command, unless the variable @code{keepsave} is set.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} Save [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} S [@var{msglist}]
Like @code{save}, but the file to append messages to is named after the
sender of the first message in @var{msglist}.  For example:

@example
@cartouche
@group
? from 14 15
 U  14 smith@@noldor.org Fri Jun 30 18:11  14/358   The Save c
 U  15 gray@@noldor.org  Fri Jun 30 18:30  8/245    Re: The Sa
? Save 14 15
"smith" 22/603
@end group
@end cartouche
@end example
@noindent

i.e., 22 lines (603 characters) have been appended to the file ``smith''.
If the file does not exist, it is created.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} write [[@var{msglist}] @var{file}]
@deffnx {Mail command} w [[@var{msglist}] @var{file}]
Similar to @code{save}, except that only message body (without the
header) is saved.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} Write [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} W [@var{msglist}]
Similar to @code{Save}, except that only message body (without the
header) is saved.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} mbox [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} mb [@var{msglist}]
Mark list of messages to be saved in the user's personal mailbox
(@pxref{Reading Mail, personal mailbox}) upon exiting via @code{quit}
command.  This is the default action for all read messages, unless you
have variable @code{hold} set. 
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} touch [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} tou [@var{msglist}]
Touch the specified messages.  If any message in @var{msglist} is not
specifically deleted nor saved in a file, upon normal termination it
will be acted upon as if it had been read (@pxref{mail message
states}).
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} copy [[@var{msglist}] @var{file}]
@deffnx {Mail command} c [[@var{msglist}] @var{file}]
Similar to @code{save}, except that saved messages are not marked for
deletion.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} Copy [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} C [@var{msglist}]
Similar to @code{Save}, except that saved messages are not marked for
deletion.
@end deffn

@node Editing Messages
@subsubsection Editing Messages

These command allow to edit messages in a mailbox.  @emph{Please note},
that modified messages currently do not replace original ones. i.e.
you have to save them explicitly using your editor's @code{save}
command if you do not want the effects of your editing to be lost.

@deffn {Mail command} edit [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} e [@var{msglist}]
Edits each message in @var{msglist} with the editor, specified in
@code{EDITOR} environment variable.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} visual [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} v [@var{msglist}]
Edits each message in @var{msglist} with the editor, specified in
@code{VISUAL} environment variable.
@end deffn

@node Aliasing
@subsubsection Aliasing

@deffn {Mail command} alias [alias [@var{address}...]]
@deffnx {Mail command} a [alias [@var{address}...]]
@deffnx {Mail command} group [alias [@var{address}...]]
@deffnx {Mail command} g [alias [@var{address}...]]
With no arguments, prints out all currently-defined aliases.
With one argument, prints out that alias.
With more than one argument, creates a new alias or changes an old one.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} unalias [@var{alias}...]
@deffnx {Mail command} una [@var{alias}...]
Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and discards the
remembered groups of users.  The alias names no longer have any
significance.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} alternates @var{name}...
@deffnx {Mail command} alt @var{name}...
The alternates command is useful if you have accounts on several
machines.  It can be used to inform mail that the listed addresses are
really you.  When you reply to messages, mail will not send a copy of
the message to any of the addresses listed on the alternates list.
If the alternates command is given with no argument, the current set of
alternate names is displayed.
@end deffn

@node Replying
@subsubsection Replying

@deffn {Mail command} mail [@var{address}...]
@deffnx {Mail command} m [@var{address}...]
Switches to compose mode.  After composing the message, sends messages to
the specified addresses.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} reply [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} respond [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} r [@var{msglist}]
For each message in @var{msglist}, switches to compose mode and sends
the composed message to the sender and all recipients of the message.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} Reply [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} Respond [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} R [@var{msglist}]
Like @code{reply}, except that the composed message is sent only to
originators of the specified messages.

Notice, that setting mail variable @code{flipr} (@pxref{Mail
Variables}) swaps the meanings of the two above commands,
so that @code{reply} sends the message to the sender and all
recipients of the message, whereas @code{Reply} sends it to
originators only.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} followup [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} fo [@var{msglist}]
Switches to compose mode.  After composing, sends the message to the
originators and recipients of all messages in @var{msglist}.
@end deffn

@deffn {Mail command} Followup [@var{msglist}]
@deffnx {Mail command} F [@var{msglist}]
Similar to @code{followup}, but reply message is sent only to
originators of messages in @var{msglist}.
@end deffn

To determine the sender of the message @command{mail} uses the
list of sender fields (@pxref{Controlling Sender Fields}).  The first field
from this list is looked up in message headers.  If it is found
and contains a valid email address, this address is used as
the sender address.  If not, the second field is searched and
so on.  This process continues until a field is found in the
headers, or the sender field list is exhausted, whichever happens
first.

If the previous step did not determine the sender address, the
address from SMTP envelope is used.

Let's illustrate this.  Suppose your mailbox contains the following:

@example
@cartouche
 U  1 block@@helsingor.org  Fri Jun 30 18:30  8/245    Re: The Sa
? Print 1
From: Antonius Block <block@@helsingor.org>
To: Smeden Plog <plog@@helsingor.org>
Date: Tue, 27 Apr 2004 13:23:41 +0300
Reply-To: <root@@helsingor.org>
Subject: News

Hi
@end cartouche
@end example

@noindent
Now, you issue the following commands:

@example
@cartouche
? sender mail-followup-to reply-to from
? reply
To: <root@@helsingor.org>
Subject: Re: News

@end cartouche
@end example

@noindent
As you see, the value of @code{Reply-To} field was taken as the
sender address.

Now, let's try the following command sequence:

@example
# Clear the sender list
? nosender
# Set new sender list
? sender From
@end example

@noindent
Now, the @code{From} address will be taken:

@example
@cartouche
? reply
To: Antonius Block <block@@helsingor.org>
Subject: Re: News

@end cartouche
@end example

@node Controlling Sender Fields
@subsubsection Controlling Sender Fields
@kyindex sender, mail command
@kyindex nosender, mail command

Commands @code{sender} and @code{nosender} are used to manipulate
the contents of the sender field list.

If the command @code{sender} is used without arguments, it displays
the contents of the sender field list.  If arguments are given,
each argument is appended to the sender field list.  For example:

@example
@cartouche
? sender
Sender address is obtained from the envelope
? sender mail-followup-to reply-to
? sender
mail-followup-to
reply-to
? sender from
? sender
mail-followup-to
reply-to
from
@end cartouche
@end example

Command @code{nosender} is used to remove items from the sender
field list:

@example
@cartouche
? sender
mail-followup-to
reply-to
from
? nosender reply-to
? sender
mail-followup-to
from
@end cartouche
@end example

When used without arguments, this command clears the list:

@example
@cartouche
? nosender
Sender address is obtained from the envelope
@end cartouche
@end example

@node Incorporating New Mail
@subsubsection Incorporating New Mail
@kyindex incorporate, mail command

The @code{incorporate} (@code{inc}) command incorporates newly arrived
messages to the displayed list of messages.  This is done automatically
before returning to @command{mail} command prompt if the variable
@code{autoinc} is set.

