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            FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE
            =====================================
Tagset.web:
     Explanations of the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary
and the CIDE (Collaborative International Dictionary of English).
Note that the list of tags used to mark the public domain version
of this dictionary is shorter than the full set described here.
    If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the 
"point" (font size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be self-explanatory; or
        (2) Is a functional field with no effect on the typography.

Last modified March 12, 1999.
     For questions, contact:
     Patrick Cassidy           cassidy@micra.com
     735 Belvidere Ave.
     Plainfield, NJ 07062
     (908) 561-3416   or (908) 668-5252
-------------------------------------------------------------
A separate file, webfont.asc, contains the list of the individual 
non-ASCII characters represented by either higher-order hexadecimal
character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags
(e.g., <root/, for the square root symbol.)
--------------------------------------------------------------
     Use of tags:
     In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster, each part of
the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no
part of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found
outside of all fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged
field.  In the following description, the word "segment" usually refers to 
a major part of an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a 
collocation segment or a usage block, containing more than one field.
The term "field" may also be used similarly to "segment", but may also
denote single-word fields, such as an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>.

   Note: The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags.  Each
tag on this list  marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between
angle brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing
the forward slash thus: </tagname>.  No tags are used without closing
tags.  Thus the HTML <BR> to indicate a line break is symbolized
here as an entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>.
    The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag
without a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which
there may be a significant number.  Any errors detected should be brought
to the attention of PJC or the appropriate editor.
   Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type, 
with a number of exceptions.  Where a word is contained within more than 
one field, the innermost field determines the font to be used.  Wherever
recognizable functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the
field with a functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only
to represent the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases,
the "italic" mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality
of the word.  The base font is considered "plain".  Where an italic field
is indicated, parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised.
   Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional
division, and was printed in plain font unless otherwise tagged.  This type
of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be.
   The size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for
the height of capitalized letters.
=============================================================
Explicit typographical tags:
   These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to
distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional
tag seemed apropriate.
-----------------------------------
Tag        Font
-----------------------------------
Explicit formatting tags:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
<plain>    plain font (that used in the body of a definition) --
              normally not marked, except within fields of
              a different front.
<it>       italic  (in master files)
<i>        italic  (for use in HTML presentation)
<bold>     bold    (in master files)
<b>        bold    (for use in HTML presentation)
<colf>   bold,    Collocation font.  Same font as used in collocations.
        smaller      This is used only in the list of "un-" words not
        by 1 point   actually defined in the dictionary.  Probably could be
                     replaced by a segment mark for the entire list!
                     The "un-" words should be indexed as headwords.

<ct>   bold    Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used in 
                 collocations.  However, this tag is used in a table
                 and could be set to a different font.

<h1>      *     HTML tag -- largest heading font.

<h2>      *     HTML tag -- second largest heading font.

<headrow> *    Marks a Row title in a table.

<hwf>      Font the same as the headword <hw>, though the field is
                 not a headword.  Used only once.

<mitem>  *   Multiple items, a set of items in a table.
<point ...> A series of point size markers, many unique.
<point1.5> *  One of the tags of the form <point**> where **
<point6>        represents the typographic point size of the 
                enclosed text.
<pre>     An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed text is
             of teletype form, preformatted in a uniform-spaced
             font.
<sc>       small caps    (used mostly for "a. d.",  "b. c.")
              This is the same font a <er>, but has no functional
              or semantic significance
<str>       group of table data elements in a table
<sub>       subscript, like <subs>
<subs>      subscript
<sups>      superscript
<supr>      superscript
<sansserif> Sans-serif font
<stypec>    Bold (collocation font) and also a subtype.
<tt>         HTML tage -- teletype font
<universbold>  A squared bold font without serifs approximating the
               "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4, slightly 
               larger than the capitals in a definition body.  Used
               in expositions describing shapes, such as
                  "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F".
<vertical>  Vertically organized column.
<column1>   Vertically organized column -- only part of a table
              which needs to be completed.  Used once.
<...type>   A series of tags, many unique, designating certain
              unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype" for
              "bourgeois type", in the section on typography.
           Most of these occur only once, in the section on fonts.
<antiquetype>
<blacklettertype>
<boldfacetype>
<bourgeoistype>
<boxtype>
<clarendontype>
<englishtype>
<extendedtype>
<frenchelzevirtype>
<germantype>
<gothictype>
<greatprimertype>
<longprimertype>
<miniontype>
<nonpareiltype>
<oldenglishtype>
<oldstyletype>
<pearltype>
<picatype>
<scripttype>
<smpicatype>
<typewritertype>

=============================================================
Tags with semantic content:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
<altsp>    *          Alternative spelling segment.  Almost always
                         contained within square brackets after the main
                          definition segment.  Expository words
                          such as "Spelled also" are in plain font;
                          the actual alternative spelling is marked by
                          <asp> ...  </asp> tags within this segment.

