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FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE
=====================================

* Overview

This file describes the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary and
the GCIDE (GNU Collaborative International Dictionary of English).

If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the "point" (font
size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be self-explanatory; or (2)
is a functional field with no effect on the typography.

Last modified March 12, 1999.
     For questions, contact:
     Patrick Cassidy           cassidy@micra.com
     735 Belvidere Ave.
     Plainfield, NJ 07062
     (908) 561-3416   or (908) 668-5252

A separate file, webfont.txt, contains the list of the individual
non-ASCII characters represented by either higher-order hexadecimal
character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags (e.g.,
<root/, for the square root symbol.)

* Introduction

In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster and in GCIDE, each part
of the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no part
of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found outside of all
fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged field.  In the
following description, the word "segment" usually refers to a major part of
an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a collocation segment or a
usage block, containing more than one field.  The term "field" may also be
used similarly to "segment", but may also denote single-word fields, such as
an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>.

The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags.  Each tag on
this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between angle
brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing the
forward slash thus: </tagname>.  No tags are used without closing tags.
Thus a line break (similar to HTML <br> tag) is symbolized here as an
entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>.

The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag without
a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which there
may be a significant number.  Any errors detected should be brought to the
attention of PJC or the appropriate editor.

Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type, with a
number of exceptions.  Where a word is contained within more than one field,
the innermost field determines the font to be used.  Wherever recognizable
functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the field with a
functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only to represent
the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases, the "italic"
mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality of the word.
The base font is considered "plain".  Where an italic field is indicated,
parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised.

Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional
division, and was printed in plain font unless otherwise tagged.  This type
of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be.  The
size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for the height
of capitalized letters.

* Explicit typographical tags

These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to
distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional tag
seemed apropriate.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tag           Font         Description 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
<plain>       plain font   that used in the body of a definition -- normally
                           not marked, except within fields of a different
                           front.
			   
<it>          italic       in master files

<i>           italic       for use in HTML presentation

<bold>        bold         in master files

<b>           bold         for use in HTML presentation

<colf>        bold,        Collocation font.  Same font as used in
                           collocations. 
              smaller      This is used only in the list of "un-"
	      by 1 point   words not actually defined in the
			   dictionary. 
	                   Probably could be replaced by a segment mark
			   for the entire list!  The "un-" words should
			   be indexed as headwords.
			   
<ct>          bold         Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used 
                           in collocations.  However, this tag is used
			   in a table and could be set to a different
			   font.
			   
<h1>          *            HTML tag -- largest heading font.

<h2>          *            HTML tag -- second largest heading font.

<headrow>     *            Marks a Row title in a table.

<hwf>                      Font the same as the headword <hw>, though
                           the field is not a headword.  Used only
			   once.
			   
<mitem>       *            Multiple items, a set of items in a table.
<point ...>                A series of point size markers, many
                           unique.
			   
<point1.5>    *            One of the tags of the form <point**> where **
<point6>                   represents the typographic point size of the 
                           enclosed text.
			   
<pre>                      An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed
                           text is of teletype form, preformatted in a
                           uniform-spaced font.
			   
<sc>          small caps   used mostly for "a. d.",  "b. c."
                           This is the same font as in <er>, but has no
                           functional or semantic significance.
			   
<str>                      group of table data elements in a table.

<sub>         subscript

<subs>        subscript

<sups>        superscript

<supr>        superscript

<sansserif>   Sans-serif

<stypec>      Bold         collocation font, and also a subtype.

<tt>                       HTML tage -- teletype font

<universbold>              A squared bold font without serifs approximating
                           the "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4,
                           slightly larger than the capitals in a definition
                           body.  Used in expositions describing shapes,
                           such as "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F".
			   
<vertical>                 Vertically organized column.

<column1>                  Vertically organized column -- only part of a table
                           which needs to be completed.  Used once.
			   
<...type>                  A series of tags, many unique, designating
                           certain unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype"
                           for "bourgeois type", in the section on
                           typography.  Most of these occur only once, in
                           the section on fonts.  Some examples follow:
<antiquetype>
<blacklettertype>
<boldfacetype>
<bourgeoistype>
<boxtype>
<clarendontype>
<englishtype>
<extendedtype>
<frenchelzevirtype>
<germantype>
<gothictype>
<greatprimertype>
<longprimertype>
<miniontype>
<nonpareiltype>
<oldenglishtype>
<oldstyletype>
<pearltype>
<picatype>
<scripttype>
<smpicatype>
<typewritertype>

* Tags with semantic content:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tag           Font         Meaning and Description 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
<altsp>       *            Alternative spelling segment.  Almost always
                           contained within square brackets after the main
                           definition segment.  Expository words such as
                           "Spelled also" are in plain font; the actual
                           alternative spelling is marked by <asp> ...
                           </asp> tags within this segment.
			   
