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\input texinfo  @c -*- Texinfo -*-
@comment $Id$
@comment %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@setfilename gdbm.info
@include version.texi
@settitle GDBM manual

@ifinfo
@dircategory Programming & development tools
@direntry
* GDBM: (gdbm).                  The GNU database manager.
* gdbm_dump: (gdbm) gdbm_dump.   Dump the GDBM database into a flat file.
* gdbm_load: (gdbm) gdbm_load.   Load the database from a flat file.
* gdbmtool: (gdbm) gdbmtool.     Examine and modify a GDBM database.
@end direntry
@end ifinfo

@c @setchapternewpage odd
@comment %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)

@c Use @kwindex for keywords
@defcodeindex kw
@syncodeindex kw cp
@c Use @flindex for files
@defcodeindex fl
@syncodeindex fl cp
@c Use @prindex for programs
@defcodeindex pr
@syncodeindex pr cp

@c Merge all indices into a single one
@syncodeindex fn cp
@syncodeindex vr cp
@syncodeindex ky cp
@syncodeindex pg cp
@syncodeindex tp cp

@iftex
@finalout
@end iftex

@copying
Published by the Free Software Foundation,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor
Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA

Copyright @copyright{} 1989-1999, 2007-2018 Free Software Foundation,
Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover, and no Back-Cover texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free
Documentation License.''
@end copying

@titlepage
@sp 6
@center @titlefont{GNU dbm}
@sp 2
@center A Database Manager
@sp 2
@center by Philip A.  Nelson, Jason Downs and Sergey Poznyakoff
@sp 4
@center Manual by Pierre Gaumond, Philip A.  Nelson, Jason Downs
@center and Sergey Poznyakoff
@sp 1
@center Edition @value{EDITION}
@sp 1
@center for GNU @code{dbm}, Version @value{VERSION}
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@ifnothtml
@page
@summarycontents
@page
@end ifnothtml
@contents

@ifnottex
@node Top
@top The GNU database manager.

GNU @code{dbm} is a library of functions implementing a hashed database
on a disk file.  This manual documents GNU @code{dbm} Version @value{VERSION}
(@code{gdbm}).  The software was originally written by Philip A.@:
Nelson.  This document was originally written by Pierre Gaumond from
texts written by Phil.
@end ifnottex

@menu
Introduction:

* Copying::                    Your rights.
* Intro::                      Introduction to GNU dbm.
* List::                       List of functions.

Functions:

* Open::                       Opening the database.
* Close::                      Closing the database.
* Count::                      Counting records in the database.
* Store::                      Inserting and replacing records in the database.
* Fetch::                      Searching records in the database.
* Delete::                     Removing records from the database.
* Sequential::                 Sequential access to records.
* Reorganization::             Database reorganization.
* Sync::                       Insure all writes to disk have competed.
* Flat files::                 Export and import to Flat file format.
* Errors::                     Error handling.
* Recovery::                   Recovery from fatal errors.
* Options::                    Setting internal options.
* Locking::                    File locking.
* Variables::                  Useful global variables.

* Error codes::                Error codes returned by @code{gdbm} calls.
* Compatibility::              Compatibility with UNIX dbm and ndbm.

Programs

* gdbmtool::                   Examine and modify a GDBM database.
* gdbm_dump::                  Dump the database into a flat file.          
* gdbm_load::                  Load the database from a flat file.
* Exit codes::                 Exit codes returned by GDBM utilities.

Other topics:

* Bugs::                       Problems and bugs.
* Resources::                  Additional resources,

* GNU Free Documentation License::      Document license.
* Index::                       Index
@end menu

@node Copying
@chapter Copying Conditions.
This library is @dfn{free}; this means that everyone is free to use
it and free to redistribute it on a free basis.  GNU @code{dbm} (@code{gdbm})
is not in the public domain; it is copyrighted and there
are restrictions on its distribution, but these restrictions are
designed to permit everything that a good cooperating citizen would want
to do.  What is not allowed is to try to prevent others from further
sharing any version of @code{gdbm} that they might get from
you.@refill

  Specifically, we want to make sure that you have the right to give
away copies @code{gdbm}, that you receive
source code or else can get it if you want it, that you can change these
functions or use pieces of them in new free programs, and that you know
you can do these things.@refill

  To make sure that everyone has such rights, we have to forbid you to
deprive anyone else of these rights.  For example, if you distribute
copies @code{gdbm}, you must give the recipients all
the rights that you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or
can get the source code.  And you must tell them their rights.@refill

  Also, for our own protection, we must make certain that everyone finds
out that there is no warranty for anything in the @code{gdbm} distribution.
If these functions are modified by someone else and passed on, we want
their recipients to know that what they have is not what we distributed,
so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on our
reputation.@refill

@code{Gdbm} is currently distributed under the terms of the GNU General
Public License, Version 3.  (@emph{NOT} under the GNU General Library
Public License.)  A copy the GNU General Public License is included with
the distribution of @code{gdbm}.

@node Intro
@chapter Introduction to GNU @code{dbm}.

GNU @code{dbm} (@code{gdbm}) is a library of database functions that use
extensible hashing and works similar to the standard UNIX @code{dbm}
functions.  These routines are provided to a programmer needing to
create and manipulate a hashed database. (@code{gdbm} is @emph{NOT} a
complete database package for an end user.)

The basic use of @code{gdbm} is to store key/data pairs in a data file.
Each key must be unique and each key is paired with only one data item.
The keys can not be directly accessed in sorted order.  The basic unit
of data in @code{gdbm} is the structure:

@example
  typedef struct @{
             char *dptr;
             int  dsize;
          @} datum;
@end example

This structure allows for arbitrary sized keys and data items.

The key/data pairs are stored in a @code{gdbm} disk file, called a
@code{gdbm} database.  An application must open a @code{gdbm} database
to be able manipulate the keys and data contained in the database.
@code{gdbm} allows an application to have multiple databases open at the
same time.  When an application opens a @code{gdbm} database, it is
designated as a @code{reader} or a @code{writer}.  A @code{gdbm}
database can be opened by at most one writer at a time.  However, many readers
may open the database simultaneously.  Readers and writers can not
open the @code{gdbm} database at the same time.

@node List
@chapter List of functions.

The following is a quick list of the functions contained in the @code{gdbm}
library.  The include file @code{gdbm.h}, that can be included by the user,
contains a definition of these functions.

@example
#include <gdbm.h>

GDBM_FILE gdbm_open(name, block_size, flags, mode, fatal_func);
int gdbm_close(dbf);
int gdbm_store(dbf, key, content, flag);
datum gdbm_fetch(dbf, key);
int gdbm_delete(dbf, key);
datum gdbm_firstkey(dbf);
datum gdbm_nextkey(dbf, key);
int gdbm_reorganize(dbf);
int gdbm_sync(dbf);
int gdbm_exists(dbf, key);
char *gdbm_strerror(errno);
int gdbm_setopt(dbf, option, value, size);
int gdbm_fdesc(dbf);
int gdbm_export (GDBM_FILE, const char *, int, int);
int gdbm_export_to_file (GDBM_FILE dbf, FILE *fp);
int gdbm_import (GDBM_FILE, const char *, int);
int gdbm_import_from_file (GDBM_FILE dbf, FILE *fp, int flag);
int gdbm_count (GDBM_FILE dbf, gdbm_count_t *pcount);
int gdbm_version_cmp (int const a[], int const b[]);
@end example

The @code{gdbm.h} include file is often in the @file{/usr/include}
directory. (The actual location of @code{gdbm.h} depends on your local
installation of @code{gdbm}.)

@node Open
@chapter Opening the database.

@cindex opening the database
@cindex database, opening or creating
@deftypefn {gdbm interface} GDBM_FILE gdbm_open (const char *@var{name}, int @var{block_size}, @
  int @var{flags}, int @var{mode}, void (*fatal_func)(const char *))
Initializes @code{gdbm} system.  If the file has a size of zero bytes, a file
initialization procedure is performed, setting up the initial structure in the
file.

The arguments are:

@table @var
@item name
The name of the file (the complete name, @code{gdbm} does not append any
characters to this name).
@item block_size
It is used during initialization to determine the size of various
constructs.  It is the size of a single transfer from disk to
memory.  This parameter is ignored if the file has been previously
initialized.  If the value is less than 512, the file system block
size is used instead.  The size is adjusted so that the block can hold
exact number of directory entries, so that the effective block size
can be slightly greater than requested.  However, if the 
@samp{GDBM_BSEXACT} flag is set and the size needs to be adjusted, the
function will return with error status, setting the @samp{gdbm_errno}
variable to @samp{GDBM_BLOCK_SIZE_ERROR}.

@item flags
@kwindex GDBM_READER
@kwindex GDBM_WRITER
@kwindex GDBM_WRCREAT
@kwindex GDBM_NEWDB
If @code{flags} is set to @samp{GDBM_READER}, the user wants to just read the
database and any call to @code{gdbm_store} or @code{gdbm_delete} will fail.
Many readers can access the database at the same time.  If @code{flags} is
set to @samp{GDBM_WRITER}, the user wants both read and write access
to the database and requires exclusive access.  If @code{flags} is set
to @samp{GDBM_WRCREAT}, the user wants both read and write access to
the database and wants it created if it does not already exist.  If
@code{flags} is set to @samp{GDBM_NEWDB}, the user want a new database
created, regardless of whether one existed, and wants read and write
access to the new database.

@kwindex GDBM_SYNC
@kwindex GDBM_NOLOCK
@kwindex GDBM_NOMMAP
The following may also be logically or'd into the database flags:
@samp{GDBM_SYNC}, which causes all database operations to be
synchronized to the disk, @samp{GDBM_NOLOCK}, which prevents the library 
from performing any locking on the database file, and @samp{GDBM_NOMMAP},
which disables the memory mapping mechanism.  The option @samp{GDBM_FAST} is
now obsolete, since @code{gdbm} defaults to no-sync mode.

@kwindex GDBM_BSEXACT
If this flag is set and the requested @var{block_size} cannot be used
without adjustment, @code{gdbm_open} will refuse to create the
databases.  In this case it will set the @samp{gdbm_errno}
variable to @samp{GDBM_BLOCK_SIZE_ERROR} and return @samp{NULL}.

@kwindex GDBM_CLOEXEC
@cindex close-on-exec
If the host @samp{open} call
@ifhtml
(@uref{http://www.manpagez.com/man/2/open, open(2)})
@end ifhtml
@ifnothtml
(@pxref{open,,,open(2),open(2) man page})
@end ifnothtml
supports the @samp{O_CLOEXEC} flag, the @samp{GDBM_CLOEXEC} can be
or'd into the flags, to enable the close-on-exec flag for the
database file descriptor.
@item mode
File mode (see
@ifhtml
@uref{http://www.manpagez.com/man/2/chmod},
@end ifhtml
@ifnothtml
@ref{chmod,,change permissions of a file,chmod(2),
chmod(2) man page},
@end ifnothtml
and
@ifhtml
@uref{http://www.manpagez.com/man/2/open}),
@end ifhtml
@ifnothtml
@pxref{open,,open a file,open(2), open(2) man page}),
@end ifnothtml
which is used if the file is created).
@item fatal_func
A function for @code{gdbm} to call if it detects a fatal error.  The only
parameter of this function is a string.  If the value of @samp{NULL} is
provided, @code{gdbm} will use a default function.
@end table

The return value, is the pointer needed by all other functions to
access that @code{gdbm} file.  If the return is the @samp{NULL} pointer,
@code{gdbm_open} was not successful.  The errors can be found in
@code{gdbm_errno} variable (@pxref{Variables, gdbm_errno}).  Available
error codes are discussed in @ref{Error codes}.