<ant>     italic     Antonym.

<asp>    italic      Alternative spelling.  The actual word which is an
                          alternative spelling to the headword.  These
                          are functionally synonyms of the headword.  In
                          most cases these also occur as headwords, with
                          reference to the word where the actual definition
                          is found, but not all such words are listed
                          separately, particularly if the spelling is
                          close enough to the headword to be found at the
                          same point in the dictionary.  Whether listed
                          separately or not, these words should
                          be indexed at this location, also.

<au>    italic          Authority or author.  Used where an authority is
      (may be right-       given for a definition, and also used for the
       justified. See      author, where a quotation within double quotes
       in the section      is given in  the same paragraph as the
       on formatting).     definition.  The double quotes are indicated
                           by the open-quote (\'bd) and close-quote
                           (\'b8).   In both cases, it is typically
                           right-justified, almost always fitting on
                           the same line with the last line of the
                           definition or quotation.
                               Within collocation segments, it is usually
                           used only after quotations, and is not right-
                           justified, except occasionally where it
                           would be close to the right margin, and then
                           apparently is is right-justified.  We have
                           not explicitly marked those which are
                           right-justified, but they can be
                           recognized because they are on a line by
                           themselves, preceded by two carriage returns.

<bio>       *       Marks a biography.  Should be longer than
                      a short mention of who a person was, which
                      is typically included as a definition.

<biography>   *     Same as <bio>

<booki>  italic      Marks the name of a book, pamphlet, or similar
                     document.

<branchof>    *       A field of knowledge which of which the headword 
                           is a division.

<caption>    *     Caption of a figure or table.

<cas>       *      tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) registry
                      number for a chemical substance. 

<causes> italic    tags the infectious disease caused by the headword.
                   Implied type of the agent is a microorganism, and
                   the tag must mark a disease.

<causesp>    *      Same as <causes> without the italic type.
<causedbyp>  *      Same as <causedby> without the italic type.

<causedby> italic  inverse of causes: tags the causative agent of an
                   infectious disease, which is the headword .
                   the tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or
                   prion, and the implied type of the headword is 
                   a disease.

<centered>  Used only for The single letter in the headers to each
            letter of the alphabet.

<city>    *        marks the proper name of a city.  Used only
                   occasionally and not consistently at this stage.

<cnvto>   italic    Converted to: used to tag substances which are
                      products prepared by conversion from the
                      headword.  Usually chemicals or complex
                      products from mnatuarl materials.  Rarely used
                      up to 1998.

<colheads>  *      List of heads for the columns of a table.

<coltitle>  *      Title of a column in a table.

<comm>      *      Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line with 
                     the definition paragraph.  Provides a little
                     additional information.

<company>   *      Name of a company (commercial firm).  Compare <org>

<compof>  italic    Composed of.  Tags a substance of which the 
                      headword is at least partly composed.  The
                      substance may be particulate, such as
                      diatoms composing diatomaceous earth.

<contains>  *       marks an object contained within the headword.

<contr>   italic    Contrasting word.  Not exactly an antonym, which
                      is marked <ant>, but a contrasting word which is
                      often introduced as "opposite to" or "contrasts
                      with".

<country>  *       Name of a country (nation) of the world.

<cref>  italic     Collocation reference.  A reference to a collocation.
                        Each such collocation should have its own entry,
                        marked by <col> ... </col> tags, and these
                        references should function as hypertext buttons
                        to access that entry.

<date>      *        A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>.

<datey>     *        Date-with-year tags a date containing a year.

<def>       *         definition.  The definition may have subfields,
                            particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase
                            starting with "as" or "thus" and containing
                            the headword (or a morphological derivative).
                            The <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and
                            right double quotes) and <au> fields may be
                            found within a definition field, but should
                            and usually are located outside the definition
                            proper.  The marking macro was
                            inconsistent in this placement, and the
                            exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and quotations
                            needs to be completed by the proof-readers.
                                 Certain definitions contain <pos>
                           fields within them, where the headword is
                           an irregular derivative of another headword.
                           In these cases, the <pos> field follows
                           immediately after the <def> tag, and these
                           entries do not have a separate <pos> field.
                           In such cases, the <pos> field is italic, as
                           usual.