<ant>         italic       Antonym.

<asp>         italic       Alternative spelling.  The actual word which is
                           an alternative spelling to the headword.  These
                           are functionally synonyms of the headword.  In
                           most cases these also occur as headwords, with
                           reference to the word where the actual definition
                           is found, but not all such words are listed
                           separately, particularly if the spelling is close
                           enough to the headword to be found at the same
                           point in the dictionary.  Whether listed
                           separately or not, these words should be indexed
                           at this location, also.

<au>          italic       Authority or author.  Used where an authority is
                           given for a definition, and also used for the
                           author, where a quotation within double quotes is
                           given in the same paragraph as the definition.
                           The double quotes are indicated by the open-quote
                           (\'bd) and close-quote (\'b8).  In both cases, it
                           is typically right-justified, almost always
                           fitting on the same line with the last line of
                           the definition or quotation.
			   
                           Within collocation segments, it is usually used
                           only after quotations, and is not
                           right-justified, except occasionally where it
                           would be close to the right margin, and then
                           apparently is is right-justified.  We have not
                           explicitly marked those which are
                           right-justified, but they can be recognized
                           because they are on a line by themselves,
                           preceded by two carriage returns.

<bio>         *            Marks a biography.  Should be longer than a short
                           mention of who a person was, which is typically
                           included as a definition.

<biography>   *            Same as <bio>

<booki>       italic       Marks the name of a book, pamphlet, or similar
                           document.

<branchof>    *            A field of knowledge which of which the headword
                           is a division.

<caption>     *            Caption of a figure or table.

<cas>         *            tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service)
                           registry number for a chemical substance.

<causes>      italic       tags the infectious disease caused by the
                           headword.  Implied type of the agent is a
                           microorganism, and the tag must mark a disease.

<causesp>     *            Same as <causes> without the italic type.
<causedbyp>   *            Same as <causedby> without the italic type.

<causedby>    italic       inverse of <causes>: tags the causative agent of
                           an infectious disease, which is the headword.
                           The tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or
                           prion, and the implied type of the headword is a
                           disease.

<centered>                 Used only for the single letter in the headers to
                           each letter of the alphabet.

<city>        *            marks the proper name of a city.  Used only
                           occasionally and not consistently at this stage.

<cnvto>       italic       Converted to: used to tag substances which are
                           products prepared by conversion from the
                           headword.  Usually chemicals or complex products
                           from natuarl materials.  Rarely used up to 1998.

<colheads>    *            List of heads for the columns of a table.

<coltitle>    *            Title of a column in a table.

<comm>        *            Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line
                           with the definition paragraph.  Provides a little
                           additional information.

<company>     *            Name of a company (commercial firm).  Compare
                           <org>. 

<compof>      italic       Composed of.  Tags a substance of which the
                           headword is at least partly composed.  The
                           substance may be particulate, such as diatoms
                           composing diatomaceous earth.

<contains>    *            marks an object contained within the headword.

<contr>       italic       Contrasting word.  Not exactly an antonym, which
                           is marked <ant>, but a contrasting word which is
                           often introduced as "opposite to" or "contrasts
                           with".

<country>     *            Name of a country (nation) of the world.

<cref>        italic       Collocation reference.  A reference to a
                           collocation.  Each such collocation should have
                           its own entry, marked by <col> ... </col> tags,
                           and these references should function as hypertext
                           buttons to access that entry.

<date>        *            A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>.

<datey>       *            Date-with-year tags a date containing a year.

<def>         *            A definition.  The definition may have subfields,
                           particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase
                           starting with "as" or "thus" and containing the
                           headword (or a morphological derivative).  The
                           <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and right
                           double quotes) and <au> fields may be found
                           within a definition field, but should and usually
                           are located outside the definition proper.  The
                           marking macro was inconsistent in this placement,
                           and the exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and
                           quotations needs to be completed by the
                           proof-readers.

                           Certain definitions contain <pos> fields within
                           them, where the headword is an irregular
                           derivative of another headword.  In these cases,
                           the <pos> field follows immediately after the
                           <def> tag, and these entries do not have a
                           separate <pos> field.  In such cases, the <pos>
                           field is italic, as usual.

