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File pronunc.txt
================
   This file gives a number of examples of pronunciation, 
using the entity symbols representing the pronunciations as
found in the 1913 Webster unabridged dictionary.  Not all
vowel sounds are given here, but the examples should allow one 
to recognize the characters and recall the symbols used to 
represent them.  The set of symbols used for pronunciation 
is different from that used in most modern dictionaries,
but a more worrisome problem is that the pronunciations themselves 
seem in many cases to differ from modern usage.  The places of
the strong and weak accent are, however, in every case
examined, the same as in modern dictionaries.  Anyone who is 
willing to work at revising the pronunciations to reflect modern
usage or modern symbols should contact PJC.


         Pronunciations  in the 1913 Webster ASCII version
         =================================================

Syllables:
----------------
    in pronunciations, the short hyphen used in the printed version as a 
syllable-break is represented in the ASCII version by an asterisk (*).
    the main (heavy) accent is represented by a double-quote (").
    the secondary (light) accent is represented by a left-single-quote
(grave accent) (`)
    the hyphen in hyphenated words is represented by the ASCII hyphen (-).
    where an accent occurs, no other syllable break is used.
    sometimes a hyphen occurs after an accent.
    ------------------------------------------------

Consonants:
    Most consonants have their normal value in the pronunciations,
but there are a few special characters, as the n-submacron and the
"th" ligature.  See the end of the "special characters" section.

Special characters:
--------------------
   The special characters are represented by two different sets of
symbols: (1) the RTF-format hexadecimal codes such as \'94 for
o-umlaut, meaning that the byte code is hexadecimal 94.  These
are used only for those symbols which have been designed into a 
special font set for this dictionary.  The font set can only be used
in a DOS system; or
(2) an "entity" symbol  using "<" and "/" as opening and closing
delimiters, with a mnemonic string between.  In the case of o-umlaut 
the symbol is <oum/.  For the vowels, the system is consistent,
thus <aum/ is a-umlaut, and <ium/ is i-umlaut, etc.
   These delimiters are used in preference to the HTML-style
(e.g. &auml;) delimiters because of the heavy use of ampersands in
the dictionary, to minimize file length.  For the same reason,
the codes within the delimiters are generally shorter than the 
corresponding ISO 8879 codes ( <aum/ rather than &auml; ).
   For this discussion, I will use the "entity" coding.  The
equivalent hexadecimal codes, where they exist, will be found in
the tables in the file "webfont.asc".

   The pronunciation system of the 1913 Webster has three peculiarities
relative to systems used in recent dictionaries.
(1) a more complex set of symbols are used. This is evident, for
    example, where the long vowels have different symbols whether
    they are used in stressed or unstressed syllables.  Thus
    long a in "acre" or "chaos" is represented as a-macron (<amac/ in 
    our notation).  But in "chaotic" or "connate" or "comate" it is 
    represented as a symbol looking like a-macron, but with a short 
    ascender in the middle of the macron above the a.  This is denoted 
    <asl/ ("a semilong") in our notation.

    Also, some sounds have more than one symbol.  Thus, there are several
    symbols using "y" with a diacritical mark above, representing
    identical sounds using "i" or "e", but used in those cases where the
    written word has a "y" in it.  So words ending in "y" with 
    pronunciations like the unaccented long "e" usually have 
    a y-breve (<ycr/) in the pronunciation.  Why?

(2) The indicated pronunciations themselves are in some cases 
    different from what one would find in a modern dictionary.
    In part this is due to differences among orthoepists with
    different notions of how a word should sound, and possibly
    it is due to differences in the pronunciation between 1890,
    when British pronunciations may have had more influence, and 
    the present.  Thus we see that words ending in -"ties",
    which are given the pronunciation "-t<icr/z", which sounds
    like "tizz", whereas I have always heard such words pronounced
    with a long "e", as in "teez".   In Webster's 10th collegiate, they 
    mention that unstressed long e may be pronounced as i in
    southern British or southern US dialects, and perhaps it
    was more common in the US in 1890.  The <icr/ is an unreliable
    indicator of modern standard American pronunciation.

(3)  The indefinite value, represented by an upside-down e (called
     the "schwa" is not used, the same sound being represented by
     symbols like short u <ucr/, or sometimes other vowels. 

    So be warned, the pronunciations may not be quite what one would
    expect.  But for this effort, we are trying to reproduce exactly
    the pronuciations in the original work.