<divof>        *     Division of the headword, usually an organization.
                     E. g. a faculty or department of a university,
                     or a United Nations agency.

<edi>       *        Marks an education institution, a subtype of
                           organization.

<emits>     *      tags a physical object or form of radiation
                       emitted by the headword

<figure>    Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom used.

<film>    italic      Marks the name of a movie film.

<fld>     italic         Field of specialization.  Most often used for
                           Zoology and Botany, but many "fields of
                           specialization" are marked for technical
                           terms.  The parentheses are usually within this
                           field, but are not themselves in italics.

<geog>  *       Name of a geograpahical region of any size;
                    if applicable, the more specific <city>,
                    <state>, or <country> are preferred.

<hypen>     *          Hyperym.  Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5
                          Initially, used only for entries extracted
                          from WordNet 1.5.  Not present in the original
                          1913 version.
                                           
<illu>     *  Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and placed
               outside the definition, in contrast to <as> usage.
              These should be converted to <as>...</as> illustrative
              usage format for consistency.

<illust>   *  Illustration place-holder.  Seldom used.
<img>      *  HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually
               .gif or .jpg.  These have no closing tag, and 
               will appear as errors in parsing.
<intensi>  *   Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified 
                  form of the headword. Taken from WordNet
                  tags, used with some adjectives from WordNet
<item>     *  Designates one item in a row of a table.  Used only when
               intervening spaces do not serve properly as natural
               field separaters.
<itran>  italic  Translation into a foreign (non-English) language 
                   of the previous word in the text -- italic font.
                   (<sig> is a translation into English)
<itrans>  italic  Same as <itran>
<jour>     *    Title of a journal (periodical).
<matrix>   *    Always a filled rectangular array.
<matrix2x5> *   A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns).
<mstypec>  *    Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in 
                  def. of "grass".
<mtable>   *    Multiple table, encloses <table> figures.
<musfig>   *    Music figure.  Only in a note under the entry "Figure", 
                the two numbers of each such field
                are bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction with
                a bar between them, but also having a horizontal stroke  
                midway through each numeral. Unique to this entry.
<p>        *   paragraph tag, used always in pairs.  Line breaks may
                  be embedded inside the paragraphs.
<person>  *    marks the proper name of a person.  Used only
                   occasionally, but should be used more frequently
                   for cases where first names are abbreviated,
                   to reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic
                   analysis.  Where a title is given, prefixed 
                   or postfixed, it is included in this tag.

<persfn>  *     marks the name of a person, when only one name
                   (usually the last name) is given.  Not used
                   consistently where it should be.

<publ>    *    Marks the name of a publication other than book, 
                  which is marked by <booki>.  It is often a
                  magazine or journal.
<qpers>   *    Tags the name of a person who is speaking, 
                  within a quotation.
<qperson>      Same as <qpers>
<cp>      *    Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases that
                  should be parsed as a unit, but has no typographical
                  significance.
<qau>    italic  Always right-justified, as described for <au>.
<ref>     *     A reference to a word in the vocabulary.
<refs>    *     Marks the set of references used for a longer article
                  such as a biography.
<river>   *     Marks the name of a river -- a proper name
<rj>      *     Right justified
<row>     *     Designates a row in a table.
<state>   *    Name of a geopolitical state, the first subdivision of
                 a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian provinces.
<subtypes> *   Lists subtypes of the headword.
<sup>     *    superscript
<supr>    *    Supra.  The two parts of each such field
                 are stacked, one over the other, *without* a
                 horizontal bar between (as in a fraction).
                 Used only in one entry, for a musical notation.
<table>   *   Always a filled rectangular array, having <row> and <item>
                  elements.
<td>      *   Table datum - one cell in a table
<th>      *   Table header
<tradename> *  Tags a commercial Trade name
<ttitle>   *   Table title (Larger than normal font)
====================================================================

Functional Tags
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Tag        Font                        Meaning
                      (Comparatives are relative to the plain font.)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
<--    -->   *    Comment, not a tag.  These segments should be deleted
                     from the written or printed text.
                  Page numbers of the original text are indicated
                     within such comments;  these may be left in, if
                      desired.

<!   !>      *    HTML-style comment.  Used to indicate page numbers 
                     in the public domain version.

<adjf>   small caps     Tags for the actual adjective or adverb
                            comparatives or superlatives.  Should be
                            indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and
                            decf (nouns).

