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authorSergey Poznyakoff <gray@gnu.org.ua>2012-02-02 12:42:06 (GMT)
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* .gitignore: New file. * Makefile: Fix the list of distributed files. * README.DIC: Rename to README and edit. * WXXVII.JPG: Remove. * abbrevn.lst: New file. * authors.lst: New file. * gcide.conf: New file. * PRONUNC.JPG: Rename to pronunc.jpg. * PRONUNC.WEB: Rename to pronunc.txt. * SYMBOLS.JPG: Rename to symbols.jpg * TAGSET.WEB: Rename to tagset.txt * WEBFONT.ASC: Rename to webfont.txt. * titlepage.png: New file.
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+ WEBSTER FONTS
+ =============
+
+ Fonts for the Webster 1913 Dictionary.
+ For version 0.50
+ Last edit May 5, 2001
+ ______________________________________
+ (This file contains some extended ASCII characters, and should be
+transmitted in binary mode)
+----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ This file describes a modified font for use in visualizing the
+text of the 1913 "Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary" (W1913),
+usable for the DOS operating system of IBM-compatible personal computers.
+The electronic version of that dictionary and this font were prepared by
+MICRA, Inc., Plainfield NJ, and are copyrighted (C) 1996 by MICRA, Inc.
+For details of permissions and restrictions on using these files, see
+the accompanying file "readme.web".
+ The special characters used in the electronic version of the Webster
+1913 are required for visualizing unusual characters used in the
+etymology and pronunciation fields of the dictionary, in a form
+comparable to the way they appear in the original. Since there are
+more than 256 characters used in that dictionary, not all can be
+represented by single-byte codes, and are instead represented by
+SGML-style "short-form" symbols. (rather than the "entity" format
+"&xx;" The ampersand is used frequently, and we prefer to leave
+the "<" as the only "escape" character) of the type <x/ where x
+is a specific code for the symbol in the dictionary.
+See the "Short Form" section below for details about such characters.
+Note that the symbols used here are in some cases abbreviations
+(for compactness) of the ISO 8879 recommended symbols. If necessary,
+the table below allows simple replacement by alternate encodings.
+ This symbol font can be loaded in IBM-compatible (x86) computers
+running the DOS operating system by using the "font.bat" command file
+in the "utils" directory. The fonts files for 8x14 and 8x16 fonts are
+"web14.fnt" and "web16.fnt" respectively.
+ For those loading the Webster onto some machine other than an
+IBM-compatible running DOS, it will be necessary to provide a
+translation table, to convert these characters into a code that
+can be handled by that computer. For this reason, I attach an
+"explanation" for each character, for those who cannot view
+the original DOS font.
+ The DOS-loadable font does not contain all of the characters needed
+to depict the etymologies or the pronunciations. In addition to an
+absence of several characters used in the pronunciations, no Greek letters are
+included. The Greek words appearing in the etymologies,
+when they are included, will be typed in a
+roman-letter transcription (See section on Greek transcription, below).
+Only a very few Greek words have been thus transcribed as of the
+present version (version 0.41).
+ Wherever the typists did not know the character to use, they
+usually inserted a reverse-video question mark (decimal 176).
+This appears in full-ASCII versions as <?/. This mark was used both for
+characters in non-ASCII fonts, and for unreadable characters (i.e.,
+characters smeared in the original or distorted in the copies available
+to the typists. The type in the original was in many places smeared and
+illegible at the left and right page margins; occasionally, small
+parts of words were blotted out by plain white space).
+ A character table for the high-order characters appears below.
+Under that is a list and description of most of the special characters
+used in the Webster files.
+ Note that there are yet some characters used in the etymologies,
+and some other symbols, which are not in this list. For example, the
+vowels with a double dot *underneath*, e.g. a (as in all) have no representation
+in this character set, and, where explicitly entered in the dictionary,
+are represented by <xdd/ where "x" is the letter, as in "<add/".
+
+ITALICS
+-------
+ In most places, italic font is represented by the tags <it>...</it>
+surrounding the italic text, or by some other tag which also implies
+italic font. In the pronunciations, however, where italicized vowels
+are used among non-italic and other special characters to indicate
+pronunciation, the special codes <ait/, <eit/, <iit/, <oit/, <uit/,
+are also used to indicate the italicized vowel.
