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-File README.DIC
- To accompany the GNU version of the set of files (cide.*) containing
- the electronic version of the
- Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
- (called also GCIDE)
- These files contain Version 0.46 (January 2002)
- * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
-
-The dictionary was derived from the
- Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
- Version published 1913
- by the C. & G. Merriam Co.
- Springfield, Mass.
- Under the direction of
- Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.
-
-and has been supplemented with some of the definitions from
- WordNet, a semantic network created by
- the Cognitive Science Department
- of Princeton University
- under the direction of
- Prof. George Miller
-
-and is being proof-read and supplemented by volunteers from
-around the world. This is an unfunded project, and future
-enhancement of this dictionary will depend on the efforts of
-volunteers willing to help build this free resource into a
-comprehensive body of general information. New definitions
-for missing words or words senses and longer explanatory notes,
-as well as images to accompany the articles are needed. More
-modern illustrative quotations giving recent examples of
-usage of the words in their various senses will be very
-helpful, since most quotations in the original 1913 dictionary
-are now well over 100 years old.
-
- This electronic version is being maintained by World Soul,
-a non-profit organization in Plainfield, NJ. For additional
-information or if you are willing to assist construction of this
-data source, contact:
-
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
- Patrick J. Cassidy | TEL: (908) 561-3416
- World Soul | if no answer, (908) 668-5252
- 735 Belvidere Ave. | FAX: (908) 668-5904
- Plainfield, NJ 07062-2054
- pc@worldsoul.org or cassidy@micra.com
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
-
- * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
-
-GCIDE is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
-any later version.
-
-GCIDE is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-GNU General Public License for more details.
-
-You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-along with this copy of GCIDE; see the file COPYING. If not, write
-to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
-Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
- * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
-
-STRUCTURE OF THE DICTIONARY
----------------------------
- When the archives are unpacked, the main dictionary text of
-the GCIDE will be found in 26 files named "cide.*", where the
-asterisk indicates which letter of the alphabet begins the
-words in each file. For example, file "cide.b" contains words
-beginning with the letter "B". Additional information about the
-tagging conventions and special character symbols are contained in
-ancillary files in this directory more information below). The main
-body of the 1913 dictionary was essentially identical to the edition
-published in 1890, and was republished in 1913 with an appendix
-containing "New Words". The new words of that appendix have been
-integrated into the main file in this version. However, it is important
-to keep in mind that the definitions in this dictionary are in most
-cases over 100 years old. Use them with caution!
- At the bottom of each paragraph in this dictionary, there is a
-bracketed and tagged "source" indicated. This tells from where the
-definition or other text in that paragraph came, as follows:
-
-[<source>1913 Webster</source>]
- = From the original 1890 dictionary.
-[<source>Webster 1913 Suppl.</source>]
- = From the 1913 "New Words" supplement to the Webster.
-[<source>WordNet 1.5</source>]
- = From the WordNet on-line semantic network.
-[<source>Century Dict. 1906.</source>]
- = From the Century Dictionary published in 1906, especially from
- the "proper Names" supplement (volume IX).
- published
-[<source>XXX</source>]
- = Added by one of the volunteers.
-
- The original definitions have been tagged and in some cases
-reformatted or slightly rearranged. If substantive information
-is added from a second source, usually the additional source is
-also noted, as in:
-[<source>Webster 1913 Suppl.</source> + <source>WordNet 1.5</source>]
-
- A list of the ancillary files related to the GCIDE is appended at
-the bottom of this "readme.dic" file.
- This version is tagged with SGML-like tags of the form <pos>...</pos>
-so that the original typography (italics, bold, block quotes) can be
-reproduced. A list of the most important tags for fields in the
-dictionary is given below. The tags also serve the more important
-function of allowing the information content to be conveniently imported
-into computer programs or databases. The set of tags used is described
-in the accompanying file "tagset.web". ***NOTE*** the paragraph tags
-<p>...</p> do *not* always nest properly with certain other tags, such
-as <note> and <cs> ("collocation section"), which in some cases span
-multiple paragraphs. If you are using a tag parser which detects
-improper nesting, you should first either delete the paragraph
-tags or convert them to non-tag symbols, or, if possible, set the
-parser to ignore the <p>...</p> tags.