<altname>  italic        Alternative name.  Usually for plants or animals,
                           but also used for other cases where words
                           are introduced by "also called", "called also",
                           "formerly called".  These are functionally
                           *synonyms* for that word-sense.

<altnpluf> italic        Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a
                            plural form, whereas the headword is singular.

<amorph>      *         Adjective morphological segment, primarily
                           the comparative and superlative forms.
                           The occasional adverb morphology is
                           also tagged this way.

<as>        *           A segment occurring within the definitional
                          sentence, providing an example of usage of
                          the headword.  Not conceptually a part of the
                          actual definition.

<cd>   smaller spacing  Collocation definition.  Similar in structure
                           to headword definitions (the <def> field).  May
                           contain an <as> field.  Plain type, but with
                           closer spacing than main definitions.

<col>    bold,            Collocation.  A word combination containing the
         smaller by           headword (or a morphological derivative).
         1 point              The collocations do not have an explicitly
                              marked part of speech.
                          See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations.

<colp>                   Collocation, no typographic significance.
                             Used to mark a word combination defined in
                             the dictionary without affect on font.

<conjf>   small caps    The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of 
                           verbs.  imp. & p. p. is common, as well as
                           p. pr. & vb. n.   Irregular variants of
                           these are less common.  Words in this
                           field perhaps should be indexed.

<cs>   smaller          Collocation segment. The font and size is
       vertical            normal in a cs, but the spacing between lines
       spacing             is smaller (0.9 mm between lower-case letters,
                           rather than 1.1 mm in the main body of the
                           definition).  For an on-line dictionary,
                           reproducing this typography is probably
                           pointless.

<decf>    small caps    The actual morphological variants of nouns or
                            pronouns.  Should be indexed.

<ecol>       *           Embedded Collocation.  A word combination
                           containing the headword (or a morphological
                           derivative, embedded within a definition 
                           without a separate definitin of its own.
                           These collocations should be defined
                           implicitly by the text of the definition in
                           which they are embedded.
                         See also <col>, tagging explicitly defined
                            collocations.
<er>      Small Caps     Entry reference.  References to headwords
                           within the "etymology" section are in small
                           caps.  Such references also occur
                           in the body of definitions, and in "usage"
                           segments.
                        Such entry references should function as hypertext
                           buttons to access that entry.

<ety>        *           Etymology.  Always contained within square
                           brackets.  Normal type is used for explanatory
                           comments, and italics for the actual words
                           (marked <ets>) considered as etymological
                           sources.

<ets>      italic        Etymological source.  Words from which the
                           headword was derived, or to which it is related.
                           The Greek words within an etymology segment
                           are invariably etymology sources, and should
                           be marked as such, but are not so marked,
                           even in the rare cases where the Greek word
                           transliteration has been written in.

<etsep>    italic        Etymological source, being the name of a person
                            or geographical location which is the eponym
                            for the concept.  This is used to distinguish
                            eponymous etymologies from others, and can also
                            be found in the body of a definition or note,
                            not only in the etymology field.  Very few
                            of the names that should be marked this way
                            have actually been so marked, as of version
                            0.42.  In cases where such eponymous names
                            have not yet been thus marked, they will
                            usually be marked by <xex>, the non-semantic
                            italic-font marker, or, in etymologies, by
                            <ets>.

<ex>      italic       Example.  An example of usage of the headword,
                          usually found within an <as> or <note> segment.

<fr>        *           Frequency of use, ordinal rank.  This is used for
                           WordNet entries, in which the synonyms
                           were ranked in order of frequency of use.
                           <fr>1</fr> indicates that the headword is the
                           first word on the list of synonyms.

<fu>         *           First use.  A date at or around which the first 
                            use of this word in writing is recorded.
                            Not in the original 1913 Webster, and usu.
                            taken from a recent dictionary.  Only a few
                            such fields have been entered as of version
                            0.41

<grk>   transliteration  Greek.  The Greek words have been transliterated
                             using the equivalents explained in the
                             file "webfonts.asc".  In most cases, the
                             transliterations are typical for Greek
                             letters, except for theta (transl = q),
                             phi (transl. = f), eta (transl. = h), and
                             upsilon (transl. = y, whether pronounced
                             as y or u).  This was to eliminate any
                             ambiguity.  These words occur primarily
                             in etymologies, and to conform to the
                             usage of <ets> should also be marked
                             by <ets>, but as of version 0.41 they
                             are not usually thus marked.