+
+DIACRITICS
+-------------
+ The European grave and acute accents are represented by the
+standard (IBM PC) high-order codes. Other characters with diacritics
+are represented by special "entity" codes, and in some cases also
+are found in this special WEB1913 font, described below.
+ Vowels with a circle above (as in Swedish) are coded <xring/
+(x with a ring, or "degrees" mark over it); vowels with tilde over them
+are represented by <xtil/, where "x" is the vowel, as in <etil/ (<atil/
+also has code 238); letters with a dot above are represented by <xdot/
+-- letter with a dot below are represented by <xsdot/ ("subdot");
+vowels with the semi-long mark (a macron with a short perpendicular
+vertical stroke attached above) are represented by <xsl/; the
+circumflex vowels have codes on this list, but may also be represented
+as <xcir/; vowels with macrons above are <xmac/ (including <oomac/,
+the "oo" with an unbroken macron above the two letters, <aemac/ = the
+ligature ae with a macron [also 214 = \'d6], and <oemac/ the ligature
+oe with a macron [also 215 = \'d7]); vowels with umlauts or a crescent
+(breve) above have codes in this list, but may also be represented by
+<xum/ and <xcr/ respectively. There is an occasional hacek or caron mark
+(an inverted circumflex) in the original; such letters are coded <xcar/.
+The o with a caron has code 213, but no others are in this font list.
+The diaeresis is treated typographically as identical to the umlaut.
+ A special modification, used only for poetry (see entry "saturnian verse"
+under "saturnian") is a vowel with a macron, in which the macron is lighter
+than the usual macron, signifying a stressed syllable which has a short
+vowel sound. This is represented by <xsmac/ ("short mac").
+ Another special character used in pronunciations is an "n" with an underline (like
+a macron, but below the letter), used to represent the "ng" sound. This is coded
+<nsm/ ("n sub-macron"). The ligated th used in pronunciations to depict the
+"th" sound of "the" is coded as <th/.
+ NOTE: the letter combinations "fi" and "fl" are invariably printed as the
+ligatures &filig; and &fllig;, but these ligatures are not marked as such
+in this transcription, and the two letters are left as individuals.
+
+SPECIAL SYMBOLS
+ The dagger <dag/, double dagger <ddag/, and paragraph mark <para/ are rarely used.
+ The double prime, or "seconds" of a degree is sometimes represented by
+a double "light accent" (code 183 = \'b7). In other places, and in later
+versions, it is represented by <sec/ = hex a9, in the webfont.
+ The symbols "greater than" <gt/ and "less than" are encountered only
+once, but are distinguished from the right- and left-angle brackets
+(> and <) because of possible typographical differences in some fonts.
+ The schwa is symbolized by <schwa/. It is not used in the
+pronunciations, but is mentioned as a symbol.
+ The right-pointing arrow is <rarr/, consistent with ISO 8879.
+
+----------------------------------
+Table 1
+----------------------------------
+Numbers
+ Hex codes
+1  
+11   (12 is a hard page break, 13 CR, 14 sect break)
+21  
+31  !"# $%&'(
+121 yz{|} ~ 79-7d 7e-82
+131 83-87 88-8c
+141 8d-91 92-96
+151 97-9b 9c-a0
+161 a1-a5 a6-aa
+171 ab-af b0-b4
+181 b5-b9 ba-be
+191 bf-c3 c4-c8
+201 c9-cd ce-d2
+211 d3-d7 d8-dc
+221 dd-e1 e2-e6
+231 e7-eb ec-f0
+241 f1-f5 f6-fa
+251 fb-ff
+
+=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
+Below is a complete list of the symbols used in the Webster ("webfont")
+which are encoded in the special font listed above, together with
+corresponding symbols in ISO 8879 and Tex coding. Much of this table was
+prepared by Rik Faith, to whom we express our appreciation.
+ The "nearest ASCII" equivalents are given for those who want to
+display the data as best one can in 7-bit simple ASCII symbols without
+using the "entity" symbols.
+=========================================================================
+----------------------------------
+Table 2
+----------------------------------
+
+Comments:
+ (1) The symbol in the "entity" column is the SGML-like symbol used in
+ the present Webster files; the symbol in the "ISO 8879" column is
+ the symbol for the same character given in "The user's guide to
+ ISO 8879" by Smith and Stutely.