@node Shell Escapes
@subsubsection Shell Escapes
@kyindex shell, mail command
@kyindex !, mail command

To run arbitrary shell command from @command{mail} command prompt, use
@code{shell} (@code{sh}) command.  If no arguments are specified, the
command starts the user login shell.  Otherwise, it uses its first
argument as a file name to execute and all subsequent arguments are
passed as positional parameters to this command.  The @code{shell}
command can also be spelled as @code{!}.

@node Composing Mail
@subsection Composing Mail

You can compose the message by simply typing the contents of it, line
by line.  But usually this is not enough, you would need to edit
your text, to quote some messages, etc.  @command{Mail} provides these
capabilities through @dfn{compose escapes}.  The @dfn{compose escapes}
are single-character commands, preceded by special @dfn{escape character},
which defaults to @samp{~}.  The combination @code{escape character + command}
is recognized as a compose escape only if it occurs at the beginning of
a line.  If the escape character must appear at the beginning of a
line, enter it twice.
The actual escape character may be changed by setting the value of
@code{escape} mail variable (@pxref{Mail Variables}).

@menu
* Quitting Compose Mode::
* Getting Help on Compose Escapes::
* Editing the Message::
* Modifying the Headers::
* Enclosing Another Message::
* Adding a File to the Message::
* Attaching a File to the Message::
* Printing And Saving the Message::
* Signing the Message::
* Printing Another Message::
* Inserting Value of a Mail Variable::
* Executing Other Mail Commands::
* Executing Shell Commands::
@end menu

@node Quitting Compose Mode
@subsubsection Quitting Compose Mode
@kyindex ~., mail escape
@kyindex ~x, mail escape

There are several commands allowing you to quit the compose mode.

Typing the end-of-file character (@samp{C-D}) on a line alone finishes
compose mode and sends the message to its destination.  The @samp{C-D}
character looses its special meaning if @code{ignoreeof} mail variable
is set.

If mail variable @code{dot} is set, typing dot (@samp{.}) on a line
alone achieves the same effect as @samp{C-D} above.

Finally, using @samp{~.} escape always quits compose mode and sends
out the composed message.

To abort composing of a message without sending it, type interrupt
character (by default, @samp{C-C}) twice.  This behavior is disabled
when mail variable @code{ignore} is set.  In this case, you can use
@samp{~x} escape to achieve the same effect.

@node Getting Help on Compose Escapes
@subsubsection Getting Help on Compose Escapes: ~?
@kyindex ~?, mail escape

The @samp{~?} escape prints on screen a brief summary of the available
compose escapes.  @emph{Please note}, that @samp{~h} escape prompts
for changing the header values, and does @emph{not} give help.

@node Editing the Message
@subsubsection Editing the Message: ~e and ~v
@kyindex ~e, mail escape
@kyindex ~v, mail escape

If you are not satisfied with the message as it is, you can edit it
using a text editor specified either by @code{EDITOR} or by
@code{VISUAL} environment variables.  The @samp{~e} uses the former,
and @samp{~v} uses the latter.

By default both escapes allow you to edit only the body of the
message.  However, if the @code{editheaders} variable is set,
@command{mail} will load into the editor the complete text of
the message with headers included, thus allowing you to change
the headers as well.

@node Modifying the Headers
@subsubsection Modifying the Headers: ~h, ~t, ~c, ~b, ~s

@cindex ~t, mail escape
To add new addresses to the list of message recipients, use @samp{~t}
command, e.g.:

@example
~t name1@@domain.net name2
@end example

@cindex ~c, mail escape
@cindex ~b, mail escape
To add addresses to @code{Cc} or @code{Bcc}, use @samp{~c} or @samp{~b}
escapes respectively.

@cindex ~s, mail escape
To change the @code{Subject} header, use @samp{~s} escape, e.g.:

@example
~s "Re: your message"
@end example

@cindex ~h, mail escape
Finally, to edit all headers, type @samp{~h} escape.  This will present
you with the values of @code{To}, @code{Cc}, @code{Bcc}, and
@code{Subject} headers allowing to edit them with normal text editing
commands.

@node Enclosing Another Message
@subsubsection Enclosing Another Message: ~m and ~M
@kyindex ~m, mail escape
@kyindex ~M, mail escape

If you are sending mail from within mail command mode, you can enclose
the contents of any message sent to you by using @samp{~m} or @samp{~M}
commands.  Typing @samp{~m} alone will enclose the contents of the
current message, typing @samp{~m 12} will enclose the contents of
message #12 and so on.

The @samp{~m} uses retained and ignored lists when enclosing headers,
the @samp{~M} encloses all header fields.

In both cases, the contents of @code{indentprefix} mail variable is
prepended to each line enclosed.

@node Adding a File to the Message
@subsubsection Adding a File to the Message: ~r and ~d

@cindex ~r, mail escape
@cindex ~<, mail escape
To append the contents of file @var{filename} to the message, type

@example
~r @var{filename}
@end example
@noindent
or

@example
~< @var{filename}
@end example
@noindent

@cindex ~d, mail escape
The @samp{~d} escape is a shorthand for

@example
~r dead.letter
@end example

@node Attaching a File to the Message
@subsubsection Attaching a File to the Message
@cindex ~+, mail escape
The @samp{~+} escape attaches a file to the message.  It takes one to
three arguments.  The first argument supplies the name of the file to
attach:

@example
~+ myfile.txt
@end example

The file will be attached with default content-type
@samp{application/octet-stream}, and encoding @samp{base64}
(these can be altered by the @option{--content-type} and
@option{--encoding} command line options, correspondingly).

Optional second argument defines the content type to be used instead
of the default one.  Optional third argument defines the encoding,
e.g.:

@example
~+ myfile.html text/html base64
@end example

@cindex ~l, mail escape
To list the files attached so far, use the @samp{~l} escape:

@example
~l
multipart/mixed
   1 myfile.html text/html base64
@end example

The first line of the output shows the content type of the message.
Each subsequent line contains the ordinal number of the attachment,
the name of the file, content-type and transfer encoding used.

@cindex ~/, mail escape
The @samp{~/} escape toggles the content type bewteen
@samp{multipart/mixed}, and @samp{multipart/alternative}.  The new
value of the content type is displayed on the screen.

