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Revise tagset.txt
* tagset.txt: Review. * README: Reformat. * webfont.txt: Reformat. Document <and/ and <or/.
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1 FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE 1FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE
2 ===================================== 2=====================================
3 Explanations of the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary 3
4and the CIDE (Collaborative International Dictionary of English). 4* Overview
5Note that the list of tags used to mark the public domain version 5
6of this dictionary is shorter than the full set described here. 6This file describes the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary and
7 If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the 7the GCIDE (GNU Collaborative International Dictionary of English).
8"point" (font size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be 8
9self-explanatory; or (2) is a functional field with no effect on the 9If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the "point" (font
10typography. 10size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be self-explanatory; or (2)
11is a functional field with no effect on the typography.
11 12
12Last modified March 12, 1999. 13Last modified March 12, 1999.
13 For questions, contact: 14 For questions, contact:
@@ -15,114 +16,145 @@ Last modified March 12, 1999.
15 735 Belvidere Ave. 16 735 Belvidere Ave.
16 Plainfield, NJ 07062 17 Plainfield, NJ 07062
17 (908) 561-3416 or (908) 668-5252 18 (908) 561-3416 or (908) 668-5252
18------------------------------------------------------------- 19
19A separate file, webfont.txt, contains the list of the individual 20A separate file, webfont.txt, contains the list of the individual
20non-ASCII characters represented by either higher-order hexadecimal 21non-ASCII characters represented by either higher-order hexadecimal
21character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags 22character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags (e.g.,
22(e.g., <root/, for the square root symbol.) 23<root/, for the square root symbol.)
23-------------------------------------------------------------- 24
24 Use of tags: 25* Introduction
25 In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster, each part of 26
26the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no 27In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster and in GCIDE, each part
27part of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found 28of the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no part
28outside of all fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged 29of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found outside of all
29field. In the following description, the word "segment" usually refers to 30fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged field. In the
30a major part of an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a 31following description, the word "segment" usually refers to a major part of
31collocation segment or a usage block, containing more than one field. 32an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a collocation segment or a
32The term "field" may also be used similarly to "segment", but may also 33usage block, containing more than one field. The term "field" may also be
33denote single-word fields, such as an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>. 34used similarly to "segment", but may also denote single-word fields, such as
34 35an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>.
35 Note: The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags. Each 36
36tag on this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between 37The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags. Each tag on
37angle brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing 38this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between angle
38the forward slash thus: </tagname>. No tags are used without closing 39brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing the
39tags. Thus the HTML <BR> to indicate a line break is symbolized 40forward slash thus: </tagname>. No tags are used without closing tags.
40here as an entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>. 41Thus a line break (similar to HTML <br> tag) is symbolized here as an
41 The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag 42entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>.
42without a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which 43
43there may be a significant number. Any errors detected should be brought 44The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag without
44to the attention of PJC or the appropriate editor. 45a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which there
45 Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type, 46may be a significant number. Any errors detected should be brought to the
46with a number of exceptions. Where a word is contained within more than 47attention of PJC or the appropriate editor.
47one field, the innermost field determines the font to be used. Wherever 48
48recognizable functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the 49Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type, with a
49field with a functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only 50number of exceptions. Where a word is contained within more than one field,
50to represent the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases, 51the innermost field determines the font to be used. Wherever recognizable
51the "italic" mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality 52functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the field with a
52of the word. The base font is considered "plain". Where an italic field 53functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only to represent
53is indicated, parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised. 54the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases, the "italic"
54 Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional 55mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality of the word.
56The base font is considered "plain". Where an italic field is indicated,
57parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised.
58
59Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional
55division, and was printed in plain font unless otherwise tagged. This type 60division, and was printed in plain font unless otherwise tagged. This type
56of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be. 61of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be. The
57 The size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for 62size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for the height
58the height of capitalized letters. 63of capitalized letters.
59============================================================= 64
60Explicit typographical tags: 65* Explicit typographical tags
61 These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to 66
62distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional 67These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to
63tag seemed apropriate. 68distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional tag
64----------------------------------- 69seemed apropriate.