<hw>       bold,         headword.  Each main entry begins with the <hw>
           larger by       mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark.  The
           2 points        main entries are not otherwise explicitly
                           marked as a distinctive field.
                              The same word may appear as a headword
                          several times, usually as different parts
                          of speech, but sometimes with different
                          entries as the same part of speech, presumably
                          to indicate a different etymology.
                              Within the hw field the heavy accent is
                           represented by double quote ("), the
                           light accent by open-single-quote (`),
                           and the short dash separating syllables by
                           an asterisk (*). A hyphen (-) is used to
                           represent the hyphen of hyphenated words.

<mark>     italic,       Usage mark.  Almost always within square
                          brackets, occasionally in parentheses or
                          without any bracketing.
           but            The most common usage marks,
           explanatory    "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." =
           may be plain.   colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
                           etc. are in italics.  Some usage notes are also
                          marked with <mark>, but are in plain.  For
                          simplicity, all words in this field may be
                          italic, until additional explicit marks are
                          added.

<markp>     *           A usage mark in plain type (not italic).  Found
                          within a definition, when there are more than
                          one sense-number listed.  "Fig." at the head
                          of an entry is the most common case.

<mcol>     *              Multiple collocation.  Similar to multiple
                            headword, when two or more collocations share
                            one definition; however, the two collocations
                            are in-line, rather than stacked or justified.
                               There may be "or" or "and" words
                            (italicised), or an "etc." (plain type)
                            within this field.  In many cases, the
                            <or/ and <and/ entities are used to
                            signify the change of font for these words.

<mhw>        *          Multiple headword.   This field is used where
                           more than one headword shares a single
                           definition.  In the dictionary, the
                           (usually) two headwords are left-justified
                           one below the other in the column, and are
                           tied together on the right side of the
                           headwords by a long right curly brace.
                              This division is strictly functional,
                           for analytical purposes, and does not
                           affect the typography.

<nmorph>      *         Noun morphology section.  Rarely used, mostly
                             for irregular personal pronouns.

<note>    *              Explanatory note.  No explicit font is indicated.
                            These segments may be separate, as in the
                            separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/,
                            or they may just be further explanation within
                            (or more usually, following) the main
                            definition paragraph.  Typographically,
                            the notes following the main definition may
                            not be distinguishable from additional
                            sentences appended to the first sentence
                            of a definition.

<plu>        *           Plural.  The "plural" segment starts with a
                           "pl." which is italicised, but in this
                           segment is not otherwise marked as
                           italicised.  Other words occurring in this
                           segment are plain type.  The "pl." can be
                           easily explicitly marked if necessary.

<pos>       italic       Part of speech.  Always an abbreviation: e.g.,
                          n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep.
                          Combinations may occur, as "a. & n.".

<plw>    small caps      Plural word.  The actual plural form of the word,
                            found within a <plu> segment.

<pr>        *           pronunciation.  The default font is normal, but
                           many non-ASCII characters are used.
                           The pronunciation field may have more than
                           one pronunciation, separated by an "<or/".
                           (An "or" here is in italic, and usually is
                           represented by the entity <or/).
                           There may also be some commentary, such as
                           "Fr."(French pronunciation) or "archaic".
                           The commentaries are typically italic, and
                           should be marked as such.  In certain
                           pronunciations there is a numbered reference
                           to a root form explained in an introductory
                           section on pronunciation.
                               Very few of the pronunciation fields have
                           been filled in.  The pronunciation markings use
                           a more complicated method than more modern
                           dictionaries.  It would be interesting to have
                           these fields filled in, if there are any
                           volunteers willing to do it.

<q>     smaller by         Quotation.  No bracketing quotation marks,
        two points,          though occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur
         centered,           within these quotations.  These quotations
        Separate             tend to be more complete sentences, rather
         paragraph           than just phrases, such as are contained
                             within quotation marks within the definition
                             paragraph.

<qau>    italic,          Quotation author.  Used only for the quotations
       right justified       marked with <q> that are centered in their
                             own paragraphs.

<qex>    italic           Quotation example.  An example of usage of
                            the headword, within quotations marked
                            by <q>..</q> tags.

<sd>    italic     Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc.  THese are
                       finer distinctions of word senses, used
                       within numbered word-sense (for main entries),
                       and also used for subdefinitions within
                       collocation segments, which have no numbering of
                       senses.  The letter is italic, the parentheses
                       are not.  This tag is also used to indicate the
                       lettered subdefinition when it is referred to
                       at another point in the text.