- The unusual characters (such as Greek or the European accented
-characters, as well as special characters used in the pronunciations)
-are described in the accompanying file "webfont.asc". Some information
-on the pronunciation system used may be found by viewing the files
-"wxxvii.jpg" and "pronunc.jpg" with a GIF viewer (or any web browser),
-and additional explanations of pronunciation are in the file
-"pronunc.web".
- Each paragraph of the original text is enclosed within tags of
-the form <p> . . . </p>. Within these paragraphs are no line
-breaks, and some of the paragraphs are over 12,000 characters long.
-These lines are too long to be handled by the vi editor, and probably
-by some other text editors. At some points, embedded line breaks within
-a "paragraph" are marked by a <br/ "entity". The file can therefore
-be converted, if necessary, to a form with shorter lines, and subsequently
-reconverted back to the form having one line per paragraph.
-
- If additional line breaks are added, then in order remove the
-line breaks and reconstruct the original paragraphs, so that the
-page width can be adjusted, perform the following manipulations:
- (1) convert each line break (cr-lf combination) to a space.
- (2) convert the string "</p> " (</p> followed by two spaces)
- to </p> followed by two line breaks (cr-lf combinations)
- (3) convert the string "<br/ " (<br/ followed by one space)
- to <br/ followed by one line break (cr-lf).
-There will be some "lines" (paragraphs) with over 12,000 characters,
-which may give trouble to some simple text editors.
- A more sophisticated formatting of spaces within paragraphs may
-require the use of the fully-tagged master files. If you have
-a need for these files, contact Patrick Cassidy: cassidy@micra.com.
- The approximate beginning of each page is marked by an SGML
-comment of the form <-- p. 345 -->. (The exact beginning was in some
-cases in the middle of a paragraph, which we decided was not a
-good location for these page-number comments, so the page number
-was usually moved to the next paragraph break). Pages which have
-been proofread by volunteers (e.g., with initials VOL) will have a
-note within that page comment: <-- p. 345 pr=VOL -->. Pages which have
-not been proofread yet (most of them) will have varying numbers of
-typographical errors in them. We still (January 2002) need
-proofreaders to get the errors out of these dictionary files.
-
-***********************************************************************
-** WARNING!!! **
-***********************************************************************
-
- This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic
-errors, including errors in the field-marks. In addition, the user must
-keep in mind that this text is very old and will contain numerous
-obsolete, inaccurate, and perhaps offensive statements, which are
-included solely because this work is intended to reproduce accurately
-this historically interesting classic reference work. This text should
-not be relied upon as an accurate source of information, as in many
-cases it represents the state of knowledge around 1890. The text is
-provided "as is", and the user must accept responsibility for all
-consequences of its use. Please refer to the header of each file and
-the GNU public license. If these conditions of use are unacceptable,
-please do not use these texts.
-************************************************************************
-************************************************************************
- This electronic dictionary is also made available as a potential
-starting point for development of a modern comprehensive encyclopedic
-dictionary, to be accessible freely on the internet, and developed by the
-efforts of all individuals willing to help build a large and freely
-available knowledge base. A large number of collaborators are needed to
-bring this dictionary to a more accurate, more modern, and more useful
-state. Anyone willing to assist in any way in constructing such a
-knowledge base should contact Patrick Cassidy (see above). All reports
-of errors will be gratefully received, and should also be transmitted to
-PC at: pc@worldsoul.org.