In all of the following calls, the parameter @var{dbf} refers to the pointer
returned from @code{gdbm_open}.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} GDBM_FILE gdbm_fd_open (int @var{fd},@
  const char *@var{name}, int @var{block_size}, @
  int @var{flags}, int @var{mode}, void (*fatal_func)(const char *))

Alternative function for opening a GDBM database.  The @var{fd}
argument is the file descriptor of the database file obtained by a
call to @code{open}(2), @code{creat}(2) or similar funcionss.  The
descriptor is not dup'ed, and will be closed when the returned
GDBM_FILE is closed.  Use @code{dup}(2) if that is not desirable.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_copy_meta (GDBM_FILE @var{dst},@
 GDBM_FILE @var{src})
Copy file ownership and mode from @var{src} to @var{dst}.
@end deftypefn

@node Close
@chapter Closing the database.
@cindex closing database
@cindex database, closing

It is important that every file opened is also closed.  This is needed to
update the reader/writer count on the file:

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_close (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
This function closes the @code{gdbm} file and frees all memory
associated with it.  The parameter is:

@table @var
@item dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@end table

@code{Gdbm_close} returns 0 on success. On error, it sets
@code{gdbm_errno} and system @code{errno} variables to the codes
describing the error and returns -1.
@end deftypefn

@node Count
@chapter Number of Records
@cindex number of records
@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_count (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, @
  gdbm_count_t *@var{pcount})
Counts number of records in the database @var{dbf}.  On success,
stores it in the memory location pointed to by @var{pcount} and return
0.  On error, sets @code{gdbm_errno} (if relevant, also @code{errno})
and returns -1.
@end deftypefn

@node Store
@chapter Inserting and replacing records in the database.
@cindex storing records
@cindex records, storing

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_store (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, datum @var{key}, @
           datum @var{content}, int @var{flag})
The function @code{gdbm_store} inserts or replaces records in the database.

The parameters are:

@table @var
@item dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item key
The search key.
@item content
The data to be associated with the key.
@item flag
@kwindex GDBM_REPLACE
@kwindex GDBM_INSERT
Defines the action to take when the key is already in the database.  The value
@samp{GDBM_REPLACE} (defined in @file{gdbm.h}) asks that the old data
be replaced by the new @var{content}.  The value @samp{GDBM_INSERT}
asks that an error be returned and no action taken if the @var{key}
already exists.
@end table

This function can return the following values:

@table @asis
@item -1
The item was not stored in the database because the caller was not an
official writer or either @var{key} or @var{content} have a
@samp{NULL} @samp{dptr} field.

Both @var{key} and @var{content} must have the @samp{dptr} field be a
non-@samp{NULL} value.  Since a @samp{NULL} @samp{dptr} field is used by
other functions to indicate an error, it cannot be valid data.
@item +1
The item was not stored because the argument @var{flag} was
@samp{GDBM_INSERT} and the @var{key} was already in the database.
@item 0
No error.  The value of @var{content} is keyed by @var{key}.  The file
on disk is updated to reflect the structure of the new database before
returning from this function.
@end table
@end deftypefn

If you store data for a @var{key} that is already in the data base,
@code{gdbm} replaces the old data with the new data if called with
@samp{GDBM_REPLACE}.  You do not get two data items for the same
@code{key} and you do not get an error from @code{gdbm_store}.

The size in @code{gdbm} is not restricted like @code{dbm} or @code{ndbm}.  Your
data can be as large as you want.

@node Fetch
@chapter Searching for records in the database.
@cindex fetching records
@cindex looking up records
@cindex record, fetching

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} datum gdbm_fetch (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, datum @var{key})
Looks up a given @var{key} and returns the information associated with it.
The @samp{dptr} field in the structure that is returned points to a
memory block allocated by @code{malloc}.  It is the caller's
responsibility to free it when no longer needed.

If the @samp{dptr} is @samp{NULL}, inspect the value of the
@code{gdbm_errno} variable (@pxref{Variables,gdbm_errno}).  If it is
@samp{GDBM_ITEM_NOT_FOUND}, no data was found.  Any other value means an
error occurred.  Use @code{gdbm_strerror} function to convert
@code{gdbm_errno} to a human-readable string.

The parameters are:

@table @var
@item dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item key
The search key.
@end table
@end deftypefn

An example of using this function:

@example
content = gdbm_fetch (dbf, key);
if (content.dptr == NULL)
  @{
    fprintf(stderr, "key not found\n");
  @}
else
  @{
    /* do something with content.dptr */
  @}
@end example

@cindex records, testing existence
You may also search for a particular key without retrieving it:

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_exists (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, datum @var{key})
Checks whether the @var{key} exists in the database @var{dbf}.

If @var{key} is found, returns @samp{true} (@samp{1}).  If it is not
found, returns @samp{false} (@samp{0}) and sets @code{gdbm_errno} to
@samp{GDBM_NO_ERROR} (@samp{0}).

On error, returns @samp{0} and sets @code{gdbm_errno} to a
non-@samp{0} error code.

The parameters are:

@table @var
@item dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item key
The search key.
@end table
@end deftypefn

@node Delete
@chapter Removing records from the database.
@cindex deleting records
@cindex record, deleting

To remove some data from the database, use the @code{gdbm_delete}
function.

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_delete (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, datum @var{key})
Deletes the data associated with the given @var{key}, if it exists in
the database @var{dbf}.  The file on disk is updated to reflect the
structure of the new database before returning from this function.

The parameters are:

@table @var
@item dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item datum key
The search key.
@end table

The function returns @samp{-1} if the item is not present or the
requester is a reader.  The return of @samp{0} marks a successful delete.
@end deftypefn

@node Sequential
@chapter Sequential access to records.
@cindex sequential access
@cindex iterating over records
@cindex records, iterating over

The next two functions allow for accessing all items in the database.  This
access is not @code{key} sequential, but it is guaranteed to visit every
@code{key} in the database once.  The order has to do with the hash values.
@code{gdbm_firstkey} starts the visit of all keys in the database.
@code{gdbm_nextkey} finds and reads the next entry in the hash structure for
@code{dbf}.

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} datum gdbm_firstkey (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Initiate sequential access to the database @var{dbf}.  The returned
value is the first key accessed in the database.  If the @samp{dptr}
field in the returned datum is @samp{NULL}, inspect the
@code{gdbm_errno} variable (@pxref{Variables, gdbm_errno}).  The value
of @code{GDBM_ITEM_NOT_FOUND} means that the database contains no
data.  Other value means an error occurred.

Otherwise, @samp{dptr} points to a memory block obtained from
@code{malloc}, which holds the key value.  The caller is responsible
for freeing this memory block when no longer needed.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} datum gdbm_nextkey (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, datum @var{prev})
This function continues the iteration over the keys in @var{dbf},
initiated by @code{gdbm_firstkey}.  The parameter @var{prev} holds the
value returned from a previous call to @code{gdbm_nextkey} or
@code{gdbm_firstkey}.

The function returns next key from the database.  If the @samp{dptr}
field in the returned datum is @samp{NULL} inspect the
@code{gdbm_errno} variable (@pxref{Variables, gdbm_errno}).  The value
of @code{GDBM_ITEM_NOT_FOUND} means that all keys in the database
has been visited.  Any other value means an error occurred.

Otherwise, @samp{dptr} points to a memory block obtained from
@code{malloc}, which holds the key value.  The caller is responsible
for freeing this memory block when no longer needed.
@end deftypefn

@cindex iteration loop
These functions were intended to visit the database in read-only algorithms,
for instance, to validate the database or similar operations.  The
usual algorithm for sequential access is:

@example
@group
   key = gdbm_firstkey (dbf);
   while (key.dptr)
     @{
        datum nextkey;

        /* do something with the key */
        ...

        /* Obtain the next key */
        nextkey = gdbm_nextkey (dbf, key);
        /* Reclaim the memory used by the key */
        free (key.dptr);
        /* Use nextkey in the next iteration. */
        key = nextkey;
     @}
@end group
@end example

@cindex iteration and @code{gdbm_delete}
@cindex deletion in iteration loops
@cindex @code{gdbm_delete} and sequential access
Care should be taken when the @code{gdbm_delete} function is used in
such a loop.  File visiting is based on a @dfn{hash table}.  The
@code{gdbm_delete} function re-arranges the hash table to make sure
that any collisions in the table do not leave some item
@dfn{un-findable}.  The original key order is @emph{not} guaranteed to
remain unchanged in all instances.  So it is possible that some key
will not be visited if a loop like the following is executed:

@example
@group
   key = gdbm_firstkey (dbf);
   while (key.dptr)
     @{
        datum nextkey;
        if (some condition)
          @{
             gdbm_delete (dbf, key);
          @}
         nextkey = gdbm_nextkey (dbf, key);
         free (key.dptr);
         key = nextkey;
      @}
@end group
@end example

@node Reorganization
@chapter Database reorganization.
@cindex database reorganization
@cindex reorganization, database

The following function should be used very seldom.

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_reorganize (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Reorganizes the database.

The parameter is:

@table @var
@item dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@end table
@end deftypefn

If you have had a lot of deletions and would like to shrink the space
used by the @code{gdbm} file, this function will reorganize the database.
This results, in particular, in shortening the length of a @code{gdbm}
file by removing the space occupied by deleted records.

This reorganization requires creating a new file and inserting all the elements
in the old file @var{dbf} into the new file.  The new file is then renamed to
the same name as the old file and @var{dbf} is updated to contain all the
correct information about the new file.  If an error is detected, the return
value is negative.  The value zero is returned after a successful
reorganization.

@node Sync
@chapter Database Synchronization
@cindex database synchronization
@cindex synchronization, database

@kwindex GDBM_SYNC
Unless your database was opened with the @samp{GDBM_SYNC} flag,
@code{gdbm} does not wait for writes to be flushed to the disk before
continuing.  This allows for faster writing of databases at the risk
of having a corrupted database if the application terminates in an
abnormal fashion.  The following function allows the programmer to
make sure the disk version of the database has been completely updated
with all changes to the current time.

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_sync (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Synchronizes the changes in @var{dbf} with its disk file.  The
parameter is a pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.

This function would usually be called after a complete set of changes
have been made to the database and before some long waiting time.
The @code{gdbm_close} function automatically calls the equivalent of
@code{gdbm_sync} so no call is needed if the database is to be closed
immediately after the set of changes have been made.

@code{Gdbm_sync} returns 0 on success. On error, it sets
@code{gdbm_errno} and system @code{errno} variables to the codes
describing the error and returns -1.
@end deftypefn

@node Flat files
@chapter Export and Import
@cindex Flat file format
@cindex export
@cindex import
@code{Gdbm} databases can be converted into so-called @dfn{flat
format} files.  Such files cannot be used for searching, their sole
purpose is to keep the data from the database for restoring it when
the need arrives.  There are two flat file formats, which differ in
the way they represent the data and in the amount of meta-information
stored.  Both formats can be used, for example, to migrate between
the different versions of @code{gdbm} databases.  Generally speaking,
flat files are safe to send over the network, and can be used to
recreate the database on another machine.  The recreated database is
guaranteed to be a byte-to-byte equivalent of the database from which
the flat file was created.  This does not necessarily mean, however,
that this file can be used in the same way as the original one.  For
example, if the original database contained non-@acronym{ASCII} data
(e.g.@: @acronym{C} structures, integers etc.), the recreated database
can be of any use only if the target machine has the same integer
size and byte ordering as the source one and if its @acronym{C}
compiler uses the same packing conventions as the one which generated
@acronym{C} which populated the original database.  In general, such
binary databases are not portable between machines, unless you follow
some stringent rules on what data is written to them and how it is
interpreted.