@cindex ~^, mail escape
The @samp{~^} escape removes attachments.  Its argument is the number
of the attachment to remove, e.g.:

@example
~^ 1
@end example

@node Printing And Saving the Message
@subsubsection Printing And Saving the Message
@kyindex ~p, mail escape
@kyindex ~w, mail escape

The @samp{~p} escape types the contents of the message entered so far,
including headers, on your terminal.  You can save the message to
an arbitrary file using @samp{~w} escape.  It takes the filename as its
argument.

@node Signing the Message
@subsubsection Signing the Message: ~a and ~A
@kyindex ~a, mail escape
@kyindex ~A, mail escape

To save you the effort of typing your signature at the end of each
message, you can use @samp{~a} or @samp{~A} escapes.  If your signature
occupies one line only, save it to the variable @code{sign} and use
@samp{~a} escape to insert it.  Otherwise, if it is longer than one
line, save it to a file, store the name of this file in the
variable @code{Sign}, and use @samp{~A} escape to insert it into
the message.

@node Printing Another Message
@subsubsection Printing Another Message: ~f and ~F
@kyindex ~f, mail escape
@kyindex ~F, mail escape

Sometimes it is necessary to view the contents of another message,
while composing.  These two escapes allow it.  Both take the message
list as their argument.  If they are used without argument, the
contents of the current message is printed.  The difference between
@samp{~f} and @samp{~F} is that the former uses ignored and retained
lists to select headers to be displayed, whereas the latter prints
all headers.

@node Inserting Value of a Mail Variable
@subsubsection Inserting Value of a Mail Variable: ~i
@kyindex ~i, mail escape

The @samp{~i} escape enters the value of the named mail variable into
the body of the message being composed.

@node Executing Other Mail Commands
@subsubsection Executing Other Mail Commands: ~: and ~-
@kyindex ~:, mail escape
@kyindex ~-, mail escape

You can execute a mail command from within compose mode using @samp{~:}
or @samp{~-} escapes.  For example, typing

@example
~: from :t
@end example
@noindent

will display the from lines of all tagged messages.  Note, that executing
mail-sending commands from within the compose mode is not allowed.
An attempt to execute such a command will result in diagnostic message
``Command not allowed in an escape sequence'' being displayed.
Also, when starting compose mode immediately from the shell
(e.g. running @samp{mail address@@domain}), most mail commands are
meaningless, since there is no mailbox to operate upon.  In this case,
the only commands that can reasonably be used are: @code{alias},
@code{unalias}, @code{alternate}, @code{set}, and @code{unset}.

@node Executing Shell Commands
@subsubsection Executing Shell Commands: ~! and ~|
@kyindex ~!, mail escape
@kyindex ~|, mail escape

The @samp{~!} escape executes specified command and returns you to
@command{mail} compose mode without altering your message.  When used without
arguments, it starts your login shell.  The @samp{~|} escape pipes the
message composed so far through the given shell command and replaces the
message with the output the command produced.  If the command produced
no output, @command{mail} assumes that something went wrong and retains
the old contents of your message.

@c *********************************************************************

@node MIME
@subsection Composing Multipart Messages

Multipart messages (or MIME, for short) can be used to send text in
character sets other than ASCII, attach non-text files, send multiple
parts in alternative formats, etc.

Technically speaking, the boolean variable @code{mime}
controls this feature.  If it is set (@pxref{Setting and Unsetting
the Variables}), @command{MIME} will create MIME messages by default.
The variable can be set in the global or user configuration file
(@pxref{Mail Configuration Files}), using the following command:

@example
set mime
@end example

It can also be set from the command line, using the @option{--mime}
option.

GNU @command{mail} automatically turns on the MIME mode, when it is
requested to send a non-plaintext message, or a message in character
set other than ASCII, when the encoding is specified, or when
attachments are given.

To send a message in another character set, specify it with the
@option{--content-type} option:

@example
mail --content-type 'text/plain; charset=utf-8'
@end example

The @option{--encoding} specifies the encoding to use:

@example
mail --content-type 'text/plain; charset=utf-8' --encoding=base64
@end example

Its argument is any encoding supported by GNU mailutils.  The two most
often used encodings are @samp{base64} and @samp{quoted-printable}.

To specify the charset from @command{mail} interactive section, enable
the ``edit headers'' mode (@code{set editheaders}) and add the
needed @code{Content-Type} header manually.

GNU @command{mail} also gives you a possibility to attach files to the
message being sent.

The simplest way to attach a file from command line is by using the
@option{--attach} (@option{-A}) option.  Its argument specifies the
file to attach.  For example, the following will attach the content
of the file @file{archive.tar}:

@example
$ mail --attach=archive.tar
@end example

By default, the content type will be set to
@samp{application/octet-stream}, and the attachment will be encoded
using the @samp{base64} encoding.  To change the content type, use the
@option{--content-type} option.  For example, to send an HTML
attachment:

@example
$ mail --content-type=text/html --attach=in.html
@end example

The @option{--content-type} option affects all @option{--attach}
options that follow it, and the message body (if any).  To change the
content type, simply add another @option{--content-type} option.  For
example, to send both the HTML file and the archive:

@example
$ mail --content-type=text/html --attach=in.html \
       --content-type=application/x-tar --attach=archive.tar
@end example

To change the content type of the message body when sending a message
with attachments, use the trailing @option{--content-type} option,
i.e. the option not followed by another @option{--attach} option:

@example
$ mail --content-type=text/html --attach=in.html \
       --content-type=application/x-tar --attach=archive.tar \
       --content-type=text/plain
@end example

@nointent
This example adds two attachments with different content types and
switched back to the @samp{text/plain} content type for the message
body.

The encoding to use is set up by the @option{--encoding}
option.  As well as @option{--content-type}, this option affects all
attachments supplied after it in the command line as well as the
message body read from the standard input, until changed by
the eventual next instance of the same option.  Extending the above
example:

@example
$ mail --content-type=text/html --encoding=quoted-printable \
       --attach=in.html \
       --content-type=application/x-tar --encoding=base64 \
       --attach=archive.tar
@end example

A trailing @option{--encoding} option sets the encoding of the message
body.

Each attachment can also be assigned a @dfn{description} and a
@dfn{file name}.  Normally, these are the same as the file name
supplied with the @option{--attach} option.  However, you can change
either or both of them using the @option{--content-name} and
@option{--content-filename}, correspondingly.  Both of these options
affect only the next @option{--attach} (or @option{--attach-fd}, see
below) option.

By default, the message will be assigned the content type
@samp{multipart/mixed}.  To change it to @samp{multipart/alternative},
use the @option{--alternative} command line option.  Using this option
also sets the @samp{Content-Disposition} header of each attached
message to @samp{inline}.