<divof>       *            Division of the headword, usually an
                           organization.  E. g. a faculty or department of a
                           university, or a United Nations agency.

<edi>         *            Marks an education institution, a subtype of
                           organization.

<emits>       *            Tags a physical object or form of radiation
                           emitted by the headword.

<figure>                   Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom
                           used.

<film>        italic       Marks the name of a movie film.

<fld>         italic       Field of specialization.  Most often used for
                           Zoology and Botany, but many "fields of
                           specialization" are marked for technical terms.
                           The parentheses are usually within this field,
                           but are not themselves in italics.

<geog>        *            Name of a geograpahical region of any size; if
                           applicable, the more specific <city>, <state>, or
                           <country> are preferred.

<hypen>       *            Hyperym.  Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5
                           Initially, used only for entries extracted from
                           WordNet 1.5.  Not present in the original 1913
                           version.
                                           
<illu>        *            Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and
                           placed outside the definition, in contrast to
                           <as> usage.  These should be converted to
                           <as>...</as> illustrative usage format for
                           consistency.

<illust>      *            Illustration place-holder.  Seldom used.

<img>         *            HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually
                           .gif or .jpg.  These have no closing tag, and
                           will appear as errors in parsing.
			   
<intensi>     *            Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified
                           form of the headword. Taken from WordNet tags,
                           used with some adjectives from WordNet.
			   
<item>        *            Designates one item in a row of a table.  Used
                           only when intervening spaces do not serve
                           properly as natural field separaters.
			   
<itran>       italic       Translation into a foreign (non-English) language
                           of the previous word in the text -- italic font.
                           (<sig> is a translation into English)
			   
<itrans>      italic       Same as <itran>

<jour>        *            Title of a journal (periodical).

<matrix>      *            Always a filled rectangular array.

<matrix2x5>   *            A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns).

<mstypec>     *            Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in def. of
                           "grass".
			   
<mtable>      *            Multiple table, encloses <table> figures.

<musfig>      *            Music figure.  Only in a note under the entry
                           "Figure", the two numbers of each such field are
                           bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction
                           with a bar between them, but also having a
                           horizontal stroke midway through each
                           numeral. Unique to this entry.
			   
<p>           *            Paragraph tag, used always in pairs.  Line breaks
                           may be embedded inside the paragraphs.
			   
<person>      *            Marks the proper name of a person.  Used only
                           occasionally, but should be used more frequently
                           for cases where first names are abbreviated, to
                           reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic
                           analysis.  Where a title is given, prefixed or
                           postfixed, it is included in this tag.

<persfn>      *            Marks the name of a person, when only one name
                           (usually the last name) is given.  Not used
                           consistently where it should be.

<publ>        *            Marks the name of a publication other than book,
                           which is marked by <booki>.  It is often a
                           magazine or journal.
			   
<qpers>       *            Tags the name of a person who is speaking, within
                           a quotation.
			   
<qperson>                  Same as <qpers>

<cp>          *            Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases
                           that should be parsed as a unit, but has no
                           typographical significance.
			   
<qau>         italic       Always right-justified, as described for <au>.

<ref>         *            A reference to a word in the vocabulary.

<refs>        *            Marks the set of references used for a longer
                           article such as a biography.
			   
<river>       *            Marks the name of a river -- a proper name.

<rj>          *            Right justified.

<row>         *            Designates a row in a table.

<state>       *            Name of a geopolitical state, the first
                           subdivision of a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian
                           provinces.
			   
<subtypes>    *            Lists subtypes of the headword.

<sup>         *            Superscript

<supr>        *            Supra.  The two parts of each such field are
                           stacked, one over the other, *without* a
                           horizontal bar between (as in a fraction).  Used
                           only in one entry, for a musical notation.
			   
<table>       *            Always a filled rectangular array, having <row>
                           and <item> elements.
			   
<td>          *            Table datum - one cell in a table.

<th>          *            Table header.

<tradename>   *            Tags a commercial Trade name.

<ttitle>      *            Table title (Larger than normal font).
====================================================================

* Functional Tags

In the table below, font size comparatives are relative to the plain font.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tag           Font         Meaning and Description 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
<--    -->    *            Comment, not a tag.  These segments should be
                           deleted from the written or printed text.  Page
                           numbers of the original text are indicated within
                           such comments; these may be left in, if desired.

<!   !>       *            A comment.  Used to indicate page numbers in the
                           public domain version.