The GDBM version @value{VERSION} supports two flat file formats.  The
@dfn{binary} flat file format was first implemented in GDBM version
1.9.1.  This format stores only key/data pairs, it does not keep
information about the database file itself.  As its name implies,
files in this format are binary files.

The @dfn{ascii} flat file format encodes all data in base64 and stores
not only key/data pairs, but also the original database file metadata,
such as file name, mode and ownership.  Files in this format can be
sent without additional encapsulation over transmission channels that
normally allow only ASCII data, such as, e.g.@: SMTP.  Due to additional
metadata they allow for restoring an exact copy of the database,
including file ownership and privileges, which is especially important
if the database in question contained some security-related data.

We call a process of creating a flat file from a database
@dfn{exporting} or @dfn{dumping} this database.  The reverse process,
creating the database from a flat file is called @dfn{importing} or
@dfn{loading} the database.

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_dump (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, @
    const char *@var{filename}, int @var{format}, @
    int @var{open_flags}, int @var{mode})
Dumps the database file to the named file in requested format.
Arguments are:

@table @var
@item dbf
A pointer to the source database, returned by a prior call to
@code{gdbm_open}.

@item filename
Name of the dump file.

@item format
Output file format.  Allowed values are: @samp{GDBM_DUMP_FMT_BINARY} to
create a binary dump and @samp{GDBM_DUMP_FMT_ASCII} to create an ASCII
dump file.

@item open_flags
How to create the output file.  If @var{flag} is @samp{GDBM_WRCREAT}
the file will be created if it does not exist.  If it does exist,
the @code{gdbm_dump} will fail.

If @var{flag} is @samp{GDBM_NEWDB}, the function will create a new
output file, replacing it if it already exists.

@item mode
The permissions to use when creating the output file.
@ifhtml
See @uref{http://www.manpagez.com/man/2/open},
@end ifhtml
@ifnothtml
See @ref{open,,open a file,open(2), open(2) man page},
@end ifnothtml
for a detailed discussion.
@end table
@end deftypefn

@anchor{gdbm_load function}
@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_load (GDBM_FILE *@var{pdbf}, @
    const char *@var{filename}, int @var{flag}, @
    int @var{meta_mask}, @
    unsigned long *@var{errline})
Loads data from the dump file @var{filename} into the database pointed
to by @var{pdbf}.  The latter can point to @samp{NULL}, in which case 
the function will try to create a new database.  If it succeeds, the
function will return, in the memory location pointed to by @var{pdbf},
a pointer to the newly created database.  If the dump file carries no 
information about the original database file name, the function will
set @code{gdbm_errno} to @samp{GDBM_NO_DBNAME} and return
@samp{-1}, indicating failure.

The @var{flag} has the same meaning as the @var{flag} argument
to the @code{gdbm_store} function (@pxref{Store}).

The @var{meta_mask} argument can be used to disable restoring certain
bits of file's meta-data from the information in the input dump file.
It is a binary OR of zero or more of the following:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_META_MASK_MODE
Do not restore file mode.

@item GDBM_META_MASK_OWNER
Do not restore file owner.
@end table

The function returns 0 upon successful completion or -1 on fatal
errors and 1 on mild (non-fatal) errors.

If a fatal error occurs, @code{gdbm_errno} will be set to one of the
following values:

@table @asis
@item GDBM_FILE_OPEN_ERROR
Input file (@var{filename}) cannot be opened.  The @code{errno}
variable can be used to get more detail about the failure.

@item GDBM_MALLOC_ERROR
Not enough memory to load data.

@item GDBM_FILE_READ_ERROR
Reading from @var{filename} failed.  The @code{errno} variable can be
used to get more detail about the failure.

@item GDBM_ILLEGAL_DATA
Input contained some illegal data.

@item GDBM_ITEM_NOT_FOUND
This error can occur only when the input file is in ASCII format.  It
indicates that the data part of the record about to be read lacked
length specification.  Application developers are advised to treat
this error equally as @samp{GDBM_ILLEGAL_DATA}.
@end table

Mild errors mean that the function was able to successfully load and
restore the data, but was unable to change database file metadata
afterward.  The table below lists possible values for @code{gdbm_errno}
in this case.  To get more detail, inspect the system @code{errno} variable.

@table @asis
@kwindex GDBM_ERR_FILE_OWNER
@item GDBM_ERR_FILE_OWNER
The function was unable to restore database file owner.

@kwindex GDBM_ERR_FILE_MODE
@item GDBM_ERR_FILE_MODE
The function was unable to restore database file mode (permission bits).
@end table

If an error occurs while loading data from an input file in ASCII
format, the number of line in which the error occurred will be stored
in the location pointed to by the @var{errline} parameter, unless it
is @samp{NULL}.

If the line information is not available or applicable, @var{errline}
will be set to @samp{0}.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_dump_to_file (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, @
    FILE *@var{fp}, int @var{format})
This is an alternative entry point to @code{gdbm_dump} (which see).
Arguments are:

@table @var
@item dbf
A pointer to the source database, returned by a call to
@code{gdbm_open}.

@item fp
File to write the data to.

@item format
Format of the dump file.  See the @var{format} argument to the
@code{gdbm_dump} function.
@end table
@end deftypefn
    
@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_load_from_file (GDBM_FILE *@var{pdbf}, @
    FILE *@var{fp}, int @var{replace}, int @var{meta_mask}, @
    unsigned long *@var{line})
This is an alternative entry point to @code{gdbm_dump}.  It writes the
output to @var{fp} which must be a file open for writing.  The rest of
arguments is the same as for @code{gdbm_load} (excepting of course
@var{flag}, which is not needed in this case).
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_export (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, @
           const char *@var{exportfile}, int @var{flag}, int @var{mode})
This function is retained for compatibility with GDBM 1.10 and
earlier.  It dumps the database to a file in binary dump format and
is entirely equivalent to

@example
gdbm_dump(@var{dbf}, @var{exportfile}, GDBM_DUMP_FMT_BINARY,
          @var{flag}, @var{mode})
@end example

@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_export_to_file (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, FILE *@var{fp})
This is an alternative entry point to @code{gdbm_export}.  This
function writes to file @var{fp} a binary dump of the database @var{dbf}.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_import (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, @
           const char *@var{importfile}, int @var{flag})
This function is retained for compatibility with GDBM 1.10 and
earlier.  It loads the file @var{importfile}, which must be a binary
flat file, into the database @var{dbf} and is equivalent to the
following construct:

@example
@var{dbf} = gdbm_open (@var{importfile}, 0,
                       @var{flag} == GDBM_REPLACE ?
                         GDBM_WRCREAT : GDBM_NEWDB,
                       0600, NULL);
gdbm_load (&@var{dbf}, @var{exportfile}, 0, @var{flag}, NULL)
@end example
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_import_from_file (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, @
      FILE *@var{fp}, int @var{flag})
An alternative entry point to @code{gdbm_import}.  Reads the binary
dump from the file @var{fp} and stores the key/value pairs to
@var{dbf}.  @xref{Store}, for a description of @var{flag}.

This function is equivalent to:

@example
@var{dbf} = gdbm_open (@var{importfile}, 0,
                       @var{flag} == GDBM_REPLACE ?
                         GDBM_WRCREAT : GDBM_NEWDB,
                       0600, NULL);
gdbm_load_from_file (@var{dbf}, @var{fp}, @var{flag}, 0, NULL);
@end example
@end deftypefn

@node Errors
@chapter Error handling.
@cindex gdbm_errno
@cindex error strings
@cindex global error state
The global variable @code{gdbm_errno} (@pxref{Variables, gdbm_errno})
keeps the error code of the most recent error encountered by GDBM
functions.

To convert this code to human-readable string, use the following function:

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} {const char *} gdbm_strerror (gdbm_error @var{errno})
Converts @var{errno} (which is an integer value) into a human-readable
descriptive text.  Returns a pointer to a static string.  The caller
must not alter or free the returned pointer.
@end deftypefn

Detailed information about the most recent error that occurred while
operating on a GDBM file is stored in the @code{GDBM_FILE} object
itself.  To retrieve it, the following functions are provided:

@cindex error code, most recent
@cindex most recent error code
@deftypefn {gdbm interface} {gdbm_error} gdbm_last_errno (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Returns the code of the most recent error encountered when operating
on @var{dbf}.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} {int} gdbm_last_syserr (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Returns the value of the system @code{errno} variable associated with
the most recent error.

Notice, that not all GDBM errors have an associated system error
code.  The following are the ones that have:

@itemize @bullet
@item GDBM_FILE_OPEN_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_WRITE_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_SEEK_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_READ_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_STAT_ERROR
@item GDBM_BACKUP_FAILED
@end itemize

For other errors, @code{gdbm_last_syserr} will return 0.
@end deftypefn

@anchor{gdbm_check_syserr}
@deftypefn {gdbm interface} {int} gdbm_check_syserr (gdbm_errno @var{err})
Returns @code{1}, if system errno value should be checked to get more
info on the error described by GDBM code @var{err}.
@end deftypefn

To get a human-readable description of the recent error for a
particular database file, use the @code{gdbm_db_strerror} function:

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} {const char *} gdbm_db_strerror (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Returns textual description of the most recent error encountered when
operating on the database @var{dbf}.  The resulting string is often
more informative than what would be returned by
@samp{gdbm_strerror(gdbm_last_errno(@var{dbf}))}.  In particular, if
there is a system error associated with the recent failure, it will be
described as well.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} void gdbm_clear_error (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Clears the error state for the database @var{dbf}.  Normally, this
function is called upon the entry to any GDBM function.
@end deftypefn

Certain errors (such as write error when saving stored key) can leave
database file in inconistent state.  When such a critical error
occurs, the database file is marked as needing recovery.  Subsequent
calls to any GDBM functions for that database file (except
@code{gdbm_recover}), will return immediately with GDBM error value
@code{GDBM_NEED_RECOVERY}.  Additionally, the following 
function can be used to check the state of the database file:

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_needs_recovery (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Returns @code{1} if the database file @var{dbf} is in inconsistent
state and needs recovery.
@end deftypefn

The only way to bring the database back to operational state is to
call the @code{gdbm_recover} function (@pxref{Recovery}).

@node Recovery
@chapter Recovery

Certain errors (such as write error when saving stored key) can leave
database file in @dfn{inconistent state}.  When such a critical error
occurs, the database file is marked as needing recovery.  Subsequent
calls to any GDBM functions for that database file (except
@code{gdbm_recover}), will return immediately with GDBM error value
@code{GDBM_NEED_RECOVERY}.

To escape from this state and bring the database back to operational
state, use the following function:

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_recover (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf},@
 gdbm_recovery *@var{rcvr}, int @var{flags})
Check the database file @var{dbf} and fix eventual errors.  The
@var{rcvr} argument points to a structure that has @dfn{input
members}, providing additional information to alter the behavior of
@code{gdbm_recover}, and @dfn{output members}, used to return
additional statistics about the recovery process (@var{rcvr} can be
@code{NULL} if no such information is needed).

Each input member has a corresponding flag bit, which must be set in
the @var{flags} in order to instruct the function to use it.
              
