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+file PRONUNC.WEB
+================
+ This file gives a number of examples of pronunciation,
+using the entity symbols representing the pronunciations as
+found in the 1913 Webster unabridged dictionary. Not all
+vowel sounds are given here, but the examples should allow one
+to recognize the characters and recall the symbols used to
+represent them. The set of symbols used for pronunciation
+is different from that used in most modern dictionaries,
+but a more worrisome problem is that the pronunciations themselves
+seem in many cases to differ from modern usage. The places of
+the strong and weak accent are, however, in every case
+examined, the same as in modern dictionaries. Anyone who is
+willing to work at revising the pronunciations to reflect modern
+usage or modern symbols should contact PJC.
+
+
+ Pronunciations in the 1913 Webster ASCII version
+ =================================================
+
+Syllables:
+----------------
+ in pronunciations, the short hyphen used in the printed version as a
+syllable-break is represented in the ASCII version by an asterisk (*).
+ the main (heavy) accent is represented by a double-quote (").
+ the secondary (light) accent is represented by a left-single-quote
+(grave accent) (`)
+ the hyphen in hyphenated words is represented by the ASCII hyphen (-).
+ where an accent occurs, no other syllable break is used.
+ sometimes a hyphen occurs after an accent.
+ ------------------------------------------------
+
+Consonants:
+ Most consonants have their normal value in the pronunciations,
+but there are a few special characters, as the n-submacron and the
+"th" ligature. See the end of the "special characters" section.
+
+Special characters:
+--------------------
+ The special characters are represented by two different sets of
+symbols: (1) the RTF-format hexadecimal codes such as \'94 for
+o-umlaut, meaning that the byte code is hexadecimal 94. These
+are used only for those symbols which have been designed into a
+special font set for this dictionary. The font set can only be used
+in a DOS system; or
+(2) an "entity" symbol using "<" and "/" as opening and closing
+delimiters, with a mnemonic string between. In the case of o-umlaut
+the symbol is <oum/. For the vowels, the system is consistent,
+thus <aum/ is a-umlaut, and <ium/ is i-umlaut, etc.
+ These delimiters are used in preference to the HTML-style
+(e.g. &auml;) delimiters because of the heavy use of ampersands in
+the dictionary, to minimize file length. For the same reason,
+the codes within the delimiters are generally shorter than the
+corresponding ISO 8879 codes ( <aum/ rather than &auml; ).
+ For this discussion, I will use the "entity" coding. The
+equivalent hexadecimal codes, where they exist, will be found in
+the tables in the file "webfont.asc".
+
+ The pronunciation system of the 1913 Webster has three peculiarities
+relative to systems used in recent dictionaries.
+(1) a more complex set of symbols are used. This is evident, for
+ example, where the long vowels have different symbols whether
+ they are used in stressed or unstressed syllables. Thus
+ long a in "acre" or "chaos" is represented as a-macron (<amac/ in
+ our notation). But in "chaotic" or "connate" or "comate" it is
+ represented as a symbol looking like a-macron, but with a short
+ ascender in the middle of the macron above the a. This is denoted
+ <asl/ ("a semilong") in our notation.
+
+ Also, some sounds have more than one symbol. Thus, there are several
+ symbols using "y" with a diacritical mark above, representing
+ identical sounds using "i" or "e", but used in those cases where the
+ written word has a "y" in it. So words ending in "y" with
+ pronunciations like the unaccented long "e" usually have
+ a y-breve (<ycr/) in the pronunciation. Why?
+
+(2) The indicated pronunciations themselves are in some cases
+ different from what one would find in a modern dictionary.
+ In part this is due to differences among orthoepists with
+ different notions of how a word should sound, and possibly
+ it is due to differences in the pronunciation between 1890,
+ when British pronunciations may have had more influence, and
+ the present. Thus we see that words ending in -"ties",
+ which are given the pronunciation "-t<icr/z", which sounds
+ like "tizz", whereas I have always heard such words pronounced
+ with a long "e", as in "teez". In Webster's 10th collegiate, they
+ mention that unstressed long e may be pronounced as i in
+ southern British or southern US dialects, and perhaps it
+ was more common in the US in 1890. The <icr/ is an unreliable
+ indicator of modern standard American pronunciation.
+
+(3) The indefinite value, represented by an upside-down e (called
+ the "schwa" is not used, the same sound being represented by
+ symbols like short u <ucr/, or sometimes other vowels.
+
+ So be warned, the pronunciations may not be quite what one would
+ expect. But for this effort, we are trying to reproduce exactly
+ the pronuciations in the original work.
+
+ Notice that in pronunciations, vowels that are obscured are often
+ represented by the italicised vowel without any diacritical marks;
+ these italicised vowels are represented as either <ait/, <eit/, etc.