65Tag Font 70
66----------------------------------- 71-------------------------------------------------------------------------
67Explicit formatting tags: 72Tag Font Description
68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73-------------------------------------------------------------------------
69<plain> plain font (that used in the body of a definition) -- 74<plain> plain font that used in the body of a definition -- normally
70 normally not marked, except within fields of 75 not marked, except within fields of a different
71 a different front. 76 front.
72<it> italic (in master files) 77
73<i> italic (for use in HTML presentation) 78<it> italic in master files
74<bold> bold (in master files) 79
75<b> bold (for use in HTML presentation) 80<i> italic for use in HTML presentation
76<colf> bold, Collocation font. Same font as used in collocations. 81
77 smaller This is used only in the list of "un-" words not 82<bold> bold in master files
78 by 1 point actually defined in the dictionary. Probably could be 83
79 replaced by a segment mark for the entire list! 84<b> bold for use in HTML presentation
80 The "un-" words should be indexed as headwords. 85
81 86<colf> bold, Collocation font. Same font as used in
82<ct> bold Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used in 87 collocations.
83 collocations. However, this tag is used in a table 88 smaller This is used only in the list of "un-"
84 and could be set to a different font. 89 by 1 point words not actually defined in the
85 90 dictionary.
86<h1> * HTML tag -- largest heading font. 91 Probably could be replaced by a segment mark
87 92 for the entire list! The "un-" words should
88<h2> * HTML tag -- second largest heading font. 93 be indexed as headwords.
89 94
90<headrow> * Marks a Row title in a table. 95<ct> bold Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used
91 96 in collocations. However, this tag is used
92<hwf> Font the same as the headword <hw>, though the field is 97 in a table and could be set to a different
93 not a headword. Used only once. 98 font.
94 99
95<mitem> * Multiple items, a set of items in a table. 100<h1> * HTML tag -- largest heading font.
96<point ...> A series of point size markers, many unique. 101
97<point1.5> * One of the tags of the form <point**> where ** 102<h2> * HTML tag -- second largest heading font.
98<point6> represents the typographic point size of the 103
99 enclosed text. 104<headrow> * Marks a Row title in a table.
100<pre> An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed text is 105
101 of teletype form, preformatted in a uniform-spaced 106<hwf> Font the same as the headword <hw>, though
102 font. 107 the field is not a headword. Used only
103<sc> small caps (used mostly for "a. d.", "b. c.") 108 once.
104 This is the same font a <er>, but has no functional 109
105 or semantic significance 110<mitem> * Multiple items, a set of items in a table.
106<str> group of table data elements in a table 111<point ...> A series of point size markers, many
107<sub> subscript, like <subs> 112 unique.
108<subs> subscript 113
109<sups> superscript 114<point1.5> * One of the tags of the form <point**> where **
110<supr> superscript 115<point6> represents the typographic point size of the
111<sansserif> Sans-serif font 116 enclosed text.
112<stypec> Bold (collocation font) and also a subtype. 117
113<tt> HTML tage -- teletype font 118<pre> An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed
114<universbold> A squared bold font without serifs approximating the 119 text is of teletype form, preformatted in a
115 "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4, slightly 120 uniform-spaced font.
116 larger than the capitals in a definition body. Used 121
117 in expositions describing shapes, such as 122<sc> small caps used mostly for "a. d.", "b. c."
118 "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F". 123 This is the same font as in <er>, but has no
119<vertical> Vertically organized column. 124 functional or semantic significance.
120<column1> Vertically organized column -- only part of a table 125
121 which needs to be completed. Used once. 126<str> group of table data elements in a table.
122<...type> A series of tags, many unique, designating certain 127
123 unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype" for 128<sub> subscript
124 "bourgeois type", in the section on typography. 129
125 Most of these occur only once, in the section on fonts. 130<subs> subscript
131
132<sups> superscript
133
134<supr> superscript
135
136<sansserif> Sans-serif
137
138<stypec> Bold collocation font, and also a subtype.
139
140<tt> HTML tage -- teletype font
141
142<universbold> A squared bold font without serifs approximating
143 the "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4,
144 slightly larger than the capitals in a definition
145 body. Used in expositions describing shapes,
146 such as "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F".
147
148<vertical> Vertically organized column.
149
150<column1> Vertically organized column -- only part of a table
151 which needs to be completed. Used once.