All the examples above will enter the usual interactive shell,
allowing you to compose the body of the message.  If that's not
needed, the non-interactive use can be forced by redirecting
@file{/dev/null} to the standard input, e.g.:

@example
$ mail --attach=archive.tar < /dev/null
@end example

This will normally produce a message saying:

@example
mail: Null message body; hope that's ok
@end example

To suppress this message, unset the @samp{nullbodymsg} variable,
as shown in the example below:

@example
$ mail -E 'set nonullbodymsg' --attach=archive.tar < /dev/null
@end example

The option @option{--attach=-} forces @command{mail} to read the file
to be attached from the standard input stream.  This option disables
the interactive mode and sets @samp{nonullbodymsg} implicitly, so that
the above example can be rewritten as:

@example
$ mail --attach=- < archive.tar
@end example

Special option is provided to facilitate the use of @command{mail}
in scripts.  The @option{--attach-fd=@var{N}} instructs the program to
read the data to be attached from the file descriptor @var{N}.  The
above example is equivalent to:

@example
$ mail --attach-fd=0 < archive.tar
@end example

Attachments created with this option have neither filename nor 
description set, so normally the use of @option{--content-name} and/or
@option{--content-filename} is advised.

The option @option{--skip-empty-attachments} instructs @command{mail}
to skip creating attachments that would have zero-size body.  This
option affects all attachments created by @option{--attach} and
@option{--attach-fd} options appearing after it in the command line.
It also affects the handling of the original message body.  To cancel
its effect, use the @option{--no-skip-empty-attachments} option. 

Here are some examples illustrating how it works.

First, consider the following command line

@example
$ mail --attach=archive.tar </dev/null
@end example

Assume that @file{archive.tar} is not empty.

This will create a MIME message of two parts: the first part having
@samp{text/html} type and empty body, and the second part of type
@samp{application/octet-stream}, with the content copied from the file
@file{archive.tar}.

Now, if you do:

@example
$ mail --attach=archive.tar --skip-empty-attachments </dev/null
@end example

@noindent
then the created MIME message will contain only one part: that
containing @file{archive.tar}.

If the file @file{archive.tar} has zero length, the resulting archive
will still contain the @samp{application/octet-stream} part of zero
length.  However, if you place the @option{--skip-empty-attachments}
option before @option{--attach}, then the produced message will be empty.

The following Perl program serves as an example of using
@command{mail} from a script to construct a MIME message on the fly.
It scans all mounted file systems for executable files that have
setuid or setgid bits set and reports the names of those files in
separate attachments.  Each attachment is named after the mountpoint
it describes.

The script begins with the usual prologue stating the modules that
will be used:

@example
#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use autodie;
@end example

Then global variables are declared.  The @samp{@@rcpt} array contains
the email addresses of the recipients:

@example
my @@rcpt= 'root@@example.com';
@end example

The @samp{@@cmd} variable holds the @command{mail} command line.  It
will be augmented for each file system.  The initial value is set as
follows:

@example
my @@cmd = ('mail',
           '-E set nonullbodymsg',
           '--content-type=text/plain');
@end example

The @command{find} utility will be used to locate the files.  The
script will start as many instances as there are mountpoints.  Those
instances will be run in parallel and their standard output streams
will be connected to file descriptors passed to @command{mail}
invocation in @option{--attach-fd} options.

The descriptors will be held in @samp{@@fds} array.  This will prevent
them from being wiped out by the garbage collector.  Furthermore, care
should be taken to ensure that the @code{O_CLOEXEC} flag be not set
for these descriptors.  This sample script takes a simplistic approach:
it instructs Perl not to close first 255 descriptors when executing
another programs:

@example
my @@fds;
$^F = 255;
@end example

The following code obtains the list of mount points:

@example
open(my $in, '-|', 'mount -t nonfs,noproc,nosysfs,notmpfs');
while (<$in>) @{
    chomp;
    if (/^\S+ on (?<mpoint>.+) type (?<fstype>.+) /) @{
@end example

For each mountpoint, the @command{find} command line is constructed
and launched.  The file descriptor is pushed to the @samp{@@fds} array
to prevent it from being collected by the garbage collector:

@example
	open(my $fd, '-|',
	     "find $+@{mpoint@} -xdev -type f"
             . " \\( -perm -u+x -o -perm -g+x -o -perm -o+x \\)"
             . " \\( -perm -u+s -o -perm -g+s \\) -print");
	push @@fds, $fd;
@end example

Now, the @command{mail} command is instructed to create next
attachment from that file descriptor:

@example
        my $mpname = $+@{mpoint@};
        $mpname =~ tr@{/@}@{%@}; 
        push @@cmd,
             "--content-name=Set[ug]id files on $+@{mpoint@} (type $+@{fstype@})",
             "--content-filename=$mpname.list",
             '--attach-fd=' . fileno($fd);
    @}
@}
close $in;
@end example

Finally, the emails of the recipients are added to the command line,
the standard input is closed to make sure @command{mail} won't enter
the interactive mode and the constructed command is executed:

@example
push @@cmd, @@rcpt;
close STDIN;
system(@@cmd);
@end example

@c **********************************

@node Scripting
@subsection Scripting

@subsubheading Comments

The @samp{#} character introduces an end-of-line comment.  All characters
until and including the end of line are ignored.

@subsubheading Displaying Arbitrary Text
@kyindex echo, mail command

The @samp{echo} (@samp{ec}) command prints its arguments to stdout.

@subsubheading Sourcing External Command Files
@kyindex source, mail command

The command @samp{source @var{filename}} reads commands from the named
file.  Its minimal abbreviation is @samp{so}.

@anchor{Setting and Unsetting the Variables}
@subsubheading Setting and Unsetting the Variables
@kyindex set, mail command
@kyindex unset, mail command

The mail variables are set using @samp{set} (@samp{se}) command.  The
command takes a list of assignments.  The syntax of an assignment is

@table @samp
@item @var{name}=@var{string}
Assign a string value to the variable.  If @var{string} contains
whitespace characters it must be enclosed in a pair of
double-quote characters (@samp{"})
@item @var{name}=@var{number}
Assign a numeric value to the variable.
@item @var{name}
Assign boolean @code{True} value.
@item no@var{name}
Assign boolean @code{False} value.
@end table

Example:

@example
? set askcc nocrt indentprefix="> "
@end example
@noindent

This statement sets @code{askcc} to @code{True}, @code{crt} to
@code{False}, and @code{indentprefix} to ``> ''.

To unset mail variables use @samp{unset}(@samp{uns}) command.  The
command takes a list of variable names to unset.