<abbr>        italic       Tag for abbreviations, when mentioned within the
                           definition text.

<adjf>        small caps   Tags for the actual adjective or adverb
                           comparatives or superlatives.  Should be
                           indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and decf (nouns).

<altname>     italic       Alternative name.  Usually for plants or animals,
                           but also used for other cases where words are
                           introduced by "also called", "called also",
                           "formerly called".  These are
                           functionally *synonyms* for that word-sense.

<altnpluf>    italic       Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a
                           plural form, whereas the headword is singular.

<amorph>      *            Adjective morphological segment, primarily the
                           comparative and superlative forms.  The
                           occasional adverb morphology is also tagged this
                           way.

<as>          *            A segment occurring within the definitional
                           sentence, providing an example of usage of the
                           headword.  Not conceptually a part of the actual
                           definition.

<cd>          smaller      Collocation definition.  Similar in structure to 
              spacing      headword definitions (the <def> field).  May     
                           contain an <as> field.  Plain type, but with     
                           closer spacing than main definitions.            
                           

<col>         bold,        Collocation.  A word combination containing the
              smaller by   headword (or a morphological derivative).
              1 point      The collocations do not have an explicitly
                           marked part of speech.
                           See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations.

<colp>                     Collocation, no typographic significance.  Used
                           to mark a word combination defined in the
                           dictionary without affect on font.

<conjf>       small caps   The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of verbs.
                           imp. & p. p. is common, as well as p. pr. &
                           vb. n.  Irregular variants of these are less
                           common.  Words in this field perhaps should be
                           indexed.

<cs>          smaller      Collocation segment. The font and size is normal
              vertical     in a cs, but the spacing between lines is smaller
              spacing      (0.9 mm between lower-case letters, rather than
                           1.1 mm in the main body of the definition).  For
                           an on-line dictionary, reproducing this
                           typography is probably pointless.

<decf>        small caps   Declension form. The actual morphological
                           variants of nouns or pronouns.  Should be
                           indexed.

<ecol>        *            Embedded Collocation.  A word combination
                           containing the headword (or a morphological
                           derivative, embedded within a definition without
                           a separate definition of its own.  These
                           collocations should be defined implicitly by the
                           text of the definition in which they are
                           embedded.  See also <col>, tagging explicitly
                           defined collocations.

<ent>         Bold         Entry field. Gives the headword without accent or
                           syllabication marks, and with special-character
                           symbols converted to their nearest ASCII
                           equivalents.  Can be used without conversion as
                           the string that serves as the index word for that
                           entry.

<er>          small caps   Entry reference.  References to headwords within
                           the "etymology" section are in small caps.  Such
                           references also occur in the body of definitions,
                           and in "usage" segments.  Such entry references
                           should function as hypertext buttons to access
                           that entry.

<ety>         *            Etymology.  Always contained within square
                           brackets.  Normal type is used for explanatory
                           comments, and italics for the actual words
                           (marked <ets>) considered as etymological
                           sources.

<ets>         italic       Etymological source.  Words from which the
                           headword was derived, or to which it is related.
                           The Greek words within an etymology segment are
                           invariably etymology sources, and should be
                           marked as such, but are not so marked, even in
                           the rare cases where the Greek word
                           transliteration has been written in.

<etsep>       italic       Etymological source, being the name of a person
                           or geographical location which is the eponym for
                           the concept.  This is used to distinguish
                           eponymous etymologies from others, and can also
                           be found in the body of a definition or note, not
                           only in the etymology field.  Very few of the
                           names that should be marked this way have
                           actually been so marked, as of version 0.51.  In
                           cases where such eponymous names have not yet
                           been thus marked, they will usually be marked by
                           <xex>, the non-semantic italic-font marker, or,
                           in etymologies, by <ets>.

<ex>          italic       Example.  An example of usage of the headword,
                           usually found within an <as> or <note> segment.

<fr>          *            Frequency of use, ordinal rank.  This is used for
                           WordNet entries, in which the synonyms were
                           ranked in order of frequency of use.  <fr>1</fr>
                           indicates that the headword is the first word on
                           the list of synonyms.