The @code{gdbm_recover} type is defined as:

@example
typedef struct gdbm_recovery_s
@{
  /* Input members.
     These are initialized before call to gdbm_recover.
     The flags argument specifies which of them are initialized. */
  void (*errfun) (void *data, char const *fmt, ...);
  void *data;
  size_t max_failed_keys;
  size_t max_failed_buckets;
  size_t max_failures;

  /* Output members.
     The gdbm_recover function fills these before returning. */
  size_t recovered_keys;
  size_t recovered_buckets;
  size_t failed_keys;
  size_t failed_buckets;
  char *backup_name;
@} gdbm_recovery;
@end example

The @dfn{input members} modify the behavior of @code{gdbm_recover}:

@deftypeop {input member} gdbm_recovery void (*errfun) (void *@var{data},@
  char const *@var{fmt}, ...)
@kwindex GDBM_RCVR_ERRFUN
If the @code{GDBM_RCVR_ERRFUN} flag bit is set, @code{errfun} points
to a function that will be called upon each recoverable or non-fatal
error that occurred during the recovery.
@end deftypeop

@deftypecv {input member} gdbm_recovery {void *} data
Supplies first argument for the @code{errfun} invocations.
@end deftypecv

@deftypecv {input member} gdbm_recovery size_t max_failed_keys
@kwindex GDBM_RCVR_MAX_FAILED_KEYS
If @code{GDBM_RCVR_MAX_FAILED_KEYS} is set, this member sets the limit
on the number of keys that cannot be retrieved.  If the number of
failed keys grows bigger than @code{max_failed_keys}, recovery is
aborted and error is returned.
@end deftypecv

@deftypecv {input member} gdbm_recovery size_t max_failed_buckets
@kwindex GDBM_RCVR_MAX_FAILED_BUCKETS
If @code{GDBM_RCVR_MAX_FAILED_BUCKETS} is set, this member sets the limit
on the number of buckets that cannot be retrieved or that contain
bogus information.  If the number of failed buckets grows bigger than
@code{max_failed_buckets}, recovery is aborted and error is returned.
@end deftypecv

@deftypecv {output member} gdbm_recovery size_t max_failures
@kwindex GDBM_RCVR_MAX_FAILURES
If @code{GDBM_RCVR_MAX_FAILURES} is set, this member sets the limit
of failures that are tolerated during recovery.  If the number of
errors grows bigger than @code{max_failures}, recovery is aborted and
error is returned. 
@end deftypecv

The following members are filled on output, upon successful return
from the function:

@deftypecv {output member} gdbm_recovery size_t recovered_keys
Number of recovered keys.
@end deftypecv

@deftypecv {output member} gdbm_recovery size_t recovered_buckets
Number of recovered buckets.
@end deftypecv

@deftypecv {output member} gdbm_recovery size_t failed_keys
Number of key/data pairs that cannot be retrieved.
@end deftypecv

@deftypecv {output member} gdbm_recovery size_t failed_buckets
Number of buckets that cannot be retrieved.
@end deftypecv

@deftypecv {output member} gdbm_recovery {char *} backup_name
@kwindex GDBM_RCVR_BACKUP
Name of the file keeping the copy of the original database, in the
state prior to recovery.  It is filled if the @var{GDBM_RCVR_BACKUP}
flag is set.  The string is allocated using the @code{malloc} call.
The caller is responsible for freeing that memory when no longer needed.
@end deftypecv
@end deftypefn

@kwindex GDBM_RCVR_FORCE
By default, @code{gdbm_recovery} first checks the database fo
inconsistencies and attempts recovery only if some were found.
The special flag bit @code{GDBM_RCVR_FORCE} instructs
@code{gdbm_recovery} to omit this check and to force recovery
unconditionally.

@node Options
@chapter Setting options
@cindex database options
@cindex options, database

@code{Gdbm} supports the ability to set certain options on an already
open database.

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_setopt (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf}, int @var{option}, @
           void *@var{value}, int @var{size})
Sets an option on the database or returns the value of an option.

The parameters are:

@table @var
@item dbf
The pointer returned by @code{gdbm_open}.
@item option
The option to be set or retrieved.
@item value
A pointer to the value to which @var{option} will be set or where to
place the option value (depending on the option).
@item size
The length of the data pointed to by @var{value}.
@end table
@end deftypefn

The valid options are:

@table @asis
@kwindex GDBM_CACHESIZE
@kwindex GDBM_SETCACHESIZE
@item GDBM_SETCACHESIZE
@itemx GDBM_CACHESIZE
Set the size of the internal bucket cache.  This option may only be
set once on each GDBM_FILE descriptor, and is set automatically to 100
upon the first access to the database.  The @var{value} should point
to a @code{size_t} holding the desired cache size.

The @samp{GDBM_CACHESIZE} option is provided for compatibility with
earlier versions.

@kwindex GDBM_GETCACHESIZE
@item GDBM_GETCACHESIZE
Return the size of the internal bucket cache.  The @var{value} should
point to a @code{size_t} variable, where the size will be stored.

@kwindex GDBM_GETFLAGS
@item GDBM_GETFLAGS
Return the flags describing the state of the database.  The @var{value} should
point to a @code{int} variable where to store the flags.  The return
is the same as the flags used when opening the database (@pxref{Open,
gdbm_open}), except that it reflects the current state (which may have
been altered by another calls to @code{gdbm_setopt}.

@kwindex GDBM_FASTMODE
@item GDBM_FASTMODE
Enable or disable the @dfn{fast writes mode}, i.e.@: writes without
subsequent synchronization.  The @var{value} should point
to an integer: @samp{TRUE} to enable fast mode, and @samp{FALSE} to
disable it.

This option is retained for compatibility with previous versions of
@code{gdbm}.  Its effect is the reverse of @code{GDBM_SETSYNCMODE}
(see below).

@kwindex GDBM_SETSYNCMODE
@kwindex GDBM_SYNCMODE
@item GDBM_SETSYNCMODE
@itemx GDBM_SYNCMODE
Turn on or off file system synchronization operations.  This
setting defaults to off.  The @var{value} should point
to an integer: @samp{TRUE} to turn synchronization on, and @samp{FALSE} to
turn it off.

Note, that this option is a reverse of @code{GDBM_FASTMODE},
i.e.@: calling @code{GDBM_SETSYNCMODE} with @samp{TRUE} has the same effect
as calling @code{GDBM_FASTMODE} with @samp{FALSE}.

The @samp{GDBM_SYNCMODE} option is provided for compatibility with
earlier versions.

@kwindex GDBM_GETSYNCMODE
@item GDBM_GETSYNCMODE
Return the current synchronization status.  The @var{value} should
point to an @code{int} where the status will be stored.

@kwindex GDBM_SETCENTFREE
@kwindex GDBM_CENTFREE
@item GDBM_SETCENTFREE
@itemx GDBM_CENTFREE
@emph{NOTICE: This feature is still under study.}

Set central free block pool to either on or off.  The default is off,
which is how previous versions of @code{gdbm} handled free blocks.  If
set, this option causes all subsequent free blocks to be placed in the
@emph{global} pool, allowing (in theory) more file space to be reused
more quickly.  The @var{value} should point to an integer: @samp{TRUE} to
turn central block pool on, and @samp{FALSE} to turn it off.

The @samp{GDBM_CENTFREE} option is provided for compatibility with
earlier versions.

@kwindex GDBM_SETCOALESCEBLKS
@kwindex GDBM_COALESCEBLKS
@item GDBM_SETCOALESCEBLKS
@itemx GDBM_COALESCEBLKS
@emph{NOTICE: This feature is still under study.}

Set free block merging to either on or off.  The default is off, which
is how previous versions of @code{gdbm} handled free blocks.  If set,
this option causes adjacent free blocks to be merged.  This can become
a @acronym{CPU} expensive process with time, though, especially if
used in conjunction with GDBM_CENTFREE.  The @var{value} should point
to an integer: @samp{TRUE} to turn free block merging on, and @samp{FALSE} to
turn it off.

@kwindex GDBM_GETCOALESCEBLKS
@item GDBM_GETCOALESCEBLKS
Return the current status of free block merging.  The @var{value} should
point to an @code{int} where the status will be stored.

@kwindex GDBM_SETMAXMAPSIZE
@item GDBM_SETMAXMAPSIZE
Sets maximum size of a memory mapped region.  The @var{value} should
point to a value of type @code{size_t}, @code{unsigned long} or
@code{unsigned}.  The actual value is rounded to the nearest page
boundary (the page size is obtained from
@code{sysconf(_SC_PAGESIZE)}).

@kwindex GDBM_GETMAXMAPSIZE
@item GDBM_GETMAXMAPSIZE
Return the maximum size of a memory mapped region.  The @var{value} should
point to a value of type @code{size_t} where to return the data.

@kwindex GDBM_SETMMAP
@item GDBM_SETMMAP
Enable or disable memory mapping mode.  The @var{value} should point
to an integer: @samp{TRUE} to enable memory mapping or @samp{FALSE} to
disable it.

@kwindex GDBM_GETMMAP
@item GDBM_GETMMAP
Check whether memory mapping is enabled.  The @var{value} should point
to an integer where to return the status.

@kwindex GDBM_GETDBNAME
@item GDBM_GETDBNAME
Return the name of the database disk file.  The @var{value} should
point to a variable of type @code{char**}.  A pointer to the newly
allocated copy of the file name will be placed there.  The caller is
responsible for freeing this memory when no longer needed.  For
example:

@example
char *name;

if (gdbm_setopt (dbf, GDBM_GETDBNAME, &name, sizeof (name)))
  @{
     fprintf (stderr, "gdbm_setopt failed: %s\n",
              gdbm_strerror (gdbm_errno));
  @}
else
  @{
    printf ("database name: %s\n", name);
    free (name);
  @}
@end example

@kwindex GDBM_GETBLOCKSIZE
@item GDBM_GETBLOCKSIZE
Return the block size in bytes.  The @var{value} should point to @code{int}.

@end table

The return value will be @samp{-1} upon failure, or @samp{0} upon
success.  The global variable @code{gdbm_errno} will be set upon failure.

For instance, to set a database to use a cache of 10, after opening it
with @code{gdbm_open}, but prior to accessing it in any way, the following
code could be used:

@example
@group
int value = 10;
ret = gdbm_setopt (dbf, GDBM_CACHESIZE, &value, sizeof (int));
@end group
@end example

@node Locking
@chapter File Locking.
@cindex locking

@kwindex GDBM_NOLOCK
With locking disabled (if @code{gdbm_open} was called with @samp{GDBM_NOLOCK}),
the user may want to perform their own file locking on the database file
in order to prevent multiple writers operating on the same file
simultaneously.

In order to support this, the @code{gdbm_fdesc} routine is provided.

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_fdesc (GDBM_FILE @var{dbf})
Returns the file descriptor of the database @var{dbf}.  This value
can be used as an argument to @code{flock}, @code{lockf} or similar
calls.
@end deftypefn

@node Variables
@chapter Useful global variables.

The following global variables and constants are available:

@deftypevar gdbm_error gdbm_errno
This variable contains error code from the last failed @code{gdbm}
call.  @xref{Error codes}, for a list of available error codes and
their descriptions.