+ (2) An asterisk "*" in the "entity" column means that this symbol and
+code value is not used in any form in the Webster 1913 electronic version.
+ (3) If no asterisk is in the "entity" column, and no other symbol is
+there, this means that in the Webster, only the hexadecimal representation
+was used (e.g. for \'d8, \'bd, and \'b8).
+ (4) \'b6 and \'b7, the heavy and light "accents", are never above a
+letter (these are not diacritical marks), but in-between letters, as the
+stress accent used in the headwords and pronunciations. The accent
+*follows* the syllable accented. The light accent \'b7 is also used as
+the "prime" in mathematical expressions (e.g. a\'b7 = "a prime"), or as
+ "minutes" in degrees-minutes-seconds, and when doubled (\'b7\'b7)
+serves as "double prime" in mathematical expressions, and as "seconds"
+in degrees-minutes-seconds. The character \'a9 (<sec/ or &Prime;) is
+also used to represent the double prime.
+ (5) Although the semilong vowels are in the table (e.g. the "asl"
+= "a semilong", most of the entries in the ASCII version dictionary
+use the <xsl/ symbol coding. If you know of any printers' names for
+these, do let me know.
+ (6) For some reason, the a breve and u breve have ISO codes (in the
+Latin-2 table), but the other vowels don't, in the Smith & Stutely book.
+Is this a mistake?
+ (7) The symbol <nsc/ is used for "N small capitals", used in
+pronunciations to represent the soun fo the nasal N in French words.
+ (8) A weak accent (when not in pronunciations) is symbolized by <prime/, the "minutes" (of a degree) symbol. A strong accent is symbolized by <bprime/ ("bold prime", not an ISO entity).
+ (9) If you find any exceptions to these usage assertions, please
+let me know.
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ webfont ISO 8879 latin1/ascii TeX nearest description
+------------------ ASCII
+oct dec hex entity oct dec hex
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+025 21 15 * \S * section symbol
+
+074 60 3c lt 074 60 3c $<$ < less than
+076 62 3e gt 076 62 3e $>$ > greater than
+
+200 128 80 <Cced/ Ccedil 307 199 c7 \c{C} C C cedilla
+201 129 81 <uum/ uuml 374 252 fc \"u ue u umlaut (diaeresis)
+202 130 82 <eacute/ eacute 351 233 e9 \'e e e acute
+203 131 83 <acir/ acirc 342 226 e2 \^a a a circumflex
+204 132 84 <aum/ auml 344 228 e4 \"a ae a umlaut (diaeresis)
+205 133 85 <agrave/ agrave 340 224 e0 \`a a a grave
+206 134 86 <aring/ aring 345 229 e5 \aa a a ring above
+207 135 87 <cced/ ccedil 347 231 e7 \c{c} c c cedilla
+210 136 88 <ecir/ ecirc 352 234 ea \^e e e circumflex
+211 137 89 <eum/ euml 353 235 eb \"e e e umlaut (diaeresis)
+212 138 8a <egrave/ egrave 350 232 e8 \`e e e grave
+213 139 8b <ium/ iuml 357 239 ef \"i i i umlaut (diaeresis)
+214 140 8c <icir/ icirc 356 238 ee \^i i i circumflex
+215 141 8d <igrave/ igrave 354 236 ec \`i i i grave
+216 142 8e <Aum/ Auml A A umlaut
+217 143 8f Aring A A ring above
+
+220 144 90 <Eacute/ Eacute 311 201 c9 \'E e E acute
+221 145 91 <ae/ aelig 346 230 e6 \ae ae ligature ae
+222 146 92 <AE/ AElig 306 198 c6 \AE AE ligature AE
+223 147 93 <ocir/ ocirc 364 244 f4 \^o o o circumflex
+224 148 94 <oum/ ouml 366 246 f6 \"o oe o umlaut (diaeresis)
+225 149 95 <ograve/ ograve 362 242 f2 \`o o o grave
+226 150 96 <ucir/ ucirc 373 251 fb \^u u u circumflex
+227 151 97 <ugrave/ ugrave 371 249 f9 \`u u u grave
+230 152 98 <yum/ yuml y y umlaut
+231 153 99 <Oum/ Ouml O O umlaut
+232 154 9a <Uum/ Uuml 334 220 dc \"U U U umlaut (diaeresis)
+233 155 9b
+234 156 9c <pound/ pound 243 163 a3 \pounds * pound sign (British)
+235 157 9d *
+236 158 9e *
+237 159 9f *
+240 160 a0 <aacute/ aacute 341 225 e1 \'a a a acute
+241 161 a1 <iacute/ iacute 355 237 ed \'i i i acute
+242 162 a2 <oacute/ oacute 363 243 f3 \'o o o acute
+243 163 a3 <uacute/ uacute 372 250 fa \'u u u acute
+244 164 a4 <ntil/ ntilde 361 241 f1 \~n ny n tilde
+245 165 a5 <Ntil/ Ntilde NY N tilde
+246 166 a6 <frac23/ $\frac{2}{3}$ 2/3 two-thirds
+247 167 a7 <frac13/ $\frac{1}{3}$ 1/3 one-third
+250 168 a8 *
+251 169 a9 <sec/ Prime seconds (of degree or time)
+ Also, inches or double prime
+252 170 aa *
+253 171 ab <frac12/ 275 189 bd $\frac{1}{2}$ 1/2 one-half
+254 172 ac <frac14/ 274 188 bc $\frac{1}{4}$ 1/4 one-quarter
+255 173 ad *
+256 174 ae *
+257 175 af *
+260 176 b0 <?/ (?) Place-holder
+ for unknown or illegible character.