    Notice that in pronunciations, vowels that are obscured are often
      represented by the italicised vowel without any diacritical marks;
      these italicised vowels are represented as either <ait/, <eit/, etc.
      or with an <it> tag, as in  m<it>e</it>nt
   Thus "Christian" is represented as  kr<icr/s"ch<it>a</it>n
        communicant is represented as  k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt


   Some examples of pronunciations follow:
      for further explanations of the entities, see the file "webfont.asc"
   ==============================================================

   <amac/ long a (stressed)  (a with a macron above it) 
          late          =  l<amac/t
          later         =  l<amac/t"<etil/r
          comb-shaped   =  k<omac/m"-sh<amac/pt`
          commemorate   =  k<ocr/m*m<ecr/m"<osl/*r<amac/t
          deign         =  d<amac/n
          deflate       =  d<esl/*fl<amac/t"
          defray        =  d<esl/*fr<amac/"
          defrayal      =  d<esl/*fr<amac/"<ait/l


   <asl/  long a (unstressed)     
          commodate     =  k<ocr/m"m<osl/*d<asl/t
          cometary      =  k<ocr/m"<ecr/t*<asl/*r<ycr/

   <ait/  italic a
          communicant   =  k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt
          defeasance    =  d<esl/*f<emac/"z<ait/ns
          commercial    =  k<ocr/m*m<etil/r"sh<ait/l
          compass       =  k<ucr/m"p<ait/s

   <acr/  short a         (a with a crescent [breve] above it)
          adipose       =  <acr/d"<icr/*p<omac/s
          absolve       =  <acr/b*s<ocr/lv"
          land          =  l<acr/nd
          lamp          =  l<acr/mp
          
   <adot/ short a       (a with a dot above it)
          again         =  <adot/*g<ecr/n"
          carouse       =  k<adot/*rouz"
          coma          =  k<omac/"m<adot/
          comma         =  k<ocr/m"m<adot/        |  *These sound different
          command       =  k<ocr/m*m<adot/nd"     |    to me
          mass          =  m<adot/s
          mash          =  m<adot/sh
          mat           =  m<adot/t

   <acir/ a-circumflex ("only in syllables closed by r")
          care          =  k<acir/r
          chair         =  ch<acir/r
          share         =  sh<acir/r
          compare       =  k<ocr/m*p<acir/r"

   <aum/  a-umlaut  (in pronunciations not the same as in words)
          arsenic       =  <aum/r"s<esl/*n<icr/k
          arson         =  <aum/r"s'n
          arm           =  <aum/rm
          carp          =  k<aum/rp
          far           =  f<aum/r
          mar           =  m<aum/r
          compart       =  k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"
          compartment   =  k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"m<eit/nt

   <add/ a double dot   ( with a double dot *below*)
          all           =  <add/l
          talk          =  t<add/k
          swarm         =  sw<add/rm                 [not aum??]
          water         =  w<add/"t<etil/r
          default       =  d<esl/*f<add/lt"
          defraud       =  d<esl/*fr<add/d"
          deerstalker   =  d<emac/r"st<add/k`<etil/r


   <eacute/  e-acute      (e with an acute accent over it --
                           not used in pronunciations, but in the
                           spelling of words derived from European
                           languages,  especially French.)
          prot<eacute/g<eacute/    =  pr<osl/`t<asl/`zh<asl/"

   <ecr/  short e         (e with a crescent [breve] above it)
          degenerate    =  d<esl/*j<ecr/n"<etil/r*<amac/t
          delve         =  d<ecr/lv
          end           =  <ecr/nd
          pet           =  p<ecr/t
          ten           =  t<ecr/n

   <esl/  long e (unstressed)
          committee     =  k<ocr/m*m<icr/t"t<esl/
          defame        =  d<esl/*f<amac/m"
          define        =  d<esl/*f<imac/n"
          comedy        =  k<ocr/m"<esl/*d<ycr/

   <eit/  e italic
          compartment   =  k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"m<eit/nt
          -ment         =  -"m<eit/nt       (for most -ment endings)

   <emac/ e macron (long e, stressed)
          compeer       =  k<ocr/m*p<emac/r"
          deer          =  d<emac/r"

   <etil/ e-tilde  
              (representing the e before r in many words)
              (for the same sound in -ur words, <ucir/ is used!)
          fern          =  f<etil/rn
          commercial    =  k<ocr/m*m<etil/r"sh<ait/l
          commerce      =  k<ocr/m"m<etil/rs

   <eum/ e-umlaut  (e-diaeresis)
              (not used in pronunciations.
                          represents e after another e, used in the 1913
                          Webster to indicate that the two e's are
                          pronounced as two vowels, as in "reentry". 
                          In the supplemented version, the second e,
                          which is thus marked in the 1913 version, 
                          usually has no umlaut over it, conforming
                          to modern orthographic practise.)

         re<eum/nforce  =  r<emac/`<ecr/n*f<omac/rs"
         re<eum/entry   =  r<emac/`<ecr/n"tr<ycr/