Use @code{gdbm_strerror} (@pxref{Errors}) to convert it to a
descriptive text.
@end deftypevar

@deftypevar {const char *} gdbm_errlist[]
This variable is an array of error descriptions, which is used by
@code{gdbm_strerror} to convert error codes to human-readable text
(@pxref{Errors}).  You can access it directly, if you wish so.  It
contains @code{_GDBM_MAX_ERRNO + 1} elements and can be directly
indexed by the error code to obtain a corresponding descriptive
text.
@end deftypevar

@deftypevar {int const} gdbm_syserr[]
Array of boolean values indicating, for each GDBM error code, whether
the value of @code{errno}(3) variable is meaningful for this error
code.  @xref{gdbm_check_syserr}.
@end deftypevar

@defvr {Constant} _GDBM_MIN_ERRNO
The minimum error code used by @code{gdbm}.
@end defvr

@defvr {Constant} _GDBM_MAX_ERRNO
The maximum error code used by @code{gdbm}.
@end defvr

@cindex version number
@deftypevar {const char *} gdbm_version
A string containing the version information.
@end deftypevar

@deftypevar {int const} gdbm_version_number[3]
This variable contains the @code{gdbm} version numbers:

@multitable @columnfractions 0.4 0.5
@headitem Index @tab Meaning
@item 0         @tab Major number
@item 1         @tab Minor number
@item 2         @tab Patchlevel number
@end multitable

Additionally, the following constants are defined in the @file{gdbm.h}
file:

@table @asis
@kwindex GDBM_VERSION_MAJOR
@item GDBM_VERSION_MAJOR
Major number.

@kwindex GDBM_VERSION_MINOR
@item GDBM_VERSION_MINOR
Minor number.

@kwindex GDBM_VERSION_PATCH
@item GDBM_VERSION_PATCH
Patchlevel number.
@end table

These can be used to verify whether the header file matches the library.
@end deftypevar

To compare two split-out version numbers, use the following function:

@deftypefn {gdbm interface} int gdbm_version_cmp (int const @var{a}[3], @
                                                  int const @var{b}[3])
Compare two version numbers.  Return @samp{-1} if @var{a} is less than
@var{b}, @samp{1} if @var{a} is greater than @var{b} and @samp{0} if
they are equal.

Comparison is done from left to right, so that:

@example
a = @{ 1, 8, 3 @};
b = @{ 1, 8, 3 @};
gdbm_version_cmp (a, b) @result{} 0

a = @{ 1, 8, 3 @};
b = @{ 1, 8, 2 @};
gdbm_version_cmp (a, b) @result{} 1

a = @{ 1, 8, 3 @};
b = @{ 1, 9. 0 @};
gdbm_version_cmp (a, b) @result{} -1
@end example
@end deftypefn

@node Error codes
@chapter Error codes
@cindex error codes

This chapter summarizes error codes which can be set by the
functions in @code{gdbm} library.

@table @asis
@kwindex GDBM_NO_ERROR
@item GDBM_NO_ERROR
No error occurred.

@kwindex GDBM_MALLOC_ERROR
@item GDBM_MALLOC_ERROR
Memory allocation failed.  Not enough memory.

@kwindex GDBM_BLOCK_SIZE_ERROR
@kwindex GDBM_BSEXACT
@item GDBM_BLOCK_SIZE_ERROR
This error is set by the @code{gdbm_open} function (@pxref{Open}), if
the value of its @var{block_size} argument is incorrect and the
@samp{GDBM_BSEXACT} flag is set.

@kwindex GDBM_FILE_OPEN_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_OPEN_ERROR
The library was not able to open a disk file.  This can be set by
@code{gdbm_open} (@pxref{Open}), @code{gdbm_export} and
@code{gdbm_import} functions (@pxref{Flat files}).

Inspect the value of the system @code{errno} variable to get more
detailed diagnostics.

@kwindex GDBM_FILE_WRITE_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_WRITE_ERROR
Writing to a disk file failed.  This can be set by
@code{gdbm_open} (@pxref{Open}), @code{gdbm_export} and
@code{gdbm_import} functions.

Inspect the value of the system @code{errno} variable to get more
detailed diagnostics.

@kwindex GDBM_FILE_SEEK_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_SEEK_ERROR
Positioning in a disk file failed.  This can be set by
@code{gdbm_open} (@pxref{Open}) function.

Inspect the value of the system @code{errno} variable to get a more
detailed diagnostics.

@kwindex GDBM_FILE_READ_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_READ_ERROR
Reading from a disk file failed.  This can be set by
@code{gdbm_open} (@pxref{Open}), @code{gdbm_export} and
@code{gdbm_import} functions.

Inspect the value of the system @code{errno} variable to get a more
detailed diagnostics.

@kwindex GDBM_BAD_MAGIC_NUMBER
@item GDBM_BAD_MAGIC_NUMBER
The file given as argument to @code{gdbm_open} function is not a valid
@code{gdbm} file: it has a wrong magic number.

@kwindex GDBM_EMPTY_DATABASE
@item GDBM_EMPTY_DATABASE
The file given as argument to @code{gdbm_open} function is not a valid
@code{gdbm} file: it has zero length.

@kwindex GDBM_CANT_BE_READER
@item GDBM_CANT_BE_READER
This error code is set by the @code{gdbm_open} function if it is not
able to lock file when called in @samp{GDBM_READER} mode (@pxref{Open,
GDBM_READER}).

@kwindex GDBM_CANT_BE_WRITER
@item GDBM_CANT_BE_WRITER       
This error code is set by the @code{gdbm_open} function if it is not
able to lock file when called in writer mode (@pxref{Open}).

@kwindex GDBM_READER_CANT_DELETE
@item GDBM_READER_CANT_DELETE
Set by the @code{gdbm_delete} (@pxref{Delete}) if it attempted to
operate on a database that is open in read-only mode (@pxref{Open,
GDBM_READER}).

@kwindex GDBM_READER_CANT_STORE
@item GDBM_READER_CANT_STORE    
Set by the @code{gdbm_store} (@pxref{Store}) if it attempted to
operate on a database that is open in read-only mode (@pxref{Open,
GDBM_READER}).

@kwindex GDBM_READER_CANT_REORGANIZE
@item GDBM_READER_CANT_REORGANIZE       
Set by the @code{gdbm_reorganize} (@pxref{Reorganization}) if it attempted to
operate on a database that is open in read-only mode (@pxref{Open,
GDBM_READER}).

@kwindex GDBM_ITEM_NOT_FOUND
@item GDBM_ITEM_NOT_FOUND
Requested item was not found.  This error is set by @code{gdbm_delete}
(@pxref{Delete}) and @code{gdbm_fetch} (@pxref{Fetch}) when the requested
@var{key} value is not found in the database.

@kwindex GDBM_REORGANIZE_FAILED
@item GDBM_REORGANIZE_FAILED
The @code{gdbm_reorganize} function is not
able to create a temporary database.  @xref{Reorganization}.

@kwindex GDBM_CANNOT_REPLACE
@item GDBM_CANNOT_REPLACE
Cannot replace existing item.  This error is set by the
@code{gdbm_store} if the requested @var{key} value is found in the
database and the @var{flag} parameter is not @samp{GDBM_REPLACE}.
@xref{Store}, for a detailed discussion.

@kwindex GDBM_ILLEGAL_DATA
@item GDBM_ILLEGAL_DATA
Either @var{key} or @var{content} parameter was wrong in a call to
to @code{gdbm_store} (@pxref{Store}).

@kwindex GDBM_OPT_ALREADY_SET
@item GDBM_OPT_ALREADY_SET      
Requested option can be set only once and was already set.  This error
is returned by the @code{gdbm_setopt} function.  @xref{Options,
GDBM_CACHESIZE}.

@kwindex GDBM_OPT_ILLEGAL
@item GDBM_OPT_ILLEGAL
The @var{option} argument is not valid or the @var{value} argument
points to an invalid value in a call to @code{gdbm_setopt} function.
@xref{Options}.

@kwindex GDBM_BYTE_SWAPPED
@item GDBM_BYTE_SWAPPED
The @code{gdbm_open} function (@pxref{Open}) attempts to open a
database which is created on a machine with different byte ordering.

@kwindex GDBM_BAD_FILE_OFFSET
@item GDBM_BAD_FILE_OFFSET
The @code{gdbm_open} function (@pxref{Open}) sets this error code if
the file it tries to open has a wrong magic number.

@kwindex GDBM_BAD_OPEN_FLAGS
@item GDBM_BAD_OPEN_FLAGS
Set by the @code{gdbm_export} function if supplied an invalid
@var{flags} argument.  @xref{Flat files}.

@kwindex GDBM_FILE_STAT_ERROR
@item GDBM_FILE_STAT_ERROR
Getting information about a disk file failed.  The system @code{errno}
will give more details about the error.

This error can be set by the following functions: @code{gdbm_open},
@code{gdbm_reorganize}.

@kwindex GDBM_FILE_EOF
@item GDBM_FILE_EOF
End of file was encountered where more data was expected to be
present.  This error can occur when fetching data from the database
and usually means that the database is truncated or otherwise corrupted.

This error can be set by any GDBM function that does I/O.  Some of
these functions are: @code{gdbm_delete}, @code{gdbm_exists},
@code{gdbm_fetch}, @code{gdbm_export}, @code{gdbm_import},
@code{gdbm_reorganize}, @code{gdbm_firstkey}, @code{gdbm_nextkey},
@code{gdbm_store}. 

@kwindex GDBM_NO_DBNAME
@item GDBM_NO_DBNAME
Output database name is not specified.  This error code is set by
@code{gdbm_load} (@pxref{gdbm_load function,,gdbm_load}) if the first
argument points to @samp{NULL} and the input file does not specify the
database name.

@kwindex GDBM_ERR_FILE_OWNER
@item GDBM_ERR_FILE_OWNER
This error code is set by @code{gdbm_load} if it is unable to restore
database file owner.  It is a mild error condition, meaning that the
data have been restored successfully, only changing the target file
owner failed.  Inspect the system @code{errno} variable to get a more
detailed diagnostics.

@kwindex GDBM_ERR_FILE_MODE
@item GDBM_ERR_FILE_MODE
This error code is set by @code{gdbm_load} if it is unable to restore
database file mode.  It is a mild error condition, meaning that the data
have been restored successfully, only changing the target file owner
failed.  Inspect the system @code{errno} variable to get a more
detailed diagnostics.

@kwindex GDBM_NEED_RECOVERY
@item GDBM_NEED_RECOVERY
Database is in inconsistent state and needs recovery.  Call
@code{gdbm_recover} if you get this error.  @xref{Recovery}, for a
detailed description of recovery functions.

@kwindex GDBM_BACKUP_FAILED
@item GDBM_BACKUP_FAILED
The GDBM engine is unable to create backup copy of the file.

@kwindex GDBM_DIR_OVERFLOW
@item GDBM_DIR_OVERFLOW
Bucket directory would overflow the size limit during an attempt to split
hash bucket.  This error can occur while storing a new key. 
@end table

@node Compatibility
@chapter Compatibility with standard @code{dbm} and @code{ndbm}.

@cindex compatibility layer
@code{Gdbm} includes a compatibility layer, which provides traditional
@samp{ndbm} and older @samp{dbm} functions.  The layer is compiled and
installed if the @option{--enable-libgdbm-compat} option is used when
configuring the package.

@findex ndbm.h
@findex dbm.h
@findex libgdbm_compat
The compatibility layer consists of two header files: @file{ndbm.h}
and @file{dbm.h} and the @file{libgdbm_compat} library.

Older programs using @code{ndbm} or @code{dbm} interfaces can
use @file{libgdbm_compat} without any changes.  To link a program with
the compatibility library, add the following two options to the
@command{cc} invocation: @option{-lgdbm -lgdbm_compat}.  The @option{-L}
option may also be required, depending on where @code{gdbm} is
installed, e.g.:

@example
cc ... -lgdbm -lgdbm_compat
@end example

@cindex @samp{dir} file
@cindex @samp{pag} file
Databases created and manipulated by the compatibility interfaces
consist of two different files: @file{@var{file}.dir} and
@file{@var{file}.pag}.  This is required by the @acronym{POSIX}
specification and corresponds to the traditional usage.  Note,
however, that despite the similarity of the naming convention,
actual data stored in these files has not the same format as
in the databases created by other @code{dbm} or @code{ndbm}
libraries.  In other words, you cannot access a standard UNIX
@code{dbm} file with GNU @code{dbm}!