To undo the effect of the previous example, do:

@example
? unset askcc crt indentprefix
@end example

When used without arguments, both @command{set} or @command{unset}
list all currently defined variables.  The form of this listing is
controlled by @code{variable-pretty-print} (@code{varpp}) variable.  If
it is set, a description precedes each variable, e.g.:

@example
# prompt user for subject before composing the message
ask
# prompt user for cc before composing the message
askcc
# output character set for decoded header fields
charset="auto"
# number of columns on terminal screen
columns=80
@end example

If @code{variable-pretty-print} is not set, only the settings are
shown, e.g.:

@example
ask
askcc
charset="auto"
columns=80
@end example

@kyindex variable, mail command
A special command is provided to list all internal @command{mail}
variables:

@example
variable [@var{names...}]
@end example

If used without arguments, it prints all known internal variables.  If
arguments are given, it displays only those internal variables that
are listed in command line.  For each variable, this command prints its
name, data type, current value and a short description.  For example:

@example
? variable ask datefield
ask, asksub
Type: boolean
Current value: yes
prompt user for subject before composing the message

datefield
Type: boolean
Current value: [not set]
get date from the `Date:' header, instead of the envelope
@end example

@subsubheading Setting and Unsetting Shell Environment Variables

Shell environment may be modified using @samp{setenv} (@samp{sete})
command.  The command takes a list of assignments.  The syntax of an
assignment is:

@table @samp
@item @var{name}=@var{value}
If variable @var{name} does not already exist in the environment,
then it is added to the environment with the value @var{value}.
If @var{name} does exist, then its value in the environment is
changed to @var{value}. 
@item @var{name}
Delete the variable @var{name} from the environment (``unset'' it).
@end table

@subsubheading Conditional Statements
@kyindex if, mail command
@kyindex else, mail command
@kyindex endif, mail command

The conditional statement allows to execute a set of mail commands
depending on the mode the @command{mail} program is in.  The conditional
statement is:

@example
if @var{cond}
...
else
...
endif
@end example
@noindent

where @samp{...} represents the set of commands to be executed in each
branch of the statement.  @var{cond} can be one of the following:

@table @samp
@item s
True if @command{mail} is operating in mail sending mode.
@item r
True if @command{mail} is operating in mail reading mode.
@item t
True if stdout is a terminal device (as opposed to a regular file).
@end table

The conditional statements can be nested to arbitrary depth.  The minimal
abbreviations for @samp{if}, @samp{else} and @samp{endif} commands are
@samp{i}, @samp{el} and @samp{en}.

Example:

@example
if t
set crt prompt="& "
else
unset prompt
endif
if s
alt gray@@example.com gray@@example.org
set
@end example

@node Mail Variables
@subsection How to Alter the Behavior of @command{mail}

Following variables control the behavior of GNU @command{mail}:

@table @code
@kwindex append
@item append
@*Type: Boolean, Read-Only
@*Default: True
@vrindex append, mail variable

Messages saved in @file{mbox} are appended to the end rather than
prepended. This is the default and cannot be changed.  This variable
exists only for compatibility with other @command{mailx}
implementations.

@kwindex appenddeadletter
@item appenddeadletter
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex appenddeadletter, mail variable

If this variable is @code{True}, the contents of canceled letter is
appended to the user's @file{dead.letter} file.  Otherwise it overwrites
its contents.

@kwindex askbcc
@item askbcc
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex askbcc, mail variable

When set to @code{True} the user will be prompted to enter @code{Bcc}
field before composing the message.

@kwindex askcc
@item askcc
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: True.
@vrindex askcc, mail variable

When set to @code{True} the user will be prompted to enter @code{Cc}
field before composing the message.

@kwindex asksub
@item asksub
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: True in interactive mode, False otherwise.
@vrindex asksub, mail variable

When set to @code{True} the user will be prompted to enter @code{Subject}
field before composing the message.

@kwindex autoinc
@item autoinc
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: True.
@vrindex autoinc, mail variable

Automatically incorporate newly arrived messages.

@kwindex autoprint
@item autoprint
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex autoprint, mail variable

Causes the delete command to behave like dp - thus, after deleting a
message, the next one will be typed automatically.

@kwindex bang
@item bang
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex bang, mail variable

When set, every occurrence of @code{!} in arguments to @code{!}
command is replaced with the last executed command.

@anchor{byname}
@kwindex byname
@item byname
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: Unset
@vrindex byname, mail variable

Record outgoing messages in a file named after the first recipient.
The name is the login-name portion of the address found first on the
@samp{To:} line in the mail header.  This variable overrides the
@samp{record} variable.

It is set by the @option{--byname} (@option{-F}) command line option.

@anchor{datefield}
@kwindex datefield
@item datefield
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex datefield, mail variable

By default the date in a header summary is taken from the @acronym{SMTP}
envelope of the message.  Setting this variable tells @command{mail}
to use the date from @code{Date:} header field, converted to
local time.  Notice, that for messages lacking this field @command{mail}
will fall back to using @acronym{SMTP} envelope.

@xref{fromfield}.

@kwindex charset
@item charset
@*Type: string
@*Default: @samp{auto}
@vrindex charset, mail variable

The value of this variable is the character set used for input and
output operations.  If the value is @samp{auto}, @command{mail} will
try to deduce the name of the character set from the value of
@samp{LC_ALL} environment variable.  If the variable contains the
character set part (e.g. @samp{nb_NO.utf-8}), it will be used.
Otherwise, @command{mail} will look up in its built-in database the
value of the character for this language/territory combination.  If
@samp{LC_ALL} is not set, the @samp{LANG} environment variable is
inspected.

The value of @samp{charset} controls both input and output
operations.  On input, it is used to set the value of the
@samp{charset} parameter in the @samp{Content-Type} MIME header, if
its value begins with @samp{text/} and @samp{charset} is not present.

On output, it is used to display values of the header fields encodied
using RFC 2047.  If the variable is unset, no decoding is performed
and the fields are printed as they are.  Otherwise, they are recoded
to that character set.

@kwindex cmd
@item cmd
@*Type: String.
@*Default: Unset.
@vrindex cmd, mail variable

Contains default shell command for @code{pipe}.

@kwindex columns
@item columns
@*Type: Numeric.
@*Default: Detected at startup by querying the terminal device.  If this
fails, the value of environment variable @code{COLUMNS} is used.
@vrindex columns, mail variable

This variable contains the number of columns on terminal screen.

@kwindex crt
@item crt
@*Type: Boolean or Numeric
@*Default: True in interactive mode, False otherwise.
@vrindex crt, mail variable

The variable @code{crt} determines the minimum number of lines the body
of the message must contain in order to be piped through pager command
specified by environment variable @code{PAGER}.  If @code{crt} is set
to a numeric value, this value is taken as the threshold.  Otherwise,
if @code{crt} is set without a value, then the height of the terminal
screen is used to compute the threshold.  The number of lines on
screen is controlled by @code{screen} variable.