-
-In addition to the main text of the dictionary, additional
-explanatory material about this version of the dictionary is available
-in the ancillary files:
-
-=====================================================================
-COPYING 18,321 11-03-99 1:13a COPYING
-README DIC 13,775 01-17-02 11:48p readme.dic
-WEBFONT ASC 35,234 12-12-01 3:27p WEBFONT.ASC
-TAGSET WEB 55,843 08-16-01 1:16p TAGSET.WEB
-PRONUNC WEB 14,312 06-18-00 3:02p PRONUNC.WEB
-PRONUNC JPG 2,569,796 06-18-00 3:11p PRONUNC.JPG
-SYMBOLS JPG 144,716 06-18-00 3:13p SYMBOLS.JPG
-WXXVII JPG 1,188,380 06-18-00 3:19p WXXVII.JPG
-==================================================================
-
-
-Most important tags used in the GCIDE:
-<hw> tags the headword
-<pr> pronunciation
-<pos> part of speech
-<ety> etymology
-<ets> "source" word within an <ety> field, usually foreign words
-<fld> field of knowledge (e.g. Med. = medicine)
-<def> definition
-<cs> collocation section (containing word combinations)
-<col> collocation entry (word combination)
-<cd> collocation definition
-<as> illustrations of usage (within a <def>. . . </def> field)
-<au> authority for a definition, or author of a quotation
-<q> illustrative quotation -- in block quote format
-<au> author of an illustrative <q> quotation
-<altname> alternative name for the headword -- essentially a synonym
-<asp> alternative spelling of the headword
-<syn> list of synonyms for the headword
-<p> paragraph
-<b> bold type
-<it> italic type
-
-For other tags, see the file "tagset.web"
-
-
-============================================================
- OTHER VERSIONS OF THE DICTIONARY
-=============================================================
-
- There are several other derivative versions of this dictionary
-on the internet, in some cases reformatted or provided with an
-interface. Those that I am aware of are:
-
-(1) Project Gutenberg
----------------------
- In the extext96 directory of Project Gutenberg (www.prairienet.org)
-there is a version of the original 1913 dictionary, which is in
-the **public domain**. The main files are in the directory etext96,
-and sre labeled pgw050**.***. The tags for that version are a subset
-of those used in this GNU version.
-
-(2) The DICT development group
-------------------------------
-This group has created a program to index and search this dictionary.
-The program can be downloaded and used locally, but at present
-is available only in a Unix-compatible executable version.
-See their web site at http://www.dict.org.
-
-(3) The University of Chicago ARTFL project
----------------------------------------------
-Mark Olsen and Gavin LaRowe at the University of Chicago have
-converted the original 1913 dictionary to HTML and have provided an
-interface allowing search of the headwords. When the supplemented
-version has developed sufficiently to warrant the effort, a
-similar searchable version may be posted there as well. The
-search page is at:
- http://humanities.uchicago.edu/forms_unrest/webster.form.html
-
-That page will provide links to other ARTFL projects and contact
-information for the ARTFL group, who alone can provide information
-about the HTML version or interface.
-
-
- -- PJC
+File README.DIC
+ To accompany the GNU version of the set of files (cide.*) containing
+ the electronic version of the
+ Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
+ (called also GCIDE)
+ These files contain Version 0.46 (January 2002)
+ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
+
+The dictionary was derived from the
+ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
+ Version published 1913
+ by the C. & G. Merriam Co.
+ Springfield, Mass.
+ Under the direction of
+ Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.
+
+and has been supplemented with some of the definitions from
+ WordNet, a semantic network created by
+ the Cognitive Science Department
+ of Princeton University
+ under the direction of
+ Prof. George Miller
+
+and is being proof-read and supplemented by volunteers from
+around the world. This is an unfunded project, and future
+enhancement of this dictionary will depend on the efforts of
+volunteers willing to help build this free resource into a
+comprehensive body of general information. New definitions
+for missing words or words senses and longer explanatory notes,
+as well as images to accompany the articles are needed. More
+modern illustrative quotations giving recent examples of
+usage of the words in their various senses will be very
+helpful, since most quotations in the original 1913 dictionary
+are now well over 100 years old.
+
+ This electronic version is being maintained by World Soul,
+a non-profit organization in Plainfield, NJ. For additional
+information or if you are willing to assist construction of this
+data source, contact:
+
+=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
+ Patrick J. Cassidy | TEL: (908) 561-3416
+ World Soul | if no answer, (908) 668-5252
+ 735 Belvidere Ave. | FAX: (908) 668-5904
+ Plainfield, NJ 07062-2054
+ pc@worldsoul.org or cassidy@micra.com
+=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
+
+ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
+
+GCIDE is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
+any later version.
+
+GCIDE is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+along with this copy of GCIDE; see the file COPYING. If not, write
+to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
+Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
+ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
+
+STRUCTURE OF THE DICTIONARY
+---------------------------
+ When the archives are unpacked, the main dictionary text of
+the GCIDE will be found in 26 files named "cide.*", where the
+asterisk indicates which letter of the alphabet begins the
+words in each file. For example, file "cide.b" contains words
+beginning with the letter "B". Additional information about the
+tagging conventions and special character symbols are contained in
+ancillary files in this directory more information below). The main
+body of the 1913 dictionary was essentially identical to the edition
+published in 1890, and was republished in 1913 with an appendix
+containing "New Words". The new words of that appendix have been
+integrated into the main file in this version. However, it is important
+to keep in mind that the definitions in this dictionary are in most
+cases over 100 years old. Use them with caution!