152
153<...type> A series of tags, many unique, designating
154 certain unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype"
155 for "bourgeois type", in the section on
156 typography. Most of these occur only once, in
157 the section on fonts. Some examples follow:
126<antiquetype> 158<antiquetype>
127<blacklettertype> 159<blacklettertype>
128<boldfacetype> 160<boldfacetype>
@@ -146,935 +178,958 @@ Explicit formatting tags:
146<smpicatype> 178<smpicatype>
147<typewritertype> 179<typewritertype>
148 180
149============================================================= 181* Tags with semantic content:
150Tags with semantic content: 182
151. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183-------------------------------------------------------------------------
152<altsp> * Alternative spelling segment. Almost always 184Tag Font Meaning and Description
153 contained within square brackets after the main 185-------------------------------------------------------------------------
154 definition segment. Expository words 186<altsp> * Alternative spelling segment. Almost always
155 such as "Spelled also" are in plain font; 187 contained within square brackets after the main
156 the actual alternative spelling is marked by 188 definition segment. Expository words such as
157 <asp> ... </asp> tags within this segment. 189 "Spelled also" are in plain font; the actual
158 190 alternative spelling is marked by <asp> ...
159<ant> italic Antonym. 191 </asp> tags within this segment.
160 192
161<asp> italic Alternative spelling. The actual word which is an 193<ant> italic Antonym.
162 alternative spelling to the headword. These 194
163 are functionally synonyms of the headword. In 195<asp> italic Alternative spelling. The actual word which is
164 most cases these also occur as headwords, with 196 an alternative spelling to the headword. These
165 reference to the word where the actual definition 197 are functionally synonyms of the headword. In
166 is found, but not all such words are listed 198 most cases these also occur as headwords, with
167 separately, particularly if the spelling is 199 reference to the word where the actual definition
168 close enough to the headword to be found at the 200 is found, but not all such words are listed
169 same point in the dictionary. Whether listed 201 separately, particularly if the spelling is close
170 separately or not, these words should 202 enough to the headword to be found at the same
171 be indexed at this location, also. 203 point in the dictionary. Whether listed
172 204 separately or not, these words should be indexed
173<au> italic Authority or author. Used where an authority is 205 at this location, also.
174 (may be right- given for a definition, and also used for the 206
175 justified. See author, where a quotation within double quotes 207<au> italic Authority or author. Used where an authority is
176 in the section is given in the same paragraph as the 208 given for a definition, and also used for the
177 on formatting). definition. The double quotes are indicated 209 author, where a quotation within double quotes is
178 by the open-quote (\'bd) and close-quote 210 given in the same paragraph as the definition.
179 (\'b8). In both cases, it is typically 211 The double quotes are indicated by the open-quote
180 right-justified, almost always fitting on 212 (\'bd) and close-quote (\'b8). In both cases, it
181 the same line with the last line of the 213 is typically right-justified, almost always
182 definition or quotation. 214 fitting on the same line with the last line of
183 Within collocation segments, it is usually 215 the definition or quotation.
184 used only after quotations, and is not right- 216
185 justified, except occasionally where it 217 Within collocation segments, it is usually used
218 only after quotations, and is not
219 right-justified, except occasionally where it
186 would be close to the right margin, and then 220 would be close to the right margin, and then
187 apparently is is right-justified. We have 221 apparently is is right-justified. We have not
188 not explicitly marked those which are 222 explicitly marked those which are
189 right-justified, but they can be 223 right-justified, but they can be recognized
190 recognized because they are on a line by 224 because they are on a line by themselves,
191 themselves, preceded by two carriage returns. 225 preceded by two carriage returns.
192 226
193<bio> * Marks a biography. Should be longer than 227<bio> * Marks a biography. Should be longer than a short
194 a short mention of who a person was, which 228 mention of who a person was, which is typically
195 is typically included as a definition. 229 included as a definition.
196 230
197<biography> * Same as <bio> 231<biography> * Same as <bio>
198 232
199<booki> italic Marks the name of a book, pamphlet, or similar 233<booki> italic Marks the name of a book, pamphlet, or similar
200 document. 234 document.
201 235
202<branchof> * A field of knowledge which of which the headword 236<branchof> * A field of knowledge which of which the headword
203 is a division. 237 is a division.