@kwindex debug
@item debug
@*Type: String to boolean
@*Default: Not set
@vrindex debug, mail variable

Sets mailutils debug level.  If set to string, the value must be a
valid Mailutils debugging specification.  @xref{Debug Statement}, for
a description.

If unset (i.e.  @code{set nodebug}), clears and disables all debugging
information.  If set to @samp{true} (i.e.  @code{set debug}), sets
maximum debugging (@samp{<trace7}) on mailbox and its underlying
objects.

@kwindex decode-fallback
@item decode-fallback
@*Type: String.
@*Default: @samp{none}.
@vrindex decode-fallback, mail variable

This variable controls the way to represent characters that cannot
be rendered using current character set.  It can have three values:

@table @samp
@item none
Such characters are not printed at all.  The conversion process stops
at the first character that cannot be rendered.

@item copy-pass
The characters are displayed @samp{as is}.  Notice, that depending on
your setup, this may screw-up your terminal settings.

@item copy-octal
Unprintable characters are represented by their octal codes.  Printable
ones are printed @samp{as is}.
@end table

@kwindex debug
@item debug
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: Unset
@vrindex debug, mail variable

This variable is not used.  It exists for compatibility with other
@command{mailx} implementations and for future use.

@kwindex dot
@item dot
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex dot, mail variable

If @code{True}, causes @command{mail} to interpret a period alone on a line as the
terminator of a message you are sending.

@kwindex emptystart
@item emptystart
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex emptystart, mail variable

If the mailbox is empty, @command{mail} normally prints @samp{No mail for user} and
exits immediately.  If this option is set, @command{mail} will start no matter is
the mailbox empty or not.

@kwindex editheaders
@item editheaders
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex editheaders, mail variable

When set, @command{mail} will include message headers in the text to
be the @code{~e} and @code{~v} escapes, thus allowing you to customize
the headers.

@kwindex escape
@item escape
@*Type: String.
@*Default: ~
@vrindex escape, mail variable

If defined, the first character of this option gives the character to
denoting escapes.

@kwindex flipr
@item flipr
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: Unset
@vrindex flipr, mail variable

If set, the variable @code{flipr} swaps the meanings of @code{reply}
and @code{Reply} commands (@pxref{Replying}).

@anchor{folder variable}
@kwindex folder
@item folder
@*Type: String.
@*Default: Unset.
@vrindex folder, mail variable

The name of the directory to use for storing folders of messages.  If
unset, @env{$HOME} is assumed.

@anchor{fromfield}
@kwindex fromfield
@item fromfield
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: True.

By default the sender address is taken from the @samp{From} header.
Unsetting this variable tells @command{mail} to obtain it from the
@acronym{SMTP} envelope, instead.

@xref{datefield}.

@kwindex header
@item header
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: True, unless started with @option{--nosum} (@option{-N}) option.
@vrindex header, mail variable

Whether to run @code{headers} command automatically after entering
interactive mode.

@anchor{headline}
@kwindex headline
@item headline
@*Type: String
@*Default: @samp{%>%a%4m %18f %16d %3l/%-5o %s}

Format string to use for the header summary.  The @samp{%} character
introduces a @dfn{format specifier}.  The format specifier consists of
optional alignment specifier (@samp{+} or @samp{-} sign), optional
output width and the specifier letter.  Format specifiers are replaced on
output with the corresponding piece of information from the message
being described.

The @samp{-} character immediately following @samp{%} indicates that
this field should be left aligned.  The @samp{+} character indicates
right alignment.  Default alignment depends on the type of the
specifier: the specifiers that produce numeric values (@samp{%l},
@samp{%m}, and @samp{%o}) are aligned to the right, whereas the ones
producing string or date/time values are aligned to the left.

A number following @samp{%} or the alignment flag, indicates the
field width.

Consider the @samp{%m} specifier as an example:

@table @asis
@item %m
Print current message number.  Take as much screen columns as necessary
for output.

@item %4m
@itemx %+4m
Print current message number.  Use exactly 4 screen columns,
truncating the output if it does not fit that width.  Align the output
to the right.

@item %-4m
Same as above, but align to the left.
@end table

Valid format specifiers are:

@table @asis
@item %a
Message attribute.  One of the following letters, or a single
horizontal space, if none of them applies:

@multitable @columnfractions 0.2 0.6
@item @samp{M} @tab the message was copied to the mailbox (@samp{mbox} command)
@item @samp{P} @tab the message was preserved (@samp{hold} command)
@item @samp{*} @tab the message was saved (@samp{save} or @samp{Save})
@item @samp{T} @tab the message was tagged (@samp{tag})
@item @samp{R} @tab the message was read
@item @samp{N} @tab the message is new (was not seen)
@item @samp{U} @tab the message was seen, but wasn't read
@end multitable

@item %d
The date when the message was received.  It is determined from the
message header set by the @samp{datefield} variable
(@pxref{datefield}).  If that variable is not set, or the requested
header is not present in the message, the date from the envelope is
used.

The output is formatted according to the following format
specification (@pxref{Date/time Format String}):

@example
%a %b %e %H:%M
@end example

I.e.: abbreviated weekday name, abbreviated month name, day of the
month as a decimal number, followed by hour and minutes.  All names
are displayed according to the current locale.

@item %D@{@var{fmt}@}
Same as @samp{%d}, but the date is formatted according to the
date/time format @var{fmt}.  It is essentially a C @samp{strftime}
format string, described in detail in @ref{Date/time Format String}.

For example:

@example
set headline="%4m %20D@{%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S@}"
@end example

Note, that the opening @samp{@{} must follow the format letter without
any intervening whitespace.  If @var{fmt} contains @samp{@{},
@samp{@}}, or @samp{\}, these characters must be escaped with
backslash (e.g. @samp{\@{}).

@item %D@var{f}
A simplified form of the @samp{%D} specifier.  It is equivalent to

@example
%D@{%@var{f}@}
@end example

@noindent
where @var{f} is a single @samp{strftime} specifier letter. It can be
preceded by @samp{E} or @samp{O}, if the Single UNIX Specification
allows such usage (@pxref{conversion specs}), e.g. @samp{%DOU}.

Notice, that @samp{%D} not followed by a valid time format in either
of the above forms is treated as unknown specifier.

@item %f
The email address of the message sender.

@item %l
The number of lines of the message.

@item %m
Message number.

@item %o
The number of octets (bytes) in the message.

@item %s
Message subject (if any).

@item %S
Message subject (if any) in double quotes.

@item %>
A @samp{>} for the current message, otherwise a space.