GNU @code{dbm} files are not @code{sparse}.  You can copy them with
the usual @code{cp} command and they will not expand in the copying
process.

@menu
* ndbm::  NDBM interface functions.
* dbm::   DBM interface functions.
@end menu

@node ndbm
@section NDBM interface functions.
@cindex NDBM functions

The functions below implement the @acronym{POSIX} @samp{ndbm} interface:

@deftypefn {ndbm} {DBM *} dbm_open (char *@var{file}, int @var{flags}, int @var{mode})
Opens a database.  The @var{file} argument is the full name of the
database file to be opened.  The function opens two files:
@file{@var{file}.pag} and @file{@var{file}.dir}.  The @var{flags} and
@var{mode} arguments have the same meaning as the second and third
arguments of 
@ifhtml
@uref{http://www.manpagez.com/man/2/open,,open(2)},
@end ifhtml
@ifnothtml
@code{open} (@pxref{open,,open a file,open(2), open(2) man page}),
@end ifnothtml
except that a database opened for write-only access opens the files
for read and write access and the behavior of the @code{O_APPEND} flag is
unspecified.

The function returns a pointer to the @code{DBM} structure describing
the database.  This pointer is used to refer to this database in all
operations described below.

Any error detected will cause a return value of @samp{NULL} and an
appropriate value will be stored in @code{gdbm_errno}
(@pxref{Variables}).
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} void dbm_close (DBM *@var{dbf})
Closes the database.  The @var{dbf} argument must be a pointer
returned by an earlier call to @code{dbm_open}.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} datum dbm_fetch (DBM *@var{dbf}, datum @var{key})
Reads a record from the database with the matching key.  The @var{key}
argument supplies the key that is being looked for.

If no matching record is found, the @code{dptr} member of the returned
datum is @samp{NULL}.  Otherwise, the @code{dptr} member of the
returned datum points to the memory managed by the compatibility
library.  The application should never free it.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} int dbm_store (DBM *@var{dbf}, datum @var{key}, @
                                 datum @var{content}, int @var{mode})
Writes a key/value pair to the database.  The argument @var{dbf} is a
pointer to the @code{DBM} structure returned from a call to
@code{dbm_open}.  The @var{key} and @var{content} provide the values
for the record key and content.  The @var{mode} argument controls
the behavior of @code{dbm_store} in case a matching record already
exists in the database.  It can have one of the following two values:

@table @code
@kwindex DBM_REPLACE
@item DBM_REPLACE
Replace existing record with the new one.

@kwindex DBM_INSERT
@item DBM_INSERT
The existing record is left unchanged, and the function returns
@samp{1}.
@end table

If no matching record exists in the database, new record will be
inserted no matter what the value of the @var{mode} is.
@end deftypefn
                                 
@deftypefn {ndbm} int dbm_delete (DBM *@var{dbf}, datum @var{key})
Deletes the record with the matching key from the database.  If the
function succeeds, @samp{0} is returned.  Otherwise, if no matching
record is found or if an error occurs, @samp{-1} is returned.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} datum dbm_firstkey (DBM *@var{dbf})
Initializes iteration over the keys from the database and returns
the first key.  Note, that the word @samp{first} does not imply any
specific ordering of the keys.

If there are no records in the database, the @code{dptr} member of the
returned datum is @samp{NULL}.  Otherwise, the @code{dptr} member of
the returned datum points to the memory managed by the compatibility
library.  The application should never free it.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} datum dbm_nextkey (DBM *@var{dbf})
Continues the iteration started by @code{dbm_firstkey}.  Returns the
next key in the database.  If the iteration covered all keys in the
database, the @code{dptr} member of the returned datum is @samp{NULL}.
Otherwise, the @code{dptr} member of the returned datum points to the
memory managed by the compatibility library.  The application should
never free it.

@cindex sequential access, using @samp{NDBM}
@cindex iteration loop, using @samp{NDBM}
The usual way of iterating over all the records in the database is:

@example
for (key = dbm_firstkey (dbf);
     key.ptr;
     key = dbm_nextkey (dbf))
  @{
    /* do something with the key */
  @}
@end example

The loop above should not try to delete any records from the database,
otherwise the iteration is not guaranteed to cover all the keys.
@xref{Sequential}, for a detailed discussion of this.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} int dbm_error (DBM *@var{dbf})
Returns the error condition of the database: @samp{0} if no errors
occurred so far while manipulating the database, and a non-zero value
otherwise.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} void dbm_clearerr (DBM *@var{dbf})
Clears the error condition of the database.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} int dbm_dirfno (DBM *@var{dbf})
Returns the file descriptor of the @samp{dir} file of the database.
It is guaranteed to be different from the descriptor returned by
the @code{dbm_pagfno} function (see below).

The application can lock this descriptor to serialize accesses to the
database.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} int dbm_pagfno (DBM *@var{dbf})
Returns the file descriptor of the @samp{pag} file of the database.
See also @code{dbm_dirfno}.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {ndbm} int dbm_rdonly (DBM *@var{dbf})
Returns @samp{1} if the database @var{dbf} is open in a read-only mode
and @samp{0} otherwise.
@end deftypefn

@node dbm
@section DBM interface functions.
@cindex DBM functions

The functions below are provided for compatibility with the old
UNIX @samp{DBM} interface.  Only one database at a time can be
manipulated using them.

@deftypefn {dbm} int dbminit (char *@var{file})
Opens a database.  The @var{file} argument is the full name of the
database file to be opened.  The function opens two files:
@file{@var{file}.pag} and @file{@var{file}.dir}.  If any of
them does not exist, the function fails.  It never attempts to create
the files.

The database is opened in the read-write mode, if its disk permissions
permit.

The application must ensure that the functions described below in
this section are called only after a successful call to @code{dbminit}.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {dbm} int dbmclose (void)
Closes the database opened by an earlier call to @code{dbminit}.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {dbm} datum fetch (datum @var{key})
Reads a record from the database with the matching key.  The @var{key}
argument supplies the key that is being looked for.

If no matching record is found, the @code{dptr} member of the returned
datum is @samp{NULL}.  Otherwise, the @code{dptr} member of the
returned datum points to the memory managed by the compatibility
library.  The application should never free it.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {dbm} int store (datum @var{key}, datum @var{content})
Stores the key/value pair in the database.  If a record with the
matching key already exists, its content will be replaced with the new
one.

Returns @samp{0} on success and @samp{-1} on error.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {dbm} int delete (datum @var{key})
Deletes a record with the matching key. 

If the function succeeds, @samp{0} is returned.  Otherwise, if no
matching record is found or if an error occurs, @samp{-1} is
returned.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {dbm} datum firstkey (void)
Initializes iteration over the keys from the database and returns
the first key.  Note, that the word @samp{first} does not imply any
specific ordering of the keys.

If there are no records in the database, the @code{dptr} member of the
returned datum is @samp{NULL}.  Otherwise, the @code{dptr} member of
the returned datum points to the memory managed by the compatibility
library.  The application should never free it.
@end deftypefn

@deftypefn {dbm} datum nextkey (datum @var{key})
Continues the iteration started by a call to @code{firstkey}.  Returns
the next key in the database.  If the iteration covered all keys in the
database, the @code{dptr} member of the returned datum is @samp{NULL}.
Otherwise, the @code{dptr} member of the returned datum points to the
memory managed by the compatibility library.  The application should
never free it.
@end deftypefn

@node gdbmtool
@chapter Examine and modify a GDBM database.
@prindex gdbmtool

The @command{gdbmtool} utility allows you to view and modify an
existing @acronym{GDBM} database or to create a new one.

@cindex default database, @command{gdbmtool} 
@flindex junk.gdbm
When invoked without arguments, it tries to open a database file called
@file{junk.gdbm}, located in the current working directory.  You can
change this default by supplying the name of the database as
argument to the program, e.g.:

@example
$ gdbmtool file.db
@end example

@cindex read-only mode, @command{gdbmtool}
@cindex @option{-r}, @command{gdbmtool} option
@cindex @option{--read-only}, @command{gdbmtool} option
The database will be opened in read-write mode, unless the
@option{-r} (@option{--read-only}) option is specified, in which case
it will be opened only for reading.

@cindex creating a database, @command{gdbmtool}
@cindex @option{-n}, @command{gdbmtool} option
@cindex @option{--newdb}, @command{gdbmtool} option
If the database does not exist, @command{gdbmtool} will create it.
There is a special option @option{-n} (@option{--newdb}, which
instructs the utility to create a new database.  If it is used and if
the database already exists, it will be deleted, so use it sparingly.

@menu
* invocation::
* shell::
@end menu

@node invocation
@section gdbmtool invocation
@cindex command line options, @command{gdbmtool}

When started without additional arguments, @command{gdbmtool} operates
on the default database @file{junk.gdbm}. Otherwise, the first
argument supplies the name of the database to operate upon. If neither
any additional arguments nor the @option{-f} (@option{--file}) option
are given, @command{gdbmtool} opens starts interactive shell and
receives commands directly from the human operator.

If more than one arguments are given, all arguments past the database
name are parsed as @command{gdbmtool} commands (@pxref{shell}, for a
description of available commands) and executed in turn. All commands,
except the last one, should be terminated with semicolons. Semicolon
after the last command is optional. Note, that semicolons should be
escaped in order to prevent them from being interpreted by the shell.

Finally, if the @option{-f} (@option{--file}) option is supplied, its
argument specifies the name of the disk file with @command{gdbmtool}
script. The program will open that file and read commands from it.

The following table summarizes all @command{gdbmtool} command line
options:

@table @option
@item -b @var{size}
@itemx --block-size=@var{size}
Set block size.
@item -c @var{size}
@itemx --cache-size=@var{size}
Set cache size.
@item -f @var{file}
@item --file @var{file}
Read commands from @var{file}, instead of the standard input.
@item -h
@itemx --help
Print a concise help summary.
@item -N
@itemx --norc
Don't read startup files (@pxref{startup files}).
@item -n
@itemx --newdb
Create the database.
@item -l
@itemx --no-lock
Disable file locking.
@item -m
@itemx --no-mmap
Disable mmap.
@anchor{-q option}
@item -q
@itemx --quiet
Don't print the usual welcome banner at startup.  This is the same as
setting the variable @samp{quiet} in the startup file.  @xref{quiet}.
@item -r
@itemx --read-only
Open the database in read-only mode.
@item -s
@itemx --synchronize
Synchronize to the disk after each write.
@item -V
@itemx --version
Print program version and licensing information and exit.
@item --usage
Print a terse invocation syntax summary along with a list of available
command line options.
@end table

@node shell
@section gdbmtool interactive mode
@cindex interactive mode, @command{gdbmtool}

After successful startup, @command{gdbmtool} starts a loop, in which
it reads commands from the standard input, executes them and prints
results on the standard output.  If the standard input is attached
to a console, @command{gdbmtool} runs in interactive mode, which is
indicated by its @dfn{prompt}:

@example
gdbmtool> _
@end example

The utility finishes when it reads the @samp{quit} command (see below) or
detects end-of-file on its standard input, whichever occurs first.

A @command{gdbmtool} command consists of a @dfn{command verb},
optionally followed by @dfn{arguments}, separated by any
amount of white space and terminated with a newline or semicolon.
A command verb can be entered either in full or in an abbreviated
form, as long as that abbreviation does not match any other verb.  For
example, @samp{co} can be used instead of @samp{count} and @samp{ca}
instead of @samp{cache}.