<fu>          *            First use.  A date at or around which the first
                           use of this word in writing is recorded.  Not in
                           the original 1913 Webster, and usu.  taken from a
                           recent dictionary.  Only a few such fields have
                           been entered as of version 0.41

<grk>                      Greek transliteration.  The Greek words have been
                           transliterated using roman letters.  See
                           chapter "Greek transliteration" in file
                           "webfont.txt"
			   
<hw>          bold,        A headword.  Each main entry begins with the <hw>
              larger by    mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark.  The main
              2 points     entries are not otherwise explicitly marked as a
                           distinctive field.  The same word may appear as a
                           headword several times, usually as different
                           parts of speech, but sometimes with different
                           entries as the same part of speech, presumably to
                           indicate a different etymology.  Within the hw
                           field the heavy accent is represented by double
                           quote ("), the light accent by open-single-quote
                           (`), and the short dash separating syllables by
                           an asterisk (*). A hyphen (-) is used to
                           represent the hyphen of hyphenated words.

<mark>        italic,      Usage mark.  Almost always within square
              but          brackets, occasionally in parentheses or without
              explanatory  any bracketing.  The most common usage marks,
              may be       "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." =
              plain.       colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
                           etc. are in italics.  Some usage notes are also
                           marked with <mark>, but are in plain.  For
                           simplicity, all words in this field may be
                           italic, until additional explicit marks are
                           added.

<markp>       *            A usage mark in plain type (not italic).  Found
                           within a definition, when there are more than one
                           sense-number listed.  "Fig." at the head of an
                           entry is the most common case.

<mcol>        *            Multiple collocation.  Similar to multiple
                           headword, when two or more collocations share one
                           definition; however, the two collocations are
                           in-line, rather than stacked or justified.  There
                           may be "or" or "and" words (italicised), or an
                           "etc." (plain type) within this field.  In many
                           cases, the <or/ and <and/ entities are used to
                           signify the change of font for these words.

<mhw>         *            Multiple headword.  This field is used where more
                           than one headword shares a single definition.  In
                           the dictionary, the (usually) two headwords are
                           left-justified one below the other in the column,
                           and are tied together on the right side of the
                           headwords by a long right curly brace.  This
                           division is strictly functional, for analytical
                           purposes, and does not affect the typography.

<nmorph>      *            Noun morphology section.  Rarely used, mostly for
                           irregular personal pronouns.

<note>        *            Explanatory note.  No explicit font is indicated.
                           These segments may be separate, as in the
                           separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/, or
                           they may just be further explanation within (or
                           more usually, following) the main definition
                           paragraph.  Typographically, the notes following
                           the main definition may not be distinguishable
                           from additional sentences appended to the first
                           sentence of a definition.

<plu>         *            Plural.  The "plural" segment starts with a "pl."
                           which is italicised, but in this segment is not
                           otherwise marked as italicised.  Other words
                           occurring in this segment are plain type.  The
                           "pl." can be easily explicitly marked if
                           necessary.

<pos>         italic       Part of speech.  Always an abbreviation: e.g.,
                           n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep.
                           Combinations may occur, as "a. & n.".

<epos>        *            Part of speech, referring to words in
                           etymologies, normal type.  Always an
                           abbreviation, as in <pos> above Combinations may
                           occur, as "a. or n.".

<plw>         small caps   Plural word.  The actual plural form of the word,
                           found within a <plu> segment.

<pr>          *            Pronunciation.  The default font is normal, but
                           many non-ASCII characters are used.  The
                           pronunciation field may have more than one
                           pronunciation, separated by an "<or/".  (An "or"
                           here is in italic, and usually is represented by
                           the entity <or/).  There may also be some
                           commentary, such as "Fr."(French pronunciation)
                           or "archaic".  The commentaries are typically
                           italic, and should be marked as such.  In certain
                           pronunciations there is a numbered reference to a
                           root form explained in an introductory section on
                           pronunciation.
			   
                           Very few of the pronunciation fields have been
                           filled in.  The pronunciation markings use a more
                           complicated method than more modern dictionaries.
                           It would be interesting to have these fields
                           filled in, if there are any volunteers willing to
                           do it.

<q>           smaller by   Quotation.  No bracketing quotation marks, though
              two points,  occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur within
              centered,    these quotations.  These quotations tend to be
              Separate     more complete sentences, rather than just
              paragraph    phrases, such as are contained within quotation
                           marks within the definition paragraph.

<qau>         italic,      Quotation author.  Used only for the
              right        quotations marked with <q> that are centered in
              justified    their own paragraphs.

<qex>         italic       Quotation example.  An example of usage of the
                           headword, within quotations marked by <q>..</q>
                           tags.