+ or with an <it> tag, as in m<it>e</it>nt
+ Thus "Christian" is represented as kr<icr/s"ch<it>a</it>n
+ communicant is represented as k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt
+
+
+ Some examples of pronunciations follow:
+ for further explanations of the entities, see the file "webfont.asc"
+ ==============================================================
+
+ <amac/ long a (stressed) (a with a macron above it)
+ late = l<amac/t
+ later = l<amac/t"<etil/r
+ comb-shaped = k<omac/m"-sh<amac/pt`
+ commemorate = k<ocr/m*m<ecr/m"<osl/*r<amac/t
+ deign = d<amac/n
+ deflate = d<esl/*fl<amac/t"
+ defray = d<esl/*fr<amac/"
+ defrayal = d<esl/*fr<amac/"<ait/l
+
+
+ <asl/ long a (unstressed)
+ commodate = k<ocr/m"m<osl/*d<asl/t
+ cometary = k<ocr/m"<ecr/t*<asl/*r<ycr/
+
+ <ait/ italic a
+ communicant = k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt
+ defeasance = d<esl/*f<emac/"z<ait/ns
+ commercial = k<ocr/m*m<etil/r"sh<ait/l
+ compass = k<ucr/m"p<ait/s
+
+ <acr/ short a (a with a crescent [breve] above it)
+ adipose = <acr/d"<icr/*p<omac/s
+ absolve = <acr/b*s<ocr/lv"
+ land = l<acr/nd
+ lamp = l<acr/mp
+
+ <adot/ short a (a with a dot above it)
+ again = <adot/*g<ecr/n"
+ carouse = k<adot/*rouz"
+ coma = k<omac/"m<adot/
+ comma = k<ocr/m"m<adot/ | *These sound different
+ command = k<ocr/m*m<adot/nd" | to me
+ mass = m<adot/s
+ mash = m<adot/sh
+ mat = m<adot/t
+
+ <acir/ a-circumflex ("only in syllables closed by r")
+ care = k<acir/r
+ chair = ch<acir/r
+ share = sh<acir/r
+ compare = k<ocr/m*p<acir/r"
+
+ <aum/ a-umlaut (in pronunciations not the same as in words)
+ arsenic = <aum/r"s<esl/*n<icr/k
+ arson = <aum/r"s'n
+ arm = <aum/rm
+ carp = k<aum/rp
+ far = f<aum/r
+ mar = m<aum/r
+ compart = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"
+ compartment = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"m<eit/nt
+
+ <add/ a double dot ( with a double dot *below*)
+ all = <add/l
+ talk = t<add/k
+ swarm = sw<add/rm [not aum??]
+ water = w<add/"t<etil/r
+ default = d<esl/*f<add/lt"
+ defraud = d<esl/*fr<add/d"
+ deerstalker = d<emac/r"st<add/k`<etil/r
+
+
+ <eacute/ e-acute (e with an acute accent over it --
+ not used in pronunciations, but in the
+ spelling of words derived from European
+ languages, especially French.)
+ prot<eacute/g<eacute/ = pr<osl/`t<asl/`zh<asl/"
+
+ <ecr/ short e (e with a crescent [breve] above it)
+ degenerate = d<esl/*j<ecr/n"<etil/r*<amac/t
+ delve = d<ecr/lv
+ end = <ecr/nd
+ pet = p<ecr/t
+ ten = t<ecr/n
+
+ <esl/ long e (unstressed)
+ committee = k<ocr/m*m<icr/t"t<esl/
+ defame = d<esl/*f<amac/m"
+ define = d<esl/*f<imac/n"
+ comedy = k<ocr/m"<esl/*d<ycr/
+
+ <eit/ e italic
+ compartment = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"m<eit/nt
+ -ment = -"m<eit/nt (for most -ment endings)
+
+ <emac/ e macron (long e, stressed)
+ compeer = k<ocr/m*p<emac/r"
+ deer = d<emac/r"
+
+ <etil/ e-tilde
+ (representing the e before r in many words)
+ (for the same sound in -ur words, <ucir/ is used!)
+ fern = f<etil/rn
+ commercial = k<ocr/m*m<etil/r"sh<ait/l
+ commerce = k<ocr/m"m<etil/rs
+
+ <eum/ e-umlaut (e-diaeresis)
+ (not used in pronunciations.
+ represents e after another e, used in the 1913
+ Webster to indicate that the two e's are
+ pronounced as two vowels, as in "reentry".
+ In the supplemented version, the second e,
+ which is thus marked in the 1913 version,
+ usually has no umlaut over it, conforming
+ to modern orthographic practise.)