<ship>  italic      The name of a ship.  Rarely used.

<sing>      *          Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but more
                            rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which
                            are listed in the plural form.

<singw>  small caps     Singular word.  The singular form of the
                            plural-form  headword.

<sn>       bold,         Sense number.  A headword may have over 20
           larger by       different sense numbers.  Within each numbered
           2 points        sense there may be lettered sub-senses.  See
                           the <sd> (sub-definition) field.

<source> italic     Source.  The author of the definition.  Used only 
                           for definitions not originally present in
                           Webster 1913, and not present in the original
                           version intended to mimic the 1913 printed
                           dictionary.  This source is used for each
                           word sense, and may differ for different
                           senses of a word, especially where a Web1913
                           definition was substantially modified, or a
                           new word sense was added to a previously
                           defined word.

<syn>    plain      Synonyms.  A list of synonyms, sometimes followed
                       by a <usage> segment.

<usage>  narrower   Comparisons of word usage for words which are
         spacing      sometimes confused.  As with collocation segments,
                      font is plain, but spacing is smaller than
                      normal definition spacing.  This seems pointlessly
                      complicating for an on-line display.

<vmorph>     *           Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited
                            by square brackets.

<wordforms>  *           Morphological derivatives not contained in the
                           bracketed segments, as above.  For nouns
                           derived from adjectives, adverbs from
                           adjectives, etc.  This segment is usually
                           found at the end of the main entry. The
                           adverbial and nominalized derivatives at the
                           end of a main entry are usually introduced
                           by an em dash [represented as two hyphens (--)].

<wf>      bold,          Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable
          larger by        breaks marked as in the headword.
          2 points         Marks the actual morphological forms within
                           a <wordforms> segment; typically, adverbial or
                           nominalized form of an adjective.


<def2>     *        Second definition (occasionally, a third definition is
                       present).  This is used where a second or third
                       part of speech with the same orthography is
                       placed under one headword.  Within this segment,
                       there will be a <pos> field, and sometimes
                       a <mark> and/or a quotation.

<specif>   *       "Specifically:"  Used to mark the words "specifically",
                    "Hence", "as" which are used to introduce a second
                    definition typically more specific than the first,
                    but in general derived by extension of the initial
                    definition.   This functions as a warning of multiple
                    definitions where the sense-numbers are not explicitly
                    used.  It is also useful in separate senses, to 
                    tag polysemous definitions which may be
                    specializations or generalizations of the preceding 
                    definition.

<pluf>   italic.   Plural form.
                      Used exclusively to mark the "pl." abbreviation,
                      which introduces a definition for the headword,
                      *when used in the plural form*.  Not related to
                      <plu>, which spells out the plural form, but does
                      define it.

<uex>    italic    Usage example.  Used only a few times, within
                       <usage> segments.

<isa>    italic    supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and 
                   identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet.

<chform>  plain,   Chemical formula.  The letters are plain font,
         numbers     but the numbers are subscript.   This is mostly
         subscript   useful as a functional mark to pinpoint
                     chemicals.

<chformi> plain,   Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not
                     processed specially by the tag-converter program.
                     The letters are plain font, but the numbers are
                           subscript.
                     Used in place of <chform> when the formula has
                        a tag inside, which cannot now be processed by the
                        <chform> processing routine.

<chname>   *       chemical name.  Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
                   name to be processed as a unit in spite of
                   embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas.

<see>     *        "see" reference to related words, outside of the
                      main <def>definition</def> field.
                  
<mathex> italic    Mathematical expression.  In this dictionary,
                     essentially all letters (used as variable labels)
                     in math expressions are in italic font.
                     The "+" and "-" may also appear typographically
                     different from elsewhere in the dictionary.

<ratio> italic    Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and
                     double colon may have a different typography
                     than usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio>

<singf>  italic   Singular form.  Analogous to <pluf>, to define
                     the singular word where the headword is the
                     plural form. ** only modifies the word "sing."

<mord>    *       Morphological derivation.  Used to mark the
                     entry-reference portions of those
                     entries which are defined as morphological
                     derivatives (plural, p. p., imp.) of other
                     headwords.  Used just as an attempt to
                     mark and regularize the entry format.
                     May be ignored typographically.

<fract> a stack,  Fraction.  Used for non-numerical fractions
          with       which cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style
        numerator,   entity.  The forward slash "/" is to be
        horizontal   interpreted as a horizontal line separating
         bar, and    the numerator and denominator.
       denominator

<exp>  superscript,  Exponential.  Used in mathematical expressions.
        smaller
         font.