+261 177 b1 *
+262 178 b2 *
+263 179 b3 *
+264 180 b4 * $\updownarrow$ * verticle arrow
+265 181 b5 <hand/ * pointing hand
+ (printer's "fist")
+266 182 b6 <bprime/ \"{} '' bold accent
+ (used in pronunciations)
+267 183 b7 <prime/ prime 264 180 b4 \'{} ' light accent
+ (used in pronunciations)
+ also minutes (of arc or time)
+270 184 b8 <rdquo/ rdquo '' " close double quote
+271 185 b9 *
+272 186 ba * $\parallel$ || verticle double bar (l)
+273 187 bb *
+274 188 bc <sect/ sect \S * section mark
+275 189 bd <ldquo/ ldquo `` " open double quotes
+276 190 be <amac/ amacr \=a a a macron
+277 191 bf <lsquo/ lsquo ` ` left single quote
+
+300 192 c0 <nsm/ ng "n sub-macron"
+301 193 c1 <sharp/ sharp $\sharp$ # musical sharp
+302 194 c2 <flat/ flat $\flat$ * musical flat
+303 195 c3 * -- -- long dash (en-dash? )
+304 196 c4 * $-$ - horizontal line
+305 197 c5 <th/ (part 1) first part of th ligature
+ see 231 = e7 for part 2
+306 198 c6 <imac/ imacr \=i i i macron
+307 199 c7 <emac/ emacr \=e e e macron
+310 200 c8 <dsdot/ d Sanskrit/Tamil d dot
+311 201 c9 <nsdot/ n Sanskrit/Tamil n dot
+312 202 ca <tsdot/ t Sanskrit/Tamil t dot
+313 203 cb <ecr/ \u{e} e e breve
+314 204 cc <icr/ \u{i} i i breve
+315 205 cd *
+316 206 ce <ocr/ \u{o} o o breve
+317 207 cf - -- - short dash
+
+320 208 d0 -- mdash --- -- long (em) dash
+321 209 d1 <OE/ OElig \OE OE OE ligature
+322 210 d2 <oe/ oelig \oe oe oe ligature
+323 211 d3 <omac/ omacr \=o o o macron
+324 212 d4 <umac/ umacr \=u u u macron
+325 213 d5 <ocar/ \v{o} o o hacek
+326 214 d6 <aemac/ \=\ae ae ae ligature macron
+327 215 d7 <oemac/ \=\oe oe oe ligature macron
+330 216 d8 par $\parallel$ || double vertical
+ bar(s)
+331 217 d9 *
+332 218 da *
+333 219 db *
+334 220 dc <ucr/ ubreve \u{u} u u breve
+335 221 dd <acr/ abreve \u{a} a a breve
+336 222 de <cre/ ssmile \u{} ~ crescent
+ (like a breve, but vertically centered --
+ represents the short accent in poetic meter)
+337 223 df <ymac/ \=y y y macron
+
+340 224 e0 <asl/ a a "semilong"
+ (has a macron above with a short vertical
+ bar on top the center of the macron)
+ Used in pronunciations.