204 238
205<caption> * Caption of a figure or table. 239<caption> * Caption of a figure or table.
206
207<cas> * tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) registry
208 number for a chemical substance.
209
210<causes> italic tags the infectious disease caused by the headword.
211 Implied type of the agent is a microorganism, and
212 the tag must mark a disease.
213 240
214<causesp> * Same as <causes> without the italic type. 241<cas> * tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service)
215<causedbyp> * Same as <causedby> without the italic type. 242 registry number for a chemical substance.
216 243
217<causedby> italic inverse of causes: tags the causative agent of an 244<causes> italic tags the infectious disease caused by the
218 infectious disease, which is the headword . 245 headword. Implied type of the agent is a
219 the tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or 246 microorganism, and the tag must mark a disease.
220 prion, and the implied type of the headword is
221 a disease.
222 247
223<centered> Used only for The single letter in the headers to each 248<causesp> * Same as <causes> without the italic type.
224 letter of the alphabet. 249<causedbyp> * Same as <causedby> without the italic type.
225 250
226<city> * marks the proper name of a city. Used only 251<causedby> italic inverse of <causes>: tags the causative agent of
227 occasionally and not consistently at this stage. 252 an infectious disease, which is the headword.
253 The tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or
254 prion, and the implied type of the headword is a
255 disease.
228 256
229<cnvto> italic Converted to: used to tag substances which are 257<centered> Used only for the single letter in the headers to
230 products prepared by conversion from the 258 each letter of the alphabet.
231 headword. Usually chemicals or complex
232 products from mnatuarl materials. Rarely used
233 up to 1998.
234 259
235<colheads> * List of heads for the columns of a table. 260<city> * marks the proper name of a city. Used only
261 occasionally and not consistently at this stage.
236 262
237<coltitle> * Title of a column in a table. 263<cnvto> italic Converted to: used to tag substances which are
264 products prepared by conversion from the
265 headword. Usually chemicals or complex products
266 from natuarl materials. Rarely used up to 1998.
238 267
239<comm> * Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line with 268<colheads> * List of heads for the columns of a table.
240 the definition paragraph. Provides a little
241 additional information.
242 269
243<company> * Name of a company (commercial firm). Compare <org> 270<coltitle> * Title of a column in a table.
244 271
245<compof> italic Composed of. Tags a substance of which the 272<comm> * Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line
246 headword is at least partly composed. The 273 with the definition paragraph. Provides a little
247 substance may be particulate, such as 274 additional information.
248 diatoms composing diatomaceous earth.
249 275
250<contains> * marks an object contained within the headword. 276<company> * Name of a company (commercial firm). Compare
277 <org>.
251 278
252<contr> italic Contrasting word. Not exactly an antonym, which 279<compof> italic Composed of. Tags a substance of which the
253 is marked <ant>, but a contrasting word which is 280 headword is at least partly composed. The
254 often introduced as "opposite to" or "contrasts 281 substance may be particulate, such as diatoms
255 with". 282 composing diatomaceous earth.
256 283
257<country> * Name of a country (nation) of the world. 284<contains> * marks an object contained within the headword.
258 285
259<cref> italic Collocation reference. A reference to a collocation. 286<contr> italic Contrasting word. Not exactly an antonym, which
260 Each such collocation should have its own entry, 287 is marked <ant>, but a contrasting word which is
261 marked by <col> ... </col> tags, and these 288 often introduced as "opposite to" or "contrasts
262 references should function as hypertext buttons 289 with".
263 to access that entry.
264 290
265<date> * A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>. 291<country> * Name of a country (nation) of the world.
266 292
267<datey> * Date-with-year tags a date containing a year. 293<cref> italic Collocation reference. A reference to a
268 294 collocation. Each such collocation should have
269<def> * definition. The definition may have subfields, 295 its own entry, marked by <col> ... </col> tags,
270 particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase 296 and these references should function as hypertext
271 starting with "as" or "thus" and containing 297 buttons to access that entry.
272 the headword (or a morphological derivative).
273 The <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and
274 right double quotes) and <au> fields may be
275 found within a definition field, but should
276 and usually are located outside the definition
277 proper. The marking macro was
278 inconsistent in this placement, and the
279 exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and quotations
280 needs to be completed by the proof-readers.