<xlati> italic     Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a
                      definition or etymology.  Used only twice.

<tran>  italic     Word translated: the word in italic is translated
                      by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies, where 
                      the word translated is not actually etymologically
                      related to the headword.  The translated word
                      is not necessarily English.

<tr>     italic    translation of the preceding word (or of the
                      headword) into English.

<fexp>    *        Functional expression (math).  The function names are
                     in plain type, the variables are italic.

<iref>   italic    Illustration reference.  Used ony occasionally, not
                       yet (v. 0.41) consistently.

<figref> italic    Figure reference.

<figcap>   *       Figure caption.

<figtitle>   *       Figure title.

<funct>     *     tags a mathematical function or expression.

<chreact>  *      Chemical reaction.  Similar to chemical formulas (which
                    are contained but not explicitly marked), with
                    some other symbols.

<ptcl>  italic    Verb Particle.  Only a few particles were actually
                    marked, but in a future version more may be.

<tabtitle> ?      Table Title.  Used only once.

<title>  italic   Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical
                     composition, etc.  Used rarely but should be
                     used in every case, except in <au> references.

<root>    *       Square root -- differs from the entity <root/,
                    which is a square root sign that does not extend
                    beyond the number following it.  The <root>
                    field has a bar (vinvulum) over the expression 
                    within the field, as well as the square root symbol
                    preceding the  expression in the field.  Used only
                    once.

<vinc>    *      Vinculum.  In a mathematical expression, a bar
                    extending over the expression within the field.
                    Used only once.  This apparently serves the same
                    function as a parentheses, of causing the 
                    expression within the field to be evaluated
                    and the result used as the (mathematical) value 
                    of the field.

<nul>    plain   Nultype.  An older version of <plain>.

<cd2>     *      Second collocation definition.  Somewhat similar to
                   <def2>.  Purely a mark to reduce functional ambiguity,
                   with no effect on the typography.

<hypen>   *      Hypernym.  Mark introduced for the World Wide Webster,
                    when adding words from WordNet.  In most cases, this
                    tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for nouns and verbs).
                    Where the <au> mark is PJC or includes a +PJC, the
                    hypernym may not be the same as in WordNet.  The words
                    marked by this tag need to be bracketed in some way,
                    but this is deferred until the definitions included
                    with the hypernyms have been deleted, and other
                    disambiguating marks substituted.

<stype>  italic   Subtype.  A functional mark, to point out words which
                     are conceptually subtypes of the headword.

<styp>      *     Subtype.  A functional mark, to point out words which
                      are conceptually subtypes of the headword, but
                      with no *typographical* significance.

<simto>  *       Similar-to.  A semantic relational mark for 
                     closely related words which are not quite
                     synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms.  Introduced
                     with WordNet data.

<conseq>   *     Consequence.  For adjectives, is an attribute which
   or               is a consequence of possessing the headword attribute.
<hascons>           Introduced with WordNet data.

<consof>   *     Consequence of.  For adjectives, an attribute which
                    implies the headword as a natural consequence.

<part>    italic   Part.  Marks a word designating something which is
                     conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely used.

<parts>   italic   Part, plural form.  Same as <part>, but marks the
                      name of the part in its plural form.

<partof>    *      Marks a word designating something of which the headword
                     is conceptually a part. Inverse of <part>.  
                     This is very broad, and may mean constituent or
                     separable part.
                     Rarely used.

<contxt>    *      Context.   Used only for introductions to definitions,
                       giving the context of usage, which are not part
                       of the definition proper, as:
                      <contxt>when used of a person:</contxt>

<grp>       *      Marks the name of a group of people not formally
                     organized.

<membof> italic    marks a group of which the headword is a member.
                   This is rarely used, but should be indexed as
                   an entry word or phrase.

<member> italic    marks a member of a group defined by the headword.
                   This is rarely used, but should be indexed as
                   an entry word or phrase.

<members> italic   Same as <member>, but marks a plural word,
                   designating the name of the members in its plural form,
                   for lack of ambiguity.

<method>   *      Designates a special type of definition which
                    describes a method for achieving the headword,
   
                    used only once for the word "amend".  The
                    subdefinitions begin with "by".

<corpn>    *      Name of a business company, corporation, or partnership.
                  Started using November 1988. Rare.

<corr>    italic  Correlative.  A word intimately associated with the
                     headword in a manner such that one cannot
                     appear without the other.  NOt exactly an inverse.