+341 225 e1 <esl/ e "semilong"
+342 226 e2 <isl/ i "semilong"
+343 227 e3 <osl/ o "semilong"
+344 228 e4 <usl/ u "semilong"
+345 229 e5 <adot/ a a with dot above
+346 230 e6 * mu small Greek mu
+347 231 e7 <th/ (part 2) second part of th ligature
+ see 197 = c5 for part 1
+350 232 e8 *
+351 233 e9 *
+352 234 ea *
+353 235 eb <edh/ edh 360 240 f0 th small eth
+354 236 ec *
+355 237 ed <thorn/ thorn 376 254 fe th small thorn
+356 238 ee <atil/ atilde \~a a a tilde
+357 239 ef <ndot/ n n with dot above
+
+360 240 f0 <rsdot/ \d{r} r r with a dot below
+361 241 f1 *
+362 242 f2 *
+363 243 f3 *
+364 244 f4 <yogh/ y small yogh
+365 245 f5 <mdash/ mdash --- -- em dash
+366 246 f6 <divide/ divide 367 247 f7 $\div$ / division sign
+367 247 f7 ap $\approx$ ~= "double tilde"
+370 248 f8 <deg/ deg 260 176 b0 ${}^\circ$ * degree sign
+371 249 f9 <middot/ $\bullet$ * bold middle dot
+372 250 fa * 267 183 b7 $\cdot$ * light middle dot
+373 251 fb <root/ radic $\surd$ * root sign
+374 252 fc *
+375 253 fd *
+376 254 fe *
+377 255 ff *
+
+ ----------------------------------
+Table 3
+----------------------------------
+
+====================================================================
+The table below gives some additional information about some of the
+more commonly used entities
+-------------------------------------------------------------------
+Frequently used:
+decimal hex char definition
+ 21 section symbol -- another section also at 197
+ (so that 21 can be used as a normal control
+ character)
+ 126 ~ used by typists as a place-holder in word
+ combinations where an uncapitalized headword
+ should be.
+ 128 80 <Cced/ c cedilla (uppercase)
+ 129 81 <uum/ u umlaut
+ 130 82 e acute
+ 131 83 a circumflex
+ 132 84 <aum/ a umlaut
+ 133 85 a grave
+ 134 86 <aring/ a with "ring" (circle) above (Swedish!)
+ 135 87 <cced/ c cedilla
+ 136 - 144 standard European set for IBM
+ 136 88 <ecir/ e circumflex
+ 137 89 <eum/ e umlaut (or e with dieresis above)
+ 138 8a e grave
+ 145 91 <ae/ = "ae" fused ligature
+ 146 92 <AE/ = upper-case "ae" fused ligature
+ 147 93 <ocir/ o circumflex
+ 148 94 <oum/ o "umlaut", used mostly in "coperation,
+ Zol." and in pronunciations
+ 164 a4 <ntil/ Spanish "enye"
+ 166 a6 <frac23/ two-thirds (fraction)
+ 167 a7 <frac13/ one-third (fraction)
+ 169 a9 <sec/ seconds of degree or time, or double-prime
+ 171 ab <frac12/ one-half, as in the original IBM set
+ 172 ac <frac14/ one-fourth (fraction)
+ 176 b0 <?/ = (reverse-video question mark), used
+ to represent an uncodable or illegible character
+ 180 b4 long verticle double-headed arrow (a reference mark)
+ 181 b5 <hand/ = (the typographer's "fist")
+ Appearing as a "pointing hand" character
+ (for explanatory notes)
+ 182 b6 bold accent in headwords
+ replaced in full ASCII version by double quote = "
+ 183 b7 light accent in headwords
+ replaced within headwords in the full ASCII version
+ by an open-single-quote (` = ASCII 96, not the same
+ as 191, \'bf). This mark is used also
+ for minutes of a degree, and for "prime"
+ to modify variables in mathematical expressions.
+ -- two of these in sequence represent seconds
+ of a degree, or double prime. The seconds
+ symbol is also represented by <sec/ (hex a9).