281 Certain definitions contain <pos>
282 fields within them, where the headword is
283 an irregular derivative of another headword.
284 In these cases, the <pos> field follows
285 immediately after the <def> tag, and these
286 entries do not have a separate <pos> field.
287 In such cases, the <pos> field is italic, as
288 usual.
289
290<divof> * Division of the headword, usually an organization.
291 E. g. a faculty or department of a university,
292 or a United Nations agency.
293 298
294<edi> * Marks an education institution, a subtype of 299<date> * A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>.
300
301<datey> * Date-with-year tags a date containing a year.
302
303<def> * A definition. The definition may have subfields,
304 particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase
305 starting with "as" or "thus" and containing the
306 headword (or a morphological derivative). The
307 <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and right
308 double quotes) and <au> fields may be found
309 within a definition field, but should and usually
310 are located outside the definition proper. The
311 marking macro was inconsistent in this placement,
312 and the exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and
313 quotations needs to be completed by the
314 proof-readers.
315
316 Certain definitions contain <pos> fields within
317 them, where the headword is an irregular
318 derivative of another headword. In these cases,
319 the <pos> field follows immediately after the
320 <def> tag, and these entries do not have a
321 separate <pos> field. In such cases, the <pos>
322 field is italic, as usual.
323
324<divof> * Division of the headword, usually an
325 organization. E. g. a faculty or department of a
326 university, or a United Nations agency.
327
328<edi> * Marks an education institution, a subtype of
295 organization. 329 organization.
296 330
297<emits> * tags a physical object or form of radiation 331<emits> * Tags a physical object or form of radiation
298 emitted by the headword 332 emitted by the headword.
299 333
300<figure> Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom used. 334<figure> Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom
335 used.
301 336
302<film> italic Marks the name of a movie film. 337<film> italic Marks the name of a movie film.
303 338
304<fld> italic Field of specialization. Most often used for 339<fld> italic Field of specialization. Most often used for
305 Zoology and Botany, but many "fields of 340 Zoology and Botany, but many "fields of
306 specialization" are marked for technical 341 specialization" are marked for technical terms.
307 terms. The parentheses are usually within this 342 The parentheses are usually within this field,
308 field, but are not themselves in italics. 343 but are not themselves in italics.
309 344
310<geog> * Name of a geograpahical region of any size; 345<geog> * Name of a geograpahical region of any size; if
311 if applicable, the more specific <city>, 346 applicable, the more specific <city>, <state>, or
312 <state>, or <country> are preferred. 347 <country> are preferred.
313 348
314<hypen> * Hyperym. Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5 349<hypen> * Hyperym. Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5
315 Initially, used only for entries extracted 350 Initially, used only for entries extracted from
316 from WordNet 1.5. Not present in the original 351 WordNet 1.5. Not present in the original 1913
317 1913 version. 352 version.
318 353
319<illu> * Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and placed 354<illu> * Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and
320 outside the definition, in contrast to <as> usage. 355 placed outside the definition, in contrast to
321 These should be converted to <as>...</as> illustrative 356 <as> usage. These should be converted to
322 usage format for consistency. 357 <as>...</as> illustrative usage format for
323 358 consistency.
324<illust> * Illustration place-holder. Seldom used. 359
325<img> * HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually 360<illust> * Illustration place-holder. Seldom used.
326 .gif or .jpg. These have no closing tag, and 361
327 will appear as errors in parsing. 362<img> * HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually
328<intensi> * Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified 363 .gif or .jpg. These have no closing tag, and
329 form of the headword. Taken from WordNet 364 will appear as errors in parsing.
330 tags, used with some adjectives from WordNet 365
331<item> * Designates one item in a row of a table. Used only when 366<intensi> * Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified
332 intervening spaces do not serve properly as natural 367 form of the headword. Taken from WordNet tags,
333 field separaters. 368 used with some adjectives from WordNet.
334<itran> italic Translation into a foreign (non-English) language 369
335 of the previous word in the text -- italic font. 370<item> * Designates one item in a row of a table. Used
336 (<sig> is a translation into English) 371 only when intervening spaces do not serve
337<itrans> italic Same as <itran> 372 properly as natural field separaters.