<sd>          italic       Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc.  These
                           are finer distinctions of word senses, used
                           within numbered word-sense (for main entries),
                           and also used for subdefinitions within
                           collocation segments, which have no numbering of
                           senses.  The letter is italic, the parentheses
                           are not.  This tag is also used to indicate the
                           lettered subdefinition when it is referred to at
                           another point in the text.

<ship>        italic       The name of a ship.  Rarely used.

<sing>        *            Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but
                           more rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which
                           are listed in the plural form.

<singw>       small caps   Singular word.  The singular form of the
                           plural-form headword.

<sn>          bold,        Sense number.  A headword may have over 20
              larger by    different sense numbers.  Within each numbered
              2 points     sense there may be lettered sub-senses.  See the
                           <sd> (sub-definition) field.

<source>      italic       Source.  The author of the definition.  Used only
                           for definitions not originally present in Webster
                           1913, and not present in the original version
                           intended to mimic the 1913 printed dictionary.
                           This source is used for each word sense, and may
                           differ for different senses of a word, especially
                           where a Web1913 definition was substantially
                           modified, or a new word sense was added to a
                           previously defined word.

<syn>         plain        Synonyms.  A list of synonyms, sometimes followed
                           by a <usage> segment.

<usage>       narrower     Comparisons of word usage for words which are
              spacing      sometimes confused.  As with collocation
                           segments, font is plain, but spacing is smaller
                           than normal definition spacing.  This seems
                           pointlessly complicating for an on-line display.

<ver>         *            Verified for current accuracy by a technical
                           editor, without changes.

<vmorph>      *            Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited
                           by square brackets.

<wordforms>   *            Morphological derivatives not contained in the
                           bracketed segments, as above.  For nouns derived
                           from adjectives, adverbs from adjectives, etc.
                           This segment is usually found at the end of the
                           main entry. The adverbial and nominalized
                           derivatives at the end of a main entry are
                           usually introduced by an em dash [represented as
                           two hyphens (--)].

<wf>          bold,        Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable
              larger by    breaks marked as in the headword.  Marks the
              2 points     actual morphological forms within a <wordforms>
                           segment; typically, adverbial or nominalized form
                           of an adjective.


<def2>        *            Second definition (occasionally, a third
                           definition is present).  This is used where a
                           second or third part of speech with the same
                           orthography is placed under one headword.  Within
                           this segment, there will be a <pos> field, and
                           sometimes a <mark> and/or a quotation.

<specif>      *           "Specifically:" Used to mark the words
                          "specifically", "Hence", "as" which are used to
                          introduce a second definition typically more
                          specific than the first, but in general derived by
                          extension of the initial definition.  This
                          functions as a warning of multiple definitions
                          where the sense-numbers are not explicitly used.
                          It is also useful in separate senses, to tag
                          polysemous definitions which may be
                          specializations or generalizations of the
                          preceding definition.

<pluf>        italic      Plural form.  Used exclusively to mark the "pl."
                          abbreviation, which introduces a definition for the
                          headword, *when used in the plural form*.  Not
                          related to <plu>, which spells out the plural form,
                          but does define it.

<uex>         italic      Usage example.  Used only a few times, within
                          <usage> segments.

<isa>         italic      Supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and
                          identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet.

<chform>      plain,      Chemical formula.  The letters are plain font, but
              numbers     the numbers are subscript.  This is mostly useful
              subscript   as a functional mark to pinpoint chemicals.

<chformi>     plain       Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not
                          processed specially by the tag-converter program.
                          The letters are plain font, but the numbers are
                          subscript.  Used in place of <chform> when the
                          formula has a tag inside, which cannot now be
                          processed by the <chform> processing routine.

<chname>      *           Chemical name.  Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
                          name to be processed as a unit in spite of
                          embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas.

<see>         *           A "see" reference to related words, outside of the
                          main <def>definition</def> field.
                  
<mathex>      italic      Mathematical expression.  In this dictionary,
                          essentially all letters (used as variable labels)
                          in math expressions are in italic font.  The "+"
                          and "-" may also appear typographically different
                          from elsewhere in the dictionary.

<ratio>       italic      Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and
                          double colon may have a different typography than
                          usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio>

<singf>       italic      Singular form.  Analogous to <pluf>, to define the
                          singular word where the headword is the plural
                          form. ** only modifies the word "sing."

<mord>        *           Morphological derivation.  Used to mark the
                          entry-reference portions of those entries which
                          are defined as morphological derivatives (plural,
                          p. p., imp.) of other headwords.  Used just as an
                          attempt to mark and regularize the entry format.
                          May be ignored typographically.