@item %<
A @samp{<} for the current message, otherwise a space.

@item %%
A @samp{%} character.
@end table

@kwindex hold
@item hold
@anchor{the hold variable}
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex hold, mail variable

Determines the location where to store the messages in state
@samp{read} and (if the @code{keepsave} is also set) @samp{saved}.
When set, these messages will be retained in the system mailbox.

When not set (the default), such messages will be stored in the
user's personal mailbox.

@xref{read messages}, and @xref{saved messages}, for a
detailed information on how such messages are processed 
when the mailbox is being closed.

@xref{keepsave}, for the discussion of the @code{keepsave} variable.

@kwindex ignore 
@item ignore
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex ignore, mail variable

When set to @code{True}, @command{mail} will ignore keyboard interrupts
when composing messages.  Otherwise an interrupt will be taken as a
signal to abort composing.

@kwindex ignoreeof
@item ignoreeof
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex ignoreeof, mail variable

Controls whether typing EOF character terminates the letter being
composed.

@kwindex indentprefix
@item indentprefix
@*Type: String.
@*Default: "\t" (a tab character).
@vrindex indentprefix, mail variable

String used by the @code{~m} tilde escape for indenting quoted messages.

@kwindex inplacealiases
@item inplacealiases
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: False

If set, @command{mail} will expand aliases in the address header field
before entering send mode (@pxref{Composing Mail}).  By default, the
address header fields are left intact while composing, the alias
expansion takes place immediately before sending message.

@kwindex keep
@item keep
@*Type: Boolean, Read-Only
@*Default: True
@vrindex append, mail variable

Truncate the user's system mailbox when it is empty, instead of
removing it.  This is the default and cannot be changed.  This variable
exists only for compatibility with other @command{mailx} implementations.

@kwindex keepsave
@anchor{keepsave}
@item keepsave
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex keepsave, mail variable

Controls whether saved messages should be retained.  The location
where they will be retained is controlled by the @code{hold} variable
(@pxref{the hold variable}).

This variable is in effect only when operating upon the user's system
mailbox.

@xref{saved messages}, for a detailed information on how
the saved messages are processed when the mailbox is being closed.

@kwindex mailx
@item mailx
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex mailx, mail variable

When set, enables @dfn{mailx compatibility mode}.  This mode
has the following effects:

@itemize @bullet
@item When composing a message @command{mail} will ask
for @code{Cc} and @code{Bcc} addresses after composing the body.
The default behavior is to ask for these values before composing
the body.

@item In send mode, if the composition was interrupted, @command{mail}
will exit with zero status.  By default it exits with zero status only
if the message was sent successfully.
@end itemize

@kwindex metamail
@item metamail
@*Type: Boolean or String.
@*Default: True.
@vrindex metamail, mail variable

This variable controls operation of @code{decode} command.  If
it is unset, @code{decode} will not attempt any interpretation
of the content of message parts.  Otherwise, if @code{metamail}
is set to @code{true}, @code{decode} will use internal metamail
support to interpret message parts.  Finally, if @code{metamail}
is assigned a string, this string is treated as command line of
the external @command{metamail} command which will be used to
display parts of a multipart message.  For example:

@example
# Disable MIME interpretation:
set nometamail
# Enable built-in MIME support:
set metamail
# Use external program to display MIME parts:
set metamail="metamail -m mail -p"
@end example

@kwindex mime
@item mime
@*Type: String
@*Default: Unset (false)
@vrindex mime, mail variable

If set, this variable instructs @command{mail} to compose MIME
messages.

It can be set from the command line using @option{--mime} option.

@kwindex mimenoask
@item mimenoask
@*Type: String
@*Default: Empty
@vrindex mimenoask, mail variable

By default @command{mail} asks for confirmation before running
interpreter to view a part of the multi-part message.  If this variable
is set, its value is treated as a comma-separated list of MIME types
for which no confirmation is needed.  Elements of this list may include
shell-style globbing patterns, e.g. setting

@example
set mimenoask=text/*,image/jpeg
@end example

@noindent
will disable prompting before displaying any textual files, no
matter what their subtype is, and before displaying files with
type @samp{image/jpeg}.

@kwindex metoo
@item metoo
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex metoo, mail variable

Usually, when an alias is expanded that contains the sender, the sender
is removed from the expansion.  Setting this option causes the sender to
be included in the group.

@kwindex mode
@item mode
@*Type: String, Read-Only
@*Default: The name of current operation mode.
@vrindex mode, mail variable

This variable keeps the name of the current operation mode.  Its
possible values are:

@table @asis
@item headers
The program is started with the @option{--headers} (@option{-H}) command
line option (@pxref{Invoking Mail}).

@item exist
The program is started with the @option{--exist} (@option{-e}) command
line option (@pxref{Invoking Mail}).

@item print
The program is started with the @option{--print} (@option{-p}) command
line option (@pxref{Invoking Mail}).

@item read
The program operates in read mode.  This is the default.

@item send
The program operates in send mode.  This means it was given one or more
recipient addresses in the command line.
@end table

@kwindex nullbody
@item nullbody
@* Type: Boolean
@* Default: True
@vrindex nullbody, mail variable

Controls whether @command{mail} accepts messages with an empty
body.  The default value, @code{true}, means such messages are sent,
and a warning (traditionally saying @samp{Null message body; hope
that's ok}) is displayed.  The text of the warning can be set using
@code{nullbodymsg} variable (see below).

If @code{nullbody} is unset, @command{mail} will silently ignore such
messages.  This can be useful in @file{crontab} files, to avoid sending
mails when nothing important happens.  For example, the @file{crontab}
entry below will send mail only if the utility @command{some-prog}
outputs something on its standard output or error:

@example
@group
*/5 * * * * some-prog 2>&1 | \
   /bin/mail -E'set nonullbody' -s 'Periodic synchronization'
@end group
@end example

@kwindex showenvelope
@item showenvelope
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: Unset

If this variable is set, the @code{print} command will include the
@acronym{STMP} envelope in its output.

@kwindex nullbodymsg
@item nullbodymsg
@*Type: String
@*Default: Null message body; hope that's ok 
@vrindex nullbodymsg

Keeps the text of the warning, displayed by @command{mail} before
sending an empty message.  When available, the translation of
this text, in accordance with the current locale, is displayed.

Unsetting this variable disables the warning.

@kwindex onehop
@item onehop
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: Unset
@vrindex onehop, mail variable

This variable is not used.  It exists for compatibility with other
@command{mailx} implementations and for future use.

@kwindex outfolder
@item outfolder
@*Type: String.
@*Default: Unset.
@vrindex outfolder, mail variable

Contains the directory in which files created by @code{save},
@code{write}, etc. commands will be stored.  When unset, current
directory is assumed.