Any sequence of non-whitespace characters appearing after the command
verb forms an argument.  If the argument contains whitespace or
unprintable characters it must be enclosed in double quotes.  Within
double quotes the usual @dfn{escape sequences} are understood, as
shown in the table below:

@float Table, backslash-interpretation
@caption{Backslash escapes}
@multitable @columnfractions 0.30 .5
@item Sequence @tab Replaced with
@item \a @tab Audible bell character (@acronym{ASCII} 7)
@item \b @tab Backspace character (@acronym{ASCII} 8)
@item \f @tab Form-feed character (@acronym{ASCII} 12)
@item \n @tab Newline character (@acronym{ASCII} 10)
@item \r @tab Carriage return character (@acronym{ASCII} 13)
@item \t @tab Horizontal tabulation character (@acronym{ASCII} 9)
@item \v @tab Vertical tabulation character (@acronym{ASCII} 11)
@item \\ @tab Single slash
@item \" @tab Double quote
@end multitable
@end float

In addition, a backslash immediately followed by the end-of-line
character effectively removes that character, allowing to split long
arguments over several input lines.

Command parameters may be optional or mandatory.  If the number of
actual arguments is less than the number of mandatory parameters,
@command{gdbmtool} will prompt you to supply missing arguments.  For
example, the @samp{store} command takes two mandatory parameters, so
if you invoked it with no arguments, you would be prompted twice to
supply the necessary data, as shown in  example below:

@example
gdbmtool> @kbd{store}
key? @kbd{three}
data? @kbd{3}
@end example

However, such prompting is possible only in interactive mode.  In
non-interactive mode (e.g.@: when running a script), all arguments must
be supplied with each command, otherwise @command{gdbmtool} will report an
error and exit immediately.

@cindex readline
@cindex GNU Readline
If the package is compiled with GNU Readline, the input line can be
edited (@pxref{Command Line Editing, ,
Command Line Editing, readline, GNU Readline Library}).

@menu
* variables::      shell variables.
* commands::       shell commands.
* definitions::    how to define structured data.
* startup files::
@end menu

@node variables
@subsection Shell Variables
@cindex variables, gdbmtool
A number of @command{gdbmtool} parameters is kept in its internal
variables.

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} bool confirm
Whether to ask for confirmation before certain destructive operations,
such as truncating the existing database.

Default is @samp{true}.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} string ps1
Primary prompt string.  Its value can contain @dfn{conversion
specifiers}, consisting of the @samp{%} character followed by another
character.  These specifiers are expanded in the resulting prompt as
follows: 

@multitable @columnfractions 0.4 0.5
@headitem Sequence @tab Expansion
@item %f @tab name of the current database file
@item %p @tab program invocation name
@item %P @tab package name (@samp{GDBM})
@item %v @tab program version
@item %_ @tab single space character
@item %% @tab %
@end multitable

The default value is @samp{%p>%_}, i.e. the program name, followed by
a ``greater than'' sign, followed by a single space.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} string ps2
Secondary prompt.  See @samp{ps1} for a description of its value.
This prompt is displayed before reading the second and subsequent
lines of a multi-line command.

The default value is @samp{%_>%_}.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} string delim1
A string used to delimit fields of a structured datum on output
(@pxref{definitions}).

Default is @samp{,} (a comma).  This variable cannot be unset.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} string delim2
A string used to delimit array items when printing a structured datum
(@pxref{definitions}).

Default is @samp{,} (a comma).  This variable cannot be unset.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} string pager
The name and command line of the pager program to pipe output to.
This program is used in interactive mode when the estimated number of
output lines is greater then the number of lines on your screen.

The default value is inherited from the environment variable
@env{PAGER}.  Unsetting this variable disables paging.
@end deftypevr

@anchor{quiet}
@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} bool quiet
Whether to display a welcome banner at startup.  This variable should
be set in a startup script file (@pxref{startup files}).
@xref{-q option}.
@end deftypevr

@anchor{open parameters}
The following variables control how the database is opened:

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} numeric blocksize
Sets the block size.  @xref{Open, block_size}.  Unset by default.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} numeric cachesize
Sets the cache size.  @xref{Options, GDBM_SETCACHESIZE}.
By default this variable is not set.
@end deftypevr

@anchor{openvar}
@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} string open
Open mode.  The following values are allowed:

@table @asis
@item newdb
Truncate the database if it exists or create a new one.  Open it in
read-write mode.

Technically, this sets the @samp{GDBM_NEWDB} flag in call to @samp{gdbm_open}.
@xref{Open, GDBM_NEWDB}.
@item wrcreat
@itemx rw
Open the database in read-write mode.  Create it if it does not
exist.  This is the default.

Technically speaking, it sets the @samp{GDBM_WRCREAT} flag in call to
@code{gdbm_open}.  @xref{Open, GDBM_WRCREAT}.
@item reader
@itemx readonly
Open the database in read-only mode.  Signal an error if it does not
exist.

This sets the @samp{GDBM_READER} flag (@pxref{Open, GDBM_READER}).
@end table

Attempting to set any other value or to unset this variable produces
an error.
@end deftypevr

@anchor{filemode}
@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} number filemode
File mode (in octal) for creating new database files and database
dumps.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} bool lock
Lock the database.  This is the default.

Setting this variable to false or unsetting it results in passing
@samp{GDBM_NOLOCK} flag to @code{gdbm_open} (@pxref{Open, GDBM_NOLOCK}).
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} bool mmap
Use memory mapping.  This is the default.

Setting this variable to false or unsetting it results in passing
@samp{GDBM_NOMMAP} flag to @code{gdbm_open} (@pxref{Open, GDBM_NOMMAP}).
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} bool sync
Flush all database writes on disk immediately.  Default is false.
@xref{Open, GDBM_SYNC}.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} bool coalesce
Enables the @emph{coalesce} mode, i.e. merging of the freed blocks of
GDBM files with entries in available block lists. This provides for
effective memory management at the cost of slight increase in
execution time when calling @code{gdbm_delete}. @xref{Options,
GDBM_SETCOALESCEBLKS}.

This variable affects the @command{open} command and should be set
before invoking it.
@end deftypevr

@deftypevr {gdbmtool variable} bool centfree
Set to @samp{true}, enables the use of central free block pool in
newly opened databases. @xref{Options, GDBM_SETCENTFREE}.

This variable affects the @command{open} command and should be set
before invoking it.
@end deftypevr

The following commands are used to list or modify the variables:

@deffn {command verb} set [@var{assignments}]
When used without arguments, lists all variables and their values.
Unset variables are shown after a comment sign (@samp{#}).  For string
and numeric variables, values are shown after an equals sign.  For
boolean variables, only the variable name is displayed if the variable
is @samp{true}.  If it is @samp{false}, its name is prefixed with
@samp{no}. 

For example:

@example
@group
ps1="%p>%_"
ps2="%_>%_"
delim1=","
delim2=","
confirm
# cachesize is unset
# blocksize is unset
open="wrcreat"
lock
mmap
nosync
pager="less"
# quiet is unset
@end group
@end example

If used with arguments, the @code{set} command alters the specified
variables.  In this case, arguments are variable assignments in the
form @samp{@var{name}=@var{value}}.  For boolean variables, the
@var{value} is interpreted as follows: if it is numeric, @samp{0}
stands for @samp{false}, any non-zero value stands for @samp{true}.
Otherwise, the values @samp{on}, @samp{true}, and @samp{yes} denote
@samp{true}, and @samp{off}, @samp{false}, @samp{no} stand for
@samp{false}.  Alternatively, only the name of a boolean variable can be
supplied to set it to @samp{true}, and its name prefixed with
@samp{no} can be used to set it to false.  For example, the following
command sets the @samp{delim2} variable to @samp{;} and the
@samp{confirm} variable to @samp{false}:

@example
set delim2=";" noconfirm
@end example
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} unset @var{variables}
Unsets the listed variables.  The effect of unsetting depends on the
variable.  Unless explicitly described in the discussion of the
variables above, unsetting a boolean variable is equivalent to setting it to
@samp{false}.  Unsetting a string variable is equivalent to assigning it
an empty string.
@end deffn

@node commands
@subsection Gdbmtool Commands

@deffn {command verb} avail
Print the @dfn{avail list}.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} bucket @var{num}
Print the bucket number @var{num} and set it as the current one.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} cache
Print the bucket cache.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} close
Close the currently open database.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} count
Print the number of entries in the database.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} current
Print the current bucket.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} debug [[+-]@var{token}...]
If @command{GDBM} is configured with additional debugging, this
statement queries or sets @command{GDBM} internal debugging level.
This is intended for debugging and testing purposes and requires
good knowledge of @command{GDBM} internals. The use of this command is
not recommended.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} delete @var{key}
Delete record with the given @var{key}
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} dir
Print hash directory.
@end deffn

@anchor{gdbmtool export}
@deffn {command verb} export @var{file-name} [truncate] [binary|ascii]
Export the database to the flat file @var{file-name}.  @xref{Flat files},
for a description of the flat file format and its purposes.  This
command will not overwrite an existing file, unless the
@samp{truncate} parameter is also given.  Another optional argument
determines the type of the dump (@pxref{Flat files}).  By default, ASCII
dump is created.

The global variable @code{filemode} specifies the permissions to use
for the created output file.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} fetch @var{key}
Fetch and display the record with the given @var{key}.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} first
Fetch and display the first record in the database.  Subsequent
records can be fetched using the @code{next} command (see below). 
@xref{Sequential}, for more information on sequential access.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} hash @var{key}
Compute and display the hash value for the given @var{key}.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} header
Print file header.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} help
@deffnx {command verb} ?
Print a concise command summary, showing each command verb
with its parameters and a short description of what it does.  Optional
arguments are enclosed in square brackets.
@end deffn

@anchor{gdbmtool import}
@deffn {command verb} import @var{file-name} [replace] [nometa]
Import data from a flat dump file @var{file-name}
(@pxref{Flat files}).  If the word @samp{replace} is given
as an argument, any records with the same keys as the already
existing ones will replace them.  The word @samp{nometa} turns off
restoring meta-information from the dump file.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} history
@deffnx {command verb} history @var{count}
@deffnx {command verb} history @var{n} @var{count}
Shows the command history list with line numbers.  When used without
arguments, shows entire history.  When used with one argument,
displays @var{count} last commands from the history.  With two
arguments, displays @var{count} commands starting from @var{n}th
command.  Command numbering starts with 1.

This command is available only if GDBM was compiled with GNU Readline.
The history is saved in file @file{.gdbmtool_history} in the user's
home directory.  If this file exists upon startup, it is read to
populate the history.  Thus, command history is preserved between
@command{gdbmtool} invocations.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} list
List the contents of the database.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} next [@var{key}]
Sequential access: fetch and display the next record.  If the @var{key} is
given, the record following the one with this key will be fetched.

Issuing several @code{next} commands in row is rather common.  A
shortcut is provided to facilitate such use: if the last entered
command was @command{next}, hitting the @kbd{Enter} key repeats it
without arguments.

See also @code{first}, above.

@xref{Sequential}, for more information on sequential access.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} open @var{filename}
Open the database file @var{filename}.  If successful, any previously
open database is closed.  Otherwise, if the operation fails, the
currently opened database remains unchanged.