+ At the bottom of each paragraph in this dictionary, there is a
+bracketed and tagged "source" indicated. This tells from where the
+definition or other text in that paragraph came, as follows:
+
+[<source>1913 Webster</source>]
+ = From the original 1890 dictionary.
+[<source>Webster 1913 Suppl.</source>]
+ = From the 1913 "New Words" supplement to the Webster.
+[<source>WordNet 1.5</source>]
+ = From the WordNet on-line semantic network.
+[<source>Century Dict. 1906.</source>]
+ = From the Century Dictionary published in 1906, especially from
+ the "proper Names" supplement (volume IX).
+ published
+[<source>XXX</source>]
+ = Added by one of the volunteers.
+
+ The original definitions have been tagged and in some cases
+reformatted or slightly rearranged. If substantive information
+is added from a second source, usually the additional source is
+also noted, as in:
+[<source>Webster 1913 Suppl.</source> + <source>WordNet 1.5</source>]
+
+ A list of the ancillary files related to the GCIDE is appended at
+the bottom of this "readme.dic" file.
+ This version is tagged with SGML-like tags of the form <pos>...</pos>
+so that the original typography (italics, bold, block quotes) can be
+reproduced. A list of the most important tags for fields in the
+dictionary is given below. The tags also serve the more important
+function of allowing the information content to be conveniently imported
+into computer programs or databases. The set of tags used is described
+in the accompanying file "tagset.web". ***NOTE*** the paragraph tags
+<p>...</p> do *not* always nest properly with certain other tags, such
+as <note> and <cs> ("collocation section"), which in some cases span
+multiple paragraphs. If you are using a tag parser which detects
+improper nesting, you should first either delete the paragraph
+tags or convert them to non-tag symbols, or, if possible, set the
+parser to ignore the <p>...</p> tags.
+ The unusual characters (such as Greek or the European accented
+characters, as well as special characters used in the pronunciations)
+are described in the accompanying file "webfont.asc". Some information
+on the pronunciation system used may be found by viewing the files
+"wxxvii.jpg" and "pronunc.jpg" with a GIF viewer (or any web browser),
+and additional explanations of pronunciation are in the file
+"pronunc.web".
+ Each paragraph of the original text is enclosed within tags of
+the form <p> . . . </p>. Within these paragraphs are no line
+breaks, and some of the paragraphs are over 12,000 characters long.
+These lines are too long to be handled by the vi editor, and probably
+by some other text editors. At some points, embedded line breaks within
+a "paragraph" are marked by a <br/ "entity". The file can therefore
+be converted, if necessary, to a form with shorter lines, and subsequently
+reconverted back to the form having one line per paragraph.
+
+ If additional line breaks are added, then in order remove the
+line breaks and reconstruct the original paragraphs, so that the
+page width can be adjusted, perform the following manipulations:
+ (1) convert each line break (cr-lf combination) to a space.
+ (2) convert the string "</p> " (</p> followed by two spaces)
+ to </p> followed by two line breaks (cr-lf combinations)
+ (3) convert the string "<br/ " (<br/ followed by one space)
+ to <br/ followed by one line break (cr-lf).
+There will be some "lines" (paragraphs) with over 12,000 characters,
+which may give trouble to some simple text editors.
+ A more sophisticated formatting of spaces within paragraphs may
+require the use of the fully-tagged master files. If you have
+a need for these files, contact Patrick Cassidy: cassidy@micra.com.
+ The approximate beginning of each page is marked by an SGML
+comment of the form <-- p. 345 -->. (The exact beginning was in some
+cases in the middle of a paragraph, which we decided was not a
+good location for these page-number comments, so the page number
+was usually moved to the next paragraph break). Pages which have
+been proofread by volunteers (e.g., with initials VOL) will have a
+note within that page comment: <-- p. 345 pr=VOL -->. Pages which have
+not been proofread yet (most of them) will have varying numbers of
+typographical errors in them. We still (January 2002) need
+proofreaders to get the errors out of these dictionary files.