<fract>       a stack,    Fraction.  Used for non-numerical fractions which
              with        cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style entity.
              numerator,  The forward slash "/" is to be interpreted as a
              horizontal  horizontal line separating the numerator and
              bar, and    denominator.
              denominator

<exp>         superscript,  Exponential.  Used in mathematical expressions.
              smaller font.

<xlati>       italic       Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a
                           definition or etymology.  Used only twice.

<tran>        italic       Word translated: the word in italic is translated
                           by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies,
                           where the word translated is not actually
                           etymologically related to the headword.  The
                           translated word is not necessarily English.

<tr>          italic       Translation of the preceding word (or of the
                           headword) into English.

<fexp>        *            Functional expression (math).  The function names
                           are in plain type, the variables are italic.

<iref>        italic       Illustration reference.  Used only occasionally,
                           not yet (v. 0.51) consistently.

<figref>      italic       Figure reference.

<figcap>      *            Figure caption.

<figtitle>    *            Figure title.

<funct>       *            Tags a mathematical function or expression.

<chreact>     *            Chemical reaction.  Similar to chemical formulas
                           (which are contained but not explicitly marked),
                           with some other symbols.

<ptcl>        italic       Verb Particle.  Only a few particles were actually
                           marked, but in a future version more may be.

<tabtitle>                 Table Title.  Used only once.

<title>       italic       Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical
                           composition, etc.  Used rarely but should be used
                           in every case, except in <au> references.

<root>        *            Square root -- differs from the entity <root/,
                           which is a square root sign that does not extend
                           beyond the number following it.  The <root> field
                           has a bar (vinculum) over the expression within
                           the field, as well as the square root symbol
                           preceding the expression in the field.  Used only
                           once.

<vinc>        *            Vinculum.  In a mathematical expression, a bar
                           extending over the expression within the field.
                           Used only once.  This apparently serves the same
                           function as a parentheses, of causing the
                           expression within the field to be evaluated and
                           the result used as the (mathematical) value of
                           the field.

<nul>         plain        Nultype.  An older version of <plain>.

<cd2>         *            Second collocation definition.  Somewhat similar
                           to <def2>.  Purely a mark to reduce functional
                           ambiguity, with no effect on the typography.

<hypen>       *            Hypernym.  Mark introduced for the World Wide
                           Webster, when adding words from WordNet.  In most
                           cases, this tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for
                           nouns and verbs).  Where the <au> mark is PJC or
                           includes a +PJC, the hypernym may not be the same
                           as in WordNet.  The words marked by this tag need
                           to be bracketed in some way, but this is deferred
                           until the definitions included with the hypernyms
                           have been deleted, and other disambiguating marks
                           substituted.

<stype>       italic       Subtype.  A functional mark, to point out words which
                           are conceptually subtypes of the styp.

<headword>    *            Subtype.  A functional mark, to point out words
                           which are conceptually subtypes of the headword,
                           but with no *typographical* significance.

<simto>       *            Similar-to.  A semantic relational mark for
                           closely related words which are not quite
                           synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms.
                           Introduced with WordNet data.

<conseq>      *            Consequence.  For adjectives, is an attribute
or                         which is a consequence of possessing the headword
<hascons>                  attribute.  Introduced with WordNet data.

<consof>      *            Consequence of.  For adjectives, an attribute
                           which implies the headword as a natural
                           consequence.

<part>        italic       Part.  Marks a word designating something which
                           is conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely
                           used.

<parts>       italic       Part, plural form.  Same as <part>, but marks the
                           name of the part in its plural form.

<partof>      *            Marks a word designating something of which the
                           headword is conceptually a part. Inverse of
                           <part>.  This is very broad, and may mean
                           constituent or separable part.  Rarely used.

<contxt>      *            Context.  Used only for introductions to
                           definitions, giving the context of usage, which
                           are not part of the definition proper, as:
                           <contxt>when used of a person:</contxt>

<grp>         *            Marks the name of a group of people not formally
                           organized.

<membof>      italic       Marks a group of which the headword is a member.
                           This is rarely used, but should be indexed as an
                           entry word or phrase.

<member>      italic       Marks a member of a group defined by the
                           headword.  This is rarely used, but should be
                           indexed as an entry word or phrase.

<members>     italic       Same as <member>, but marks a plural word,
                           designating the name of the members in its plural
                           form, for lack of ambiguity.

<method>      *            Designates a special type of definition which
                           describes a method for achieving the headword,
                           used only once for the word "amend".  The
                           subdefinitions begin with "by".