+ 184 b8 close double quotes (used with 189 [= \'bd], open quote)
+ 186 ba verticle double bar - represents the symbol used
+ in the printed dictionary before a headword to
+ signify that the word was adopted without
+ anglicization from a foreign language
+ but in the full-ASCII version this function
+ uses \'d8 -- see 216
+ 188 bc <sect/ section mark
+ - alternate to 21 (a control character)
+ 189 bd open double quotes (used with 184, close quote)
+ 190 be <amac/ a macron
+ 191 bf <lsquo/ "left single quote"
+ single open quote mark (not same as ASCII 96)
+ 192 c0 <nsm/ "n sub-macron", an n with a macron below --
+ represents the "ng" sound in pronunciations
+ 193 c1 <sharp/ sharp - music notation
+ 194 c2 <flat/ flat - music notation
+ 195 c3 long dash, one pixel removed from left
+ will fuse with left long dash, char 208
+ 196 c4 graphic horizontal line
+ 195+208 combination for a very long dash. In the
+ original typing, the dash char 208 was used
+ for both non-breaking hyphen (in hyphenated
+ words), and for the em-dash used as an
+ introductory mark for various segments.
+ The em-dash should be distinguished from
+ the hyphen, but that conversion hasn't yet
+ been done.
+ In the full ASCII version, a double hypen
+ "--" represent the m-dash
+ 197 c5 <th/ (part 1) first of a pair of characters
+ 197+231 = used to represent the th ligature --
+ <th/ represents the "th" sound of "mother"
+ see 231 (e7) for part 2
+ 198 c6 <imac/ = i macron
+ 199 c7 <emac/ = e macron
+ 200 c8 <dsdot/ Sanskrit/Tamil d with dot underneath
+ 201 c9 <nsdot/ Sanskrit/Tamil n with dot underneath
+ 202 ca <tsdot/ Sanskrit/Tamil t with dot underneath
+ 203 cb <ecr/ = e with crescent (breve) above. Used
+ - in some etymologies and pronunciation
+ 204 cc <icr/ = i with crescent (breve) above - used
+ - in some etymologies and pronunciation
+ 206 ce <ocr/ = o with crescent (breve) above - used
+ - in some etymologies and pronunciation
+ 207 cf short dash, used in hyphenated words, and in
+ breaking syllables where no accent is used. But
+ sometimes the typists used the normal hyphen [45],
+ or the long dash (decimal 208) for that purpose.
+ The normal hyphen is the same length as the long
+ dash, but one pixel higher in the character box.
+ # In headwords, in the full ASCII version, this
+ short dash is represented by the asterisk "*".
+ 208 d0 <mdash/ = represents the long dash, used for the em
+ dash which often precedes certain sections within a
+ definition, and which separates some sections,
+ such as wordforms or collocations within a
+ collocation segment. This is replaced in the
+ full ASCII version by a double hyphen, "--".
+ 210 d2 <oe/ = "oe" fused ligature
+ 211 d3 <omac/ = o macron
+ 212 d4 <umac/ = u macron
+ 213 d5 <ocar/ o with caron (hacek) (inverted circumflex) above
+ 214 d6 <aemac/ = "ae" ligature with a macron
+ 215 d7 <oemac/ = "oe" ligature with a macron
+ 216 d8 <par/ double vertical bar (short length; the long
+ length is the graphics character 186)
+ This precedes words marked with a double vertical bar in
+ the original dictionary, signifying that the word was
+ adopted directly into English without modification of
+ the spelling.
+ 220 dc <ucr/ = u with crescent above - used in some etymologies
+ 221 dd <acr/ = a with crescent above - used in some etymologies
+ 222 de <cre/ = "crescent", an upward-curving crescent
+ used as a poetic meter mark
+ 223 df <ymac/ = y macron (used in Anglo-Saxon?)
+ 229 e5 <adot/ = a with a dot above (for pronunciations)
+ 231 e7 <th/ (part 2) second of a two-character combination
+ 197+231 = used to represent the th ligature in pronunciations
+ <th/ represents the "th" sound of "mother"
+ 235 eb <edh/ = Old English and Icelandic "edh", (or "eth")
+ like a Greek delta with a hatch mark
+ through the ascender. Used to represent the
+ Anglo-Saxon/Icelandic/Gothic character,
+ in etymologies, pronounced like "th"
+ 237 ed <thorn/ "thorn", an Old English and Icelandic
+ character, appears like a "p" with an extended
+ ascender.