@kwindex PID
@item PID
@*Type: String, Read-Only
@*Default: PID of the process.
@vrindex PID, mail variable

PID of the current @command{mail} process.

@kwindex page
@item page
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex page, mail variable

If set to @code{True}, the @code{pipe} command will emit a linefeed
character after printing each message.

@kwindex prompt
@item prompt
@*Type: String.
@*Default: "? "
@vrindex prompt, mail variable

Contains the command prompt sequence.

@kwindex quiet
@item quiet
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: Unset
@vrindex quiet, mail variable

This variable is not used.  It exists for compatibility with other
@command{mailx} implementations and for future use.

@kwindex quit
@item quit
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False, unless started with @option{--quit} (@option{-q}) option.
@vrindex quit, mail variable

When set, causes keyboard interrupts to terminate the program.

@kwindex rc
@item rc
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: True, unless started with @option{--norc} (@option{-N}) option.
@vrindex rc, mail variable

When this variable is set, @command{mail} will read the system-wide
configuration file upon startup.  See @ref{Mail Configuration Files}.

@kwindex readonly
@item readonly
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: False
@vrindex readonly, mail variable

When set, mailboxes are opened in readonly mode.  In this mode, any
@command{mail} commands that alter the contents of the mailbox are
disabled.  These commands include, but are not limited to: 
@code{delete}, @code{save} and @code{mbox}.

@kwindex record
@item record
@*Type: String.
@*Default: Unset.
@vrindex record, mail variable

When set, any outgoing message will be saved to the named file.

@kwindex recursivealiases
@item recursivealiases
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: True

When set, @command{mail} will expand aliases recursively.

@kwindex regex
@item regex
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: True.
@vrindex regex, mail variable

Setting this to @code{True} enables use of regular expressions in
@samp{/.../} message specifications.

@kwindex replyprefix
@item replyprefix
@*Type: String
@*Default: @samp{Re: }
@vrindex replyprefix, mail variable

Sets the prefix that will be used when constructing the subject line
of a reply message.

@kwindex replyregex
@item replyregex
@*Type: String
@*Default: @samp{^re: *}
@vrindex replyregex, mail variable

Sets the regular expression used to recognize subjects of reply
messages.  If the @code{Subject} header of the message matches this
expression, the value of @code{replyprefix} will not be prepended to
it before replying.  The expression should be a POSIX extended regular
expression.  The comparison is case-insensitive.

For example, to recognize usual English, Polish, Norwegian and German
reply subject styles, use:

@example
set replyregex="^(re|odp|aw|ang)(\\[[0-9]+\\])?:[[:blank:]]"
@end example

@noindent
(Notice the quoting of backslash characters).

@anchor{return-address}
@kwindex return-address
@item return-address
@*Type: String
@*Default: unset
@vrindex return-address, mail variable.

Sets the return email address to use when sending messages.  If unset,
the address is composed from the current user name and the host name.

@kwindex save
@item save
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: True.
@vrindex save, mail variable

When set, the aborted messages will be stored in the user's
@file{dead.file}.  See also @code{appenddeadletter}.

@kwindex screen
@item screen
@*Type: Numeric.
@*Default: Detected at startup by querying the terminal device.  If this
fails, the value of environment variable @code{LINES} is used.
@vrindex screen, mail variable

This variable contains the number of lines on terminal screen.

@kwindex sendmail
@item sendmail
@*Type: String.
@*Default: sendmail:/usr/lib/sendmail
@vrindex sendmail, mail variable

Contains URL of the mail transport agent.

@kwindex sendwait
@item sendwait
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: Unset
@vrindex sendwait, mail variable

This variable is not used.  It exists for compatibility with other
@command{mailx} implementations and for future use.

@kwindex showto
@item showto
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: False
@vrindex showto, mail variable

If the message was sent by the user, print its recipient address in
the header summary.

@kwindex Sign
@item Sign
@*Type: String.
@*Default: Unset.
@vrindex Sign, mail variable

Contains the filename holding users signature.  The contents of this
file is appended to the end of a message being composed by @code{~A}
escape.

@kwindex sign
@item sign
@*Type: String.
@*Default: Unset.
@vrindex sign, mail variable

Contains the user's signature.  The contents of this variable is appended
to the end of a message being composed by @code{~a} escape.  Use
@code{Sign} variable, if your signature occupies more than one line.

@kwindex showto
@item showto
@*Type: Boolean
@*Default: unset
@vrindex showto, mail variable

If this variable is set, @command{mail} will show @code{To:} addresses
instead of @code{From:} for all messages that come from the user that
invoked the program.

@kwindex subject
@item subject
@*Type: String.
@*Default: Unset.
@vrindex subject, mail variable

Contains default subject line.  This will be used when @code{asksub} is
off.

@kwindex toplines
@item toplines
@*Type: Numeric.
@*Default: 5
@vrindex toplines, mail variable

Number of lines to be displayed by @code{top} and @code{Top} commands.

@kwindex variable-strict
@item variable-strict
@itemx varstrict
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.

Setting this variable enables strict control over variable
settings.  In this mode, @command{mail} refuses to set read-only
variables.  Also, if the user is trying to set an unknown variable,
@command{mail} prints a warning.

@xref{Setting and Unsetting the Variables}.

@kwindex variable-pretty-print
@item variable-pretty-print
@itemx varpp
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.

If this variable is set, the listing output by @command{set} contains short
descriptions before each variable.  @xref{Setting and Unsetting the Variables}. 

@kwindex verbose
@item verbose
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: False.
@vrindex verbose, mail variable

When set, the actual delivery of messages is displayed on the user's terminal.

@kwindex xmailer
@item xmailer
@*Type: Boolean.
@*Default: Set.
@vrindex xmailer, mail variable

Controls whether the header @samp{X-Mailer} should be added to 
outgoing messages.  The default value of this header is

@example
X-Mailer: mail (GNU Mailutils @value{VERSION})
@end example

@end table

@node Mail Configuration Files
@subsection Personal and System-wide Configuration Files

After processing the usual Mailutils configuration files
(@pxref{configuration}), @command{mail} reads the contents of the two
command files: the system-wide command file, and the user's command
file.  Each line read from these files is processed like a usual
@command{mail} command.

When run with @option{--norc} (@option{-N}) option, @command{mail} does
not read the contents of system-wide configuration file.  The user's
file, if it exists, is always processed.

The user's configuration file is located in the user's home
directory and is named @file{.mailrc}.  The location and name of
the system-wide configuration file is determined when configuring the
package via @option{--with-mail-rc} option.  It defaults to
@file{@var{sysconfdir}/mail.rc}.

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