This command takes additional information from the following
variables:

@table @samp
@item open
The database access mode.  @xref{openvar,, The @var{open} variable},
for a list of its values.
@item lock
Whether or not to lock the database.  Default is @samp{on}.
@item mmap
Use the memory mapping.  Default is @samp{on}.
@item sync
Synchronize after each write.  Default is @samp{off}.
@item filemode
Specifies the permissions to use in case a new file is created.
@end table

@xref{open parameters}, for a detailed description of these variables.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} quit
Close the database and quit the utility.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} recover [@var{options}]
Run database recovery. The following @var{options} are understood:

@table @option
@item backup
Create a backup copy of the original database.

@item max-failed-buckets=@var{n}
Abort recovery process if @var{n} buckets could not be recovered.

@item max-failed-keys=@var{n}
Abort recovery process if @var{n} keys could not be recovered.

@item max-failures=@var{n}
Abort recovery process after @var{n} failures. A @dfn{failure} in this
context is either a key or a bucket that failed to be recovered.

@item summary
Print the recovery statistics at the end of the run. The statistics
includes number of successfully recovered, failed and duplicate keys
and the number of recovered and failed buckets.

@item verbose
Verbosely list each error encountered.
@end table
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} reorganize
Reorganize the database (@pxref{Reorganization}).
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} source @var{filename}
Read @command{gdbmtool} commands from the file @var{filename}.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} status
Print current program status.  The following example shows the
information displayed:

@example
Database file: junk.gdbm
Database is open
define key string
define content string
@end example

The two @samp{define} strings show the defined formats for key and
content data.  @xref{definitions}, for a detailed discussion of their
meaning.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} store @var{key} @var{data}
Store the @var{data} with @var{key} in the database.  If @var{key}
already exists, its data will be replaced.
@end deffn

@deffn {command verb} version
Print the version of @command{gdbm}.
@end deffn

@node definitions
@subsection Data Definitions
GDBM databases are able to keep data of any type, both in the key and
in the content part of a record.  Quite often these data are
structured, i.e. they consist of several fields of various types.
@command{Gdbmtool} provides a mechanism for handling such kind of
records.

The @code{define} command defines a record structure.  The general
syntax is:

@example
define @var{what} @var{definition}
@end example

@noindent
where @var{what} is @samp{key} to defining the structure of key data and
@samp{content} to define the structure of the content records.

The @var{definition} can be of two distinct formats.  In the simplest
case it is a single data type.  For example,

@example
define content int
@end example

@noindent
defines content records consisting of a single integer field.
Supported data types are:

@table @asis
@item char
Single byte (signed).
@item short
Signed short integer.
@item ushort
Unsigned short integer.
@item int
Signed integer.
@item unsigned
@itemx uint
Unsigned integer.
@item long
Signed long integer.
@item ulong
Unsigned long integer.
@item llong
Signed long long integer.
@item ullong
Unsigned long long integer.
@item float
A floating point number.
@item double
Double-precision floating point number.
@item string
Array of bytes.
@item stringz
Null-terminated string, trailing null being part of the string.
@end table

All numeric data types (integer as well as floating point) have the
same respective widths as in C language on the host where the database
file resides.

The @samp{string} and @samp{stringz} are special.  Both define a
string of bytes, similar to @samp{char x[]} in C.  The former
defines an array of bytes, the latter - a null-terminated string.
This makes a difference, in particular, when the string is the only
part of datum.  Consider the following two definitions:

@enumerate 1
@item @code{define key string}
@item @code{define key stringz}
@end enumerate

@noindent
Now, suppose we want to store the string "ab" in the key.  Using the
definition (1), the @code{dptr} member of GDBM @code{datum} will
contain two bytes: @samp{a}, and @samp{b}.  Consequently, the
@code{dsize} member will have the value 2.  Using the definition (2),
the @code{dptr} member will contain three bytes: @samp{a}, @samp{b},
and ASCII 0.  The @code{dsize} member will have the value 3.

The definition (1) is the default for both key and content.

The second form of the @code{define} statement is similar to the C
@code{struct} statement and allows for defining structural data.   In
this form, the @var{definition} part is a comma-separated list of data
types and variables enclosed in curly braces.  In contrast to the
rest of @command{gdbm} commands, this command is inherently
multiline and is terminated with the closing curly brace.  For
example:

@example
define content @{
        int status,
        pad 8,
        char id[3],
        string name
@}        
@end example

@noindent
This defines a structure consisting of three members: an integer
@code{status}, an array of 8 bytes @code{id}, and a null-terminated
string @code{name}.  Notice the @code{pad} statement: it allows to
introduce padding between structure members.  Another useful statement
is @code{offset}: it specifies that the member following it begins at
the given offset in the structure.  Assuming the size of @code{int} is
8 bytes, the above definition can also be written as

@example
define content @{
        int status,
        offset 16,
        char id[3],
        string name
@}        
@end example

@emph{NOTE}: The @samp{string} type can reasonably be used only if it
is the last or the only member of the data structure.  That's because it
provides no information about the number of elements in the array, so
it is interpreted to contain all bytes up to the end of the datum.

When displaying the structured data, @command{gdbmtool} precedes each
value with the corresponding field name and delimits parts of the
structure with the string defined in the @samp{delim1} variable
(@pxref{variables}).  Array elements are delimited using the string from
@samp{delim2}.  For example:

@example
gdbmtool> fetch foo
status=2,id=@{ a, u, x @},name="quux"
@end example

To supply a structured datum as an argument to a @command{gdbmtool}
command, use the same notation, but without field names, e.g.:

@example
gdbmtool> hash @{ 2, @{a,u,x@}, "quux" @}
hash value = 13089969.
@end example

@node startup files
@subsection Startup Files
@cindex startup file, gdbmtool
@cindex init file, gdbmtool
@flindex .gdbmtoolrc
Upon startup @command{gdbmtool} looks for a file named
@samp{.gdbmtoolrc} first in the current working directory and, if not
found, in the home directory of the user who started the command.

If found, this file is read and interpreted as a list of
@command{gdbmtool} commands.  This allows you to customize the
program behavior.

Following is an example startup file which disables the welcome
banner, sets command line prompt to contain the name of the database
file in parentheses and defines the structure of the database content
records:

@example
@group
set quiet
set ps1="(%f) "
define key stringz
define content @{
        int time,
        pad 4,
        int status
@}
@end group
@end example

@node gdbm_dump
@chapter The @command{gdbm_dump} utility
@prindex gdbm_dump

The @command{gdbm_dump} utility creates a flat file dump of a GDBM
database (@pxref{Flat files}).  It takes one mandatory argument: the
name of the source database file.  The second argument, if given,
specifies the name of the output file.  If not given,
@command{gdbm_dump} will produce the dump on the standard output.

For example, the following invocation creates a dump of the database
@file{file.db} in the file @file{file.dump}:

@example
$ gdbm_dump file.db file.dump
@end example

By default the utility creates dumps in ASCII format (@pxref{Flat
files,ASCII}).  Another format can be requested using the
@option{--format} (@option{-H}) option.

The @command{gdbm_dump} utility understands the following command line
options:

@table @option
@item -H @var{fmt}
@itemx --format=@var{fmt}
Select output format.  Valid values for @var{fmt} are: @samp{binary}
or @samp{0} to select binary dump format, and @samp{ascii} or @samp{1}
to select ASCII format.

@item -h
@itemx --help
Print a concise help summary.

@item -V
@itemx --version
Print program version and licensing information and exit.

@item --usage
Print a terse invocation syntax summary along with a list of available
command line options.
@end table

@node gdbm_load
@chapter The @command{gdbm_load} utility
@prindex gdbm_load

The @command{gdbm_load} utility restores a GDBM database from a flat
file.  The utility requires at least one argument: the name of the
input flat file.  If it is @samp{-}, the standard input will be read.
The format of the input file is detected automatically.

By default the utility attempts to restore the database under its
original name, as stored in the input file.  It will fail to do so if
the input is in binary format.  In that case, the name of the database
must be given as the second argument.

In general, if two arguments are given the second one is treated as
the name of the database to create, overriding the file name specified
in the flat file.

The utility understands the following command line arguments:

@table @option

@item -b @var{num}
@itemx --block-size=@var{num}
Sets block size.  @xref{Open, block_size}.

@item -c @var{num}
@itemx --cache-size=@var{num}
Sets cache size.  @xref{Options, GDBM_SETCACHESIZE}.

@item -M
@itemx --mmap
Use memory mapping.

@item -m @var{mode}
@item --mode=@var{mode}
Sets the file mode.  The argument is the desired file mode in octal.

@item -n
@itemx --no-meta
Do not restore file meta-data (ownership and mode) from the flat file.

@item -r
@itemx --replace
Replace existing keys.

@item -u @var{user}[:@var{group}]
@itemx --user=@var{user}[:@var{group}]
Set file owner.  The @var{user} can be either a valid user name or
UID.  Similarly, the @var{group} is either a valid group name or GID.
If @var{group} is not given, the main group of @var{user} is used.

User and group parts can be separated by a dot, instead of the colon.
                                    
@item -h
@itemx --help
Print a concise help summary.

@item -V
@itemx --version
Print program version and licensing information and exit.

@item --usage
Print a terse invocation syntax summary along with a list of available
command line options.
@end table

@node Exit codes
@chapter Exit codes
@cindex exit code

All GDBM utilities return uniform exit codes.  These are summarized in
the table below:

@multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7
@headitem Code @tab Meaning
@item 0 @tab Successful termination.
@item 1 @tab A fatal error occurred.
@item 2 @tab Program was unable to restore file ownership or mode.
@item 3 @tab Command line usage error.
@end multitable

@node Bugs
@chapter Problems and bugs.

If you have problems with GNU @code{dbm} or think you've found a bug,
please report it.  Before reporting a bug, make sure you've actually
found a real bug.  Carefully reread the documentation and see if it
really says you can do what you're trying to do.  If it's not clear
whether you should be able to do something or not, report that too; it's
a bug in the documentation!

Before reporting a bug or trying to fix it yourself, try to isolate it
to the smallest possible input file that reproduces the problem.  Then
send us the input file and the exact results @code{gdbm} gave you.  Also
say what you expected to occur; this will help us decide whether the
problem was really in the documentation.

Once you've got a precise problem, send e-mail to
@email{bug-gdbm@@gnu.org}.

Please include the version number of GNU @code{dbm} you are using.  You can get
this information by printing the variable @code{gdbm_version}
(@pxref{Variables}).

Non-bug suggestions are always welcome as well.  If you have questions
about things that are unclear in the documentation or are just obscure
features, please report them too.

You may contact the authors and maintainers by e-mail:
@example
@email{phil@@cs.wwu.edu}, @email{downsj@@downsj.com}, @email{gray@@gnu.org.ua}
@end example

@node Resources
@chapter Additional resources

For the latest updates and pointers to additional resources, visit
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/@/software/@/gdbm}.

In particular, a copy of @code{gdbm} documentation in various formats
is available online at @uref{http://www.gnu.org/@/software/@/gdbm/@/manual.html}.

Latest versions of @code{gdbm} can be downloaded from anonymous FTP:
@uref{ftp://ftp.gnu.org/@/gnu/@/gdbm}, or via HTTP from
@uref{http://ftp.gnu.org/@/gnu/@/gdbm}, or from any
@ifhtml
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html,,GNU mirror} worldwide.
@end ifhtml
@ifnothtml
GNU mirror worldwide.  See @uref{http://www.gnu.org/@/order/@/ftp.html},
for a list of mirrors.
@end ifnothtml

To track @code{gdbm} development, visit
@uref{http://puszcza.gnu.org.ua/@/projects/@/gdbm}.

@node GNU Free Documentation License
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License

@include fdl.texi

@node Index
@unnumbered Index

@printindex cp

@bye

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