<corpn>       *            Name of a business company, corporation, or
                           partnership.  Started using November 1988. Rare.
 
<corr>        italic       Correlative.  A word intimately associated with
                           the headword in a manner such that one cannot
                           appear without the other.  Not exactly an
                           inverse.

<qperson>     italic       Marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue.
                           Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45.

<org>         *            Marks the name of an organization; sometimes used
                           for the names of groups of people not formally
                           organized; see also <grp>.

<prod>        italic       produces.  Designates a substance produced by a
                           living organism.  Rarely used.

<prodp>       *            produces (plainfont).  Designates a substance
                           produced by a living organism.  Same as <prod>,
                           but does not affect font. Rarely used.

<prodby>      *            produced by.  Designates a living organism which
                           produces the headword substance. Rarely used.

<prodmac>     italic       produces.  Designates an object or substance
                           produced by a machine or process.  Rarely used.

<stage>       italic       life stage of an organism.  Used to indicate
                           variant forms of an organism defined by the
                           headword.  Rarely used.

<stageof>     *            An organism one of whose life stages is the
                           headword.  Inverse (correlative) of
                           <stage>. Rarely used.

<inv>         italic       Inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository
                           is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse
                           of seller.  Called "correlative" in the Webster
                           1913 and the CIDE.  Rarely used.

<methodfor>   italic       Is a method to accomplish the action defined by
                           the headword.  Rarely used, and only in the
                           supplemental section.
			   
<examp>       italic       Example or instance of the headword, where the
                           tagged and emphasized word is not a proper
                           subtype.

<sfield>      *            Subfield of the headword, which must be a field
                           of study or of knowledge.
			   
<stage>       italic       A stage of life of the headword -- for living
                           things, such as insects, whose life stages may
                           take different names.

<unit>        italic       A unit of measure, usually preceded by a number.
                           Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is
                           the headword.

<uses>        italic       Tags a tool or method used by the headword, which
                           is usually some process.

<usedfor>     *            Tags a method or process for which the headword
                           is a tool.

<usedby>      italic       Tags a tool or method which uses the headword,
                           which is usually a physical object.

<perf>        italic       performs -- tags a word which is a process or
                           activity performed by the headword.

<recipr>      italic       reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged
                           word is a reciprocal participant in an action,
                           such as donor and recipient.  The difference
                           between this and <inv> inverse has not yet been
                           systematically settled.  Used seldom, and mostly
                           in the supplemented version.

<sig>         italic       significance, meaning -- used in definitions
                           where the actual meaning is prefixed with
                           commentary explaining usage or other attributes
                           of the word, as with prefixes or suffixes.

<wns>         italic       WordNet sense.  Where known, the correspondence
                           of the sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6
                           is given after the definition, in a tag of the
                           form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number is
                           the numbered sense in WordNet.

<w16ns>       italic       WordNet version 1.6 sense.  See <wns> for
                           explanation.
<wnote>       *            A note related to usage in the corresponding
                           WordNet definition.

* Biological classifications

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Tag           Font         Meaning and Description 
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<spn>         italic       Species name.  Used to mark the taxonomic names
                           of living things which are represented in italic
                           font in the original printed version.
                           Originally, not only species, but genera, orders
                           and families were also thus marked.  The
                           conversion from <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord>
                           is not completed, and <spn> may stil be found
                           marking such groups.  However, orders and
                           families are also frequently mentioned in the
                           original in normal font, and in such cases are
                           not marked with any tag.  So, this mark is not a
                           reliable indicator of all mentions of taxonomic
                           names.
<kingdom>     italic       Taxonomic biological Kingdom name.
<phylum>      italic       Taxonomic phylum name.
<subphylum>   italic       Taxonomic subphylum name.
<class>       italic       Taxonomic class name.
<subclass>    italic       Taxonomic subclass name.
<ord>         italic       Taxonomic order name.  Also used for suborders,
                           initially.
<subord>      italic       Taxonomic suborder name.
<suborder>    italic       Taxonomic suborder name.
<fam>         italic       Taxonomic family name.  Also used to tag "tribes".
<subfam>      italic       Taxonomic subfamily name.
<gen>         italic       Taxonomic genus name.
<var>         italic       Variety.  Used to mark subspecies or varities
                           below the level of species in living organism
                           systematic names.

<varn>        italic       Variety.  Used to mark subspecies or varities
                           below the level of species in living organism
                           systematic names.  Duplicative variant of <var>.



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