+ Used to represent the
+ Anglo-Saxon/Icelandic/Gothic character,
+ in etymologies, pronounced like "th"
+ in "thorn" and also as in "brother"
+ 238 ee <atil/ a with tilde above - in some etymologies
+ 244 f4 <yogh/ like a script "3" or "z". Used in Old English
+ etymologies, analogous to "y"
+ 247 f7 double tilde ("approximately equals").
+ used by typists as a place-holder in word
+ combinations where the capitalized headword
+ should be.
+ 248 f8 <deg/ degrees (temperature or angle). Note: some
+ typists used a superscript "o" to signify
+ degrees. This must be corrected!
+ 249 f9 middle dot (bold)
+ 250 fa middle dot (light)
+ 251 fb <root/ "root" sign used in etymologies, as in original
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+======================================
+ Greek transcription
+=====================================
+Greek letters are represented:
+ (capitals represent capital letters; lower-case represent lower-case)
+ #Note that "h" in transliterations is used individually, as eta, and
+ also in the combination "ch" (chi). Conversions to other codings
+ must first convert "ch" before converting "h", or at least verify
+ that an "h" to be converted has no preceding "c". "c" is not
+ otherwise used, so there is no ambiguity. Also, "ps" always
+ represents a psi; it could in theory occur as a pi-sigma
+ combination, but it doesn't. Occasionally, "th" was entered instead
+ of "q" to represent theta; these should be checked to verify that
+ they do not represent tau-eta, and converted to "q".
+
+(1) characters individually:
+ By the short-form notation <alpha/, <beta/, <gamma/, <lambda/ etc.
+ Capitalized letters are <ALPHA/, etc.
+(2) in words:
+ By inclusion within the markers <grk></grk>, using the following
+ roman-letter equivalents for the Greek letters:
+ Accents:
+ (a) aspirants -- used in front of the letter modified, which is
+usually in *front* of words beginning in vowels. Of two types:
+ ' (apostrophe) for the left-curving apirant (spiritus lenis)
+ " (double quote) for the right-curving aspirant (spiritus asper)
+ (when the aspirant is on a letter inside a word, it is placed
+ in front of the letter it modifies.)
+ (the left-curving aspirant is also used over rho, which is
+ then usually transliterated "rh". The " in such cases is
+ placed in front of the r (for rho) which it modifies).
+ (b) normal accent (appearing as an acute accent in the original):
+ ` (left open quote, ASCII ) -- placed after accented vowel
+ (b) grave accent (appearing as an grave accent in the original):
+ ~ (tilde, ASCII ) -- placed after accented vowel. This is
+ rarely seen, as in <grk>to~ pa^n</grk> at "universe" or
+ <grk>ta~ gewrgika`</grk> (at "Georgic").
+ (c) curving accent (appearing as a rounded circumflex):
+ ^ (circumflex) -- placed after accented vowel
+ (d) "iota" subscript (ogonek)-- a comma placed after the vowel
+ having the subscript
+ (e) diaeresis:
+ the double dot found occasionally over the iota is
+ represented by a colon immediately after the iota,
+ as the i-diaeresis in <grk>Farisai:ko`s</grk> (at "pharisaic").
+
+ Where a letter has two accents, both are placed *after* the vowel
+ Letters with an aspirant and an accent have the
+ aspirant before the letter, and the accent after it.
+ ------------------------
+
+
+The capitalized Greek letters are represented by the capitalized
+ versions of the letters shown here.
+-----------------------------------------
+ Greek letter transliteration
+ ------------ ---------------
+ alpha a
+ beta b
+ gamma g
+ delta d
+ epsilon e
+ zeta z
+ eta h
+ theta q (th was used in some earier sections, but was
+ changed due to potential confusion with the
+ tau+eta combination, as in <grk>lyth`rios</grk>
+ (at "lyterian") or <grk>poihth`s</grk>
+ (at "maker") )
+ iota i
+ kappa k
+ lambda l
+ mu m
+ nu n
+ xi x
+ omicron o
+ pi p
+ rho r
+ sigma s (end form not distinguished here from middle
+ form within words, but when isolated, use <sigmat/
+ ("terminal sigma") for the end form)
+ tau t
+ upsilon y (Used for both "u" and "y" pronunciations)
+ phi f
+ chi ch (c is always followed by h, so the h component
+ is not confusable with eta)
+ psi ps (theoretically confusable with pi-sigma, but that
+ combination seems never to occur)
+ omega w
+
+ (Roman j, v, u are unused)
+

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