338<jour> * Title of a journal (periodical). 373
339<matrix> * Always a filled rectangular array. 374<itran> italic Translation into a foreign (non-English) language
340<matrix2x5> * A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns). 375 of the previous word in the text -- italic font.
341<mstypec> * Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in 376 (<sig> is a translation into English)
342 def. of "grass". 377
343<mtable> * Multiple table, encloses <table> figures. 378<itrans> italic Same as <itran>
344<musfig> * Music figure. Only in a note under the entry "Figure", 379
345 the two numbers of each such field 380<jour> * Title of a journal (periodical).
346 are bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction with 381
347 a bar between them, but also having a horizontal stroke 382<matrix> * Always a filled rectangular array.
348 midway through each numeral. Unique to this entry. 383
349<p> * paragraph tag, used always in pairs. Line breaks may 384<matrix2x5> * A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns).
350 be embedded inside the paragraphs. 385
351<person> * marks the proper name of a person. Used only 386<mstypec> * Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in def. of
352 occasionally, but should be used more frequently 387 "grass".
353 for cases where first names are abbreviated, 388
354 to reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic 389<mtable> * Multiple table, encloses <table> figures.
355 analysis. Where a title is given, prefixed 390
356 or postfixed, it is included in this tag. 391<musfig> * Music figure. Only in a note under the entry
357 392 "Figure", the two numbers of each such field are
358<persfn> * marks the name of a person, when only one name 393 bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction
359 (usually the last name) is given. Not used 394 with a bar between them, but also having a
360 consistently where it should be. 395 horizontal stroke midway through each
361 396 numeral. Unique to this entry.
362<publ> * Marks the name of a publication other than book, 397
363 which is marked by <booki>. It is often a 398<p> * Paragraph tag, used always in pairs. Line breaks
364 magazine or journal. 399 may be embedded inside the paragraphs.
365<qpers> * Tags the name of a person who is speaking, 400
366 within a quotation. 401<person> * Marks the proper name of a person. Used only
367<qperson> Same as <qpers> 402 occasionally, but should be used more frequently
368<cp> * Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases that 403 for cases where first names are abbreviated, to
369 should be parsed as a unit, but has no typographical 404 reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic
370 significance. 405 analysis. Where a title is given, prefixed or
371<qau> italic Always right-justified, as described for <au>. 406 postfixed, it is included in this tag.
372<ref> * A reference to a word in the vocabulary. 407
373<refs> * Marks the set of references used for a longer article 408<persfn> * Marks the name of a person, when only one name
374 such as a biography. 409 (usually the last name) is given. Not used
375<river> * Marks the name of a river -- a proper name 410 consistently where it should be.
376<rj> * Right justified 411
377<row> * Designates a row in a table. 412<publ> * Marks the name of a publication other than book,
378<state> * Name of a geopolitical state, the first subdivision of 413 which is marked by <booki>. It is often a
379 a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian provinces. 414 magazine or journal.
380<subtypes> * Lists subtypes of the headword. 415
381<sup> * superscript 416<qpers> * Tags the name of a person who is speaking, within
382<supr> * Supra. The two parts of each such field 417 a quotation.
383 are stacked, one over the other, *without* a 418
384 horizontal bar between (as in a fraction). 419<qperson> Same as <qpers>
385 Used only in one entry, for a musical notation. 420
386<table> * Always a filled rectangular array, having <row> and <item> 421<cp> * Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases
387 elements. 422 that should be parsed as a unit, but has no
388<td> * Table datum - one cell in a table 423 typographical significance.
389<th> * Table header 424
390<tradename> * Tags a commercial Trade name 425<qau> italic Always right-justified, as described for <au>.
391<ttitle> * Table title (Larger than normal font) 426
427<ref> * A reference to a word in the vocabulary.
428
429<refs> * Marks the set of references used for a longer
430 article such as a biography.
431
432<river> * Marks the name of a river -- a proper name.
433
434<rj> * Right justified.
435
436<row> * Designates a row in a table.
437
438<state> * Name of a geopolitical state, the first
439 subdivision of a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian
440 provinces.
441
442<subtypes> * Lists subtypes of the headword.