+
+***********************************************************************
+** WARNING!!! **
+***********************************************************************
+
+ This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic
+errors, including errors in the field-marks. In addition, the user must
+keep in mind that this text is very old and will contain numerous
+obsolete, inaccurate, and perhaps offensive statements, which are
+included solely because this work is intended to reproduce accurately
+this historically interesting classic reference work. This text should
+not be relied upon as an accurate source of information, as in many
+cases it represents the state of knowledge around 1890. The text is
+provided "as is", and the user must accept responsibility for all
+consequences of its use. Please refer to the header of each file and
+the GNU public license. If these conditions of use are unacceptable,
+please do not use these texts.
+************************************************************************
+************************************************************************
+ This electronic dictionary is also made available as a potential
+starting point for development of a modern comprehensive encyclopedic
+dictionary, to be accessible freely on the internet, and developed by the
+efforts of all individuals willing to help build a large and freely
+available knowledge base. A large number of collaborators are needed to
+bring this dictionary to a more accurate, more modern, and more useful
+state. Anyone willing to assist in any way in constructing such a
+knowledge base should contact Patrick Cassidy (see above). All reports
+of errors will be gratefully received, and should also be transmitted to
+PC at: pc@worldsoul.org.
+
+In addition to the main text of the dictionary, additional
+explanatory material about this version of the dictionary is available
+in the ancillary files:
+
+=====================================================================
+COPYING 18,321 11-03-99 1:13a COPYING
+README DIC 13,775 01-17-02 11:48p readme.dic
+WEBFONT ASC 35,234 12-12-01 3:27p WEBFONT.ASC
+TAGSET WEB 55,843 08-16-01 1:16p TAGSET.WEB
+PRONUNC WEB 14,312 06-18-00 3:02p PRONUNC.WEB
+PRONUNC JPG 2,569,796 06-18-00 3:11p PRONUNC.JPG
+SYMBOLS JPG 144,716 06-18-00 3:13p SYMBOLS.JPG
+WXXVII JPG 1,188,380 06-18-00 3:19p WXXVII.JPG
+==================================================================
+
+
+Most important tags used in the GCIDE:
+<hw> tags the headword
+<pr> pronunciation
+<pos> part of speech
+<ety> etymology
+<ets> "source" word within an <ety> field, usually foreign words
+<fld> field of knowledge (e.g. Med. = medicine)
+<def> definition
+<cs> collocation section (containing word combinations)
+<col> collocation entry (word combination)
+<cd> collocation definition
+<as> illustrations of usage (within a <def>. . . </def> field)
+<au> authority for a definition, or author of a quotation
+<q> illustrative quotation -- in block quote format
+<au> author of an illustrative <q> quotation
+<altname> alternative name for the headword -- essentially a synonym
+<asp> alternative spelling of the headword
+<syn> list of synonyms for the headword
+<p> paragraph
+<b> bold type
+<it> italic type
+
+For other tags, see the file "tagset.web"
+
+
+============================================================
+ OTHER VERSIONS OF THE DICTIONARY
+=============================================================
+
+ There are several other derivative versions of this dictionary
+on the internet, in some cases reformatted or provided with an
+interface. Those that I am aware of are:
+
+(1) Project Gutenberg
+---------------------
+ In the extext96 directory of Project Gutenberg (www.prairienet.org)
+there is a version of the original 1913 dictionary, which is in
+the **public domain**. The main files are in the directory etext96,
+and sre labeled pgw050**.***. The tags for that version are a subset
+of those used in this GNU version.
+
+(2) The DICT development group
+------------------------------
+This group has created a program to index and search this dictionary.
+The program can be downloaded and used locally, but at present
+is available only in a Unix-compatible executable version.
+See their web site at http://www.dict.org.
+
+(3) The University of Chicago ARTFL project
+---------------------------------------------
+Mark Olsen and Gavin LaRowe at the University of Chicago have
+converted the original 1913 dictionary to HTML and have provided an
+interface allowing search of the headwords. When the supplemented
+version has developed sufficiently to warrant the effort, a
+similar searchable version may be posted there as well. The
+search page is at:
+ http://humanities.uchicago.edu/forms_unrest/webster.form.html
+
+That page will provide links to other ARTFL projects and contact
+information for the ARTFL group, who alone can provide information
+about the HTML version or interface.
+
+
+ -- PJC

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