+
+ re<eum/nforce = r<emac/`<ecr/n*f<omac/rs"
+ re<eum/entry = r<emac/`<ecr/n"tr<ycr/
+
+ <icr/ short i (i with a crescent [breve] above it)
+ Note: In most cases, this is used where the
+ short i sound of "lip" is intended, but it is
+ also used in the middle of words where Americans
+ use an unstressed long "e" sound, (as the
+ "i" in "serial" and "serious")!?
+ and also in words ending in "ies",
+ coded as "<icr/z" (as in liberties)
+ lip = l<icr/p
+ pin = p<icr/n
+ commission = k<ocr/m*m<icr/sh"<ucr/n
+ committal = k<ocr/m*m<icr/t"t<ait/l
+ *serial = s<emac/"r<icr/*<ait/l
+ *serious = s<emac/"r<icr/*<ucr/s
+ liberty = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<ycr/
+ *but: liberties = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<icr/z
+
+ <imac/ i-macron (long i, stressed) (i with a macron above it)
+ combine = k<ocr/m*b<imac/n"
+ combined = k<ocr/m*b<imac/"nd
+
+ <isl/ long i (unstressed)
+ diameter = d<isl/*<acr/m"<esl/*t<etil/r
+ diagonal = d<isl/*<acr/g"<osl/*n<ait/l
+
+
+ <ocr/ short o (o with a crescent [breve] above it)
+ colossus = k<osl/*l<ocr/s"s<ucr/s
+ commute = k<ocr/m*m<umac/t"
+
+ <omac/ o-macron (long o, stressed) (o with a macron above it)
+ boat = b<omac/t
+ colt = k<omac/lt
+ comb = k<omac/m
+ combing = k<omac/m"<icr/ng
+ commode = k<ocr/m*m<omac/d"
+ course = k<omac/rs
+
+ <ocir/ o-circumflex ("only in syllables closed by r")
+ orb = <ocir/rb
+ lord = l<ocir/rd
+ lordship = l<ocir/rd"sh<icr/p
+ lorn = l<ocir/rn
+ cord = k<ocir/rd
+ commorse = k<ocr/m*m<ocir/rs"
+ deform = d<esl/*f<ocir/rm"
+ deformed = d<esl/*f<ocir/rmd"
+ dehortative = d<esl/*h<ocir/rt"<adot*t<icr/v
+
+ <osl/ "o semilong" (long o, unstressed)
+ diagonal = d<isl/*<acr/g"<osl/*n<ait/l
+ dejectory = d<esl/*j<ecr/k"t<osl/*r<ycr/
+
+ <oomac/ oo-macron (an oo with a macron above both o's)
+ boom = b<oomac/m
+ boot = b<oomac/t
+ boost = b<oomac/st
+ commove = k<ocr/m*m<oomac/v"
+
+ <oomcr/ oo-crescent (an oo with a crescent [breve] above both o's)
+ foot = f<oocr/t
+ cook = k<oocr/k
+
+ <umac/ u macron (long u)
+ commute = k<ocr/m*m<umac/t"
+ definitude = d<esl/*f<icr/n"<icr/*t<umac/d
+ communicant = k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt
+ defuse = d<esl/*f<umac/z"
+
+ <ucr/ short u (u with a crescent [breve] above it)
+ come = k<ucr/m
+ color = k<ucr/l"<etil/r
+ colored = k<ucr/l"<etil/rd
+ Columbia = k<osl/*l<ucr/m"b<icr/*<adot/
+ up = <ucr/p
+
+ <ycr/ y-crescent (y with a crescent [breve] above it)
+ used mostly for y-endings (supposed to sound similar to <icr/!!)
+ sounds to me like an unstressed long e
+ comedy = k<ocr/m"<esl/*d<ycr/
+ comely = k<ucr/m"l<ycr/
+ liberty = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<ycr/
+
+ <ymac/ y-macron (y with a macron above it)
+ used to represent the long i (stressed) sound, but
+ examples in pronunciations seem to be absent. It is
+ found in some foreign words in the etymologies.
+
+ ou the common "ow" sound of "town", "browse"
+ count = kount
+
+ <nsm/ n-submacron (an n with a macron underneath)
+ represents the "ng" sound when it occurs before a
+ consonant
+ defunct = d<esl/*f<ucr/<nsm/kt"
+ commingle = k<ocr/m*m<icr/<nsm/"g'l
+
+ <th/ the "th" sound in "mother"
+ this is represented in the printed work by a th ligature
+ carouse = k<adot/*rouz"
+
+ zh not a special character, but used to represent the
+ "si" sound in words like
+
+ decision = d<esl/*s<icr/zh"<ucr/n
+
+ th the usual sound as in thing and thorn
+ sh the usual as in ship
+ ch the usual as in chip
+ N (capital N) represents the nasal "n" sound of the French language
+

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