   <icr/  short i         (i with a crescent [breve] above it)
                          Note: In most cases, this is used where the
                           short i sound of "lip" is intended, but it is
                           also used in the middle of words where Americans
                           use an unstressed long "e" sound,  (as the
                           "i" in "serial" and "serious")!?
                            and also in  words ending in "ies",
                              coded as "<icr/z" (as in liberties)
          lip           =  l<icr/p
          pin           =  p<icr/n
          commission    =  k<ocr/m*m<icr/sh"<ucr/n
          committal     =  k<ocr/m*m<icr/t"t<ait/l
         *serial        =  s<emac/"r<icr/*<ait/l
         *serious       =  s<emac/"r<icr/*<ucr/s
          liberty       =  l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<ycr/
 *but:    liberties     =  l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<icr/z

   <imac/ i-macron (long i, stressed)  (i with a macron above it) 
          combine       =  k<ocr/m*b<imac/n"
          combined      =  k<ocr/m*b<imac/"nd

   <isl/  long i (unstressed)
          diameter      =  d<isl/*<acr/m"<esl/*t<etil/r
          diagonal      =  d<isl/*<acr/g"<osl/*n<ait/l


   <ocr/  short o         (o with a crescent [breve] above it)
          colossus      =  k<osl/*l<ocr/s"s<ucr/s
          commute       =  k<ocr/m*m<umac/t"
   
   <omac/ o-macron (long o, stressed)  (o with a macron above it) 
          boat          =  b<omac/t
          colt          =  k<omac/lt
          comb          =  k<omac/m
          combing       =  k<omac/m"<icr/ng
          commode       =  k<ocr/m*m<omac/d"
          course        =  k<omac/rs

   <ocir/ o-circumflex ("only in syllables closed by r")
          orb           =  <ocir/rb
          lord          =  l<ocir/rd
          lordship      =  l<ocir/rd"sh<icr/p
          lorn          =  l<ocir/rn
          cord          =  k<ocir/rd
          commorse      =  k<ocr/m*m<ocir/rs"
          deform        =  d<esl/*f<ocir/rm"
          deformed      =  d<esl/*f<ocir/rmd"
          dehortative   =  d<esl/*h<ocir/rt"<adot*t<icr/v

   <osl/  "o semilong" (long o, unstressed)          
          diagonal      =  d<isl/*<acr/g"<osl/*n<ait/l
          dejectory     =  d<esl/*j<ecr/k"t<osl/*r<ycr/

   <oomac/ oo-macron (an oo with a macron above both o's)
          boom          =  b<oomac/m
          boot          =  b<oomac/t
          boost         =  b<oomac/st
          commove       =  k<ocr/m*m<oomac/v"
   
   <oomcr/ oo-crescent (an oo with a crescent [breve] above both o's)
          foot          =  f<oocr/t
          cook          =  k<oocr/k

   <umac/  u macron (long u)
          commute       =  k<ocr/m*m<umac/t"
          definitude    =  d<esl/*f<icr/n"<icr/*t<umac/d 
          communicant   =  k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt
          defuse        =  d<esl/*f<umac/z"

   <ucr/  short u         (u with a crescent [breve] above it)
          come          =  k<ucr/m
          color         =  k<ucr/l"<etil/r
          colored       =  k<ucr/l"<etil/rd
          Columbia      =  k<osl/*l<ucr/m"b<icr/*<adot/
          up            =  <ucr/p

   <ycr/  y-crescent  (y with a crescent [breve] above it)
          used mostly for y-endings (supposed to sound similar to <icr/!!)
            sounds to me like an unstressed long e 
          comedy        =  k<ocr/m"<esl/*d<ycr/
          comely        =  k<ucr/m"l<ycr/
          liberty       =  l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<ycr/

   <ymac/ y-macron  (y with a macron above it) 
            used to represent the long i (stressed) sound, but
               examples in pronunciations seem to be absent.  It is
               found in some foreign words in the etymologies.

   ou     the common "ow" sound of "town", "browse"
          count       =  kount

   <nsm/  n-submacron  (an n with a macron underneath)
           represents the "ng" sound when it occurs before a
             consonant
          defunct      =  d<esl/*f<ucr/<nsm/kt"
          commingle    =  k<ocr/m*m<icr/<nsm/"g'l

  <th/    the "th" sound in "mother"
            this is represented in the printed work by a th ligature
         carouse      =   k<adot/*rouz"

   zh     not a special character, but used to represent the 
             "si" sound in words like

          decision   =  d<esl/*s<icr/zh"<ucr/n

   th     the usual sound as in thing and thorn
   sh     the usual as in ship
   ch     the usual as in chip
   N      (capital N) represents the nasal "n" sound of the French language

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