<qperson> italic   marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue.
                   Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45.

<org>     *        marks the name of an organization; sometimes used
                     for the names of groups of people not 
                     formally organized *see also <grp>.

<prod>   italic    produces.  Designates a substance produced by
                   a living organism.  Rarely used.

<prodp>    *       produces (plainfont).  Designates a substance
                   produced by a living organism.  Same as <prod>, 
                   but does not affect font. Rarely used.

<prodby>    *      produced by.  Designates a living organism which
                   produces the headword substance. Rarely used.

<prodmac> italic   produces.  Designates an object or substance produced
                   by a machine or process.  Rarely used.

<stage>  italic    life stage of an organism.  Used to indicate
                   variant forms of an organism defined by the
                   headword.  Rarely used.

<stageof>   *      an organism one of whose life stages is the headword.
                   Inverse (correlative) of <stage>. Rarely used.

<inv>    italic    inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository
                   is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse of
                   seller.  Called "correlative" in the Webster 1913 and
                   the CIDE.  Rarely used.

<methodfor> italic is a method to accomplish the action defined by
                   the headword.  Rarely used, and only in the
                   supplemental section.

<examp>  italic    example or instance of the headword, where the
                   tagged and emphasized word is not a proper subtype.
--------------------------------------
<p><hw>Pa*ron"y*mous</hw> <p><sn>2.</sn> <def>Having a similar sound, but different orthography and different meaning; -- said of certain words, as <examp>all</examp> and <examp>awl</examp>; <examp>hair</examp> and <examp>hare</examp>, etc.</def><br/
[<source>1913 Webster</source>]</p>
-------------------------------------

<sfield>  *       subfield of the headword, which must be a field
                    of study or of knowledge
<stage> italic    a stage of life of the headword -- for living things,
                    such as insects, whose life stages may take different
                    names.

<unit> italic     a unit of measure, usually preceded by a number.
                    Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is the
                    headword.

<uses> italic     tags a tool or method used by the headword,
                    which is usually some process.

<usedfor> *      tags a method or process for which the headword
                    is a tool.

<usedby> italic  tags a tool or method which uses the headword,
                    which is usually a physical object.

<perf> italic     performs -- tags a word which is a process or
                  activity performed by the headword.

<recipr> italic  reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged word
                   is a reciprocal participant in an action, such as
                   donor and recipient.  The difference between this and
                   <inv> inverse has not yet been systematically settled.
                   Used seldom, and mostly in the supplemented version.

<sig>  italic    significance, meaning -- used in definitions where the 
                   actual meaning is prefixed with commentary explaining
                   usage or other attributes of the word, as with
                   prefixes or suffixes. 

<wns>  italic    WordNet sense.  Where known, the correspondence of the 
                   sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6 is
                   given after the definition, in a tag of the 
                   form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number
                   is the numbered sense in WordNet.

<w16ns> italic    WordNet version 1.6 sense.  See <wns> for
                     explanation.
<wnote>   *       A note related to usage in the corresponding 
                      WordNet definition.
 =============================================================
Biological classifications:
---------------------------
<spn>     italic     Species name.  Used to mark the taxonomic names
                      of living things which are represented in
                      italic font in the original printed version.
                      Originally, not only species, but genera, orders and 
                      families were also thus marked.  The conversion from
                      <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord> is not completed, and
                      <spn> may stil be found marking such groups.
                      However, orders and families are also frequently
                      mentioned in the original in normal font, and in such
                      cases are not marked with any tag.  So, this mark
                      is not a reliable indicator of all mentions of
                      taxonomic names.
<kingdom>  italic      Taxonomic biological Kingdom name.
<phylum>   italic      Taxonomic phylum name.
<subphylum> italic     Taxonomic subphylum name.
<class>    italic      Taxonomic class name.
<subclass> italic      Taxonomic subclass name.
<ord>      italic      Taxonomic order name.
                           Also used for suborders, initially.
<subord>   italic      Taxonomic suborder name.
<suborder> italic      Taxonomic suborder name.
<fam>      italic      Taxonomic family name.  Also used to tag "tribes".
<subfam>   italic      Taxonomic subfamily name.
<gen>      italic      Taxonomic genus name.
<var>     italic   Variety.   Used to mark subspecies or varities below 
                     the level of species in living organism systematic
                     names.

<varn>    italic   Variety.   Used to mark subspecies or varities below 
                     the level of species in living organism systematic
                     names.  Duplicative variant of <var>


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