443
444<sup> * Superscript
445
446<supr> * Supra. The two parts of each such field are
447 stacked, one over the other, *without* a
448 horizontal bar between (as in a fraction). Used
449 only in one entry, for a musical notation.
450
451<table> * Always a filled rectangular array, having <row>
452 and <item> elements.
453
454<td> * Table datum - one cell in a table.
455
456<th> * Table header.
457
458<tradename> * Tags a commercial Trade name.
459
460<ttitle> * Table title (Larger than normal font).
392==================================================================== 461====================================================================
393 462
394Functional Tags 463* Functional Tags
395-------------------------------------------------------------------- 464
396Tag Font Meaning 465In the table below, font size comparatives are relative to the plain font.
397 (Comparatives are relative to the plain font.) 466
398----------------------------------------------------------------------- 467-------------------------------------------------------------------------
399<-- --> * Comment, not a tag. These segments should be deleted 468Tag Font Meaning and Description
400 from the written or printed text. 469-------------------------------------------------------------------------
401 Page numbers of the original text are indicated 470<-- --> * Comment, not a tag. These segments should be
402 within such comments; these may be left in, if 471 deleted from the written or printed text. Page
403 desired. 472 numbers of the original text are indicated within
404 473 such comments; these may be left in, if desired.
405<! !> * HTML-style comment. Used to indicate page numbers 474
406 in the public domain version. 475<! !> * A comment. Used to indicate page numbers in the
407 476 public domain version.
408<abbr> italic Tag for abbreviations, when mentioned within 477
409 the definition text. 478<abbr> italic Tag for abbreviations, when mentioned within the
410 479 definition text.
411<adjf> small caps Tags for the actual adjective or adverb 480
412 comparatives or superlatives. Should be 481<adjf> small caps Tags for the actual adjective or adverb
413 indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and 482 comparatives or superlatives. Should be
414 decf (nouns). 483 indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and decf (nouns).
415 484
416<altname> italic Alternative name. Usually for plants or animals, 485<altname> italic Alternative name. Usually for plants or animals,
417 but also used for other cases where words 486 but also used for other cases where words are
418 are introduced by "also called", "called also", 487 introduced by "also called", "called also",
419 "formerly called". These are functionally 488 "formerly called". These are
420 *synonyms* for that word-sense. 489 functionally *synonyms* for that word-sense.
421 490
422<altnpluf> italic Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a 491<altnpluf> italic Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a
423 plural form, whereas the headword is singular. 492 plural form, whereas the headword is singular.
424 493
425<amorph> * Adjective morphological segment, primarily 494<amorph> * Adjective morphological segment, primarily the
426 the comparative and superlative forms. 495 comparative and superlative forms. The
427 The occasional adverb morphology is 496 occasional adverb morphology is also tagged this
428 also tagged this way. 497 way.
429 498
430<as> * A segment occurring within the definitional 499<as> * A segment occurring within the definitional
431 sentence, providing an example of usage of 500 sentence, providing an example of usage of the
432 the headword. Not conceptually a part of the 501 headword. Not conceptually a part of the actual
433 actual definition. 502 definition.
434 503
435<cd> smaller spacing Collocation definition. Similar in structure 504<cd> smaller Collocation definition. Similar in structure to
436 to headword definitions (the <def> field). May 505 spacing headword definitions (the <def> field). May
437 contain an <as> field. Plain type, but with 506 contain an <as> field. Plain type, but with
438 closer spacing than main definitions. 507 closer spacing than main definitions.
439 508
440<col> bold, Collocation. A word combination containing the 509
441 smaller by headword (or a morphological derivative). 510<col> bold, Collocation. A word combination containing the
442 1 point The collocations do not have an explicitly 511 smaller by headword (or a morphological derivative).
443 marked part of speech. 512 1 point The collocations do not have an explicitly
444 See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations. 513 marked part of speech.
445 514 See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations.
446<colp> Collocation, no typographic significance. 515
447 Used to mark a word combination defined in 516<colp> Collocation, no typographic significance. Used
448 the dictionary without affect on font. 517 to mark a word combination defined in the
449 518 dictionary without affect on font.
450<conjf> small caps The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of 519
451 verbs. imp. & p. p. is common, as well as 520<conjf> small caps The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of verbs.
452 p. pr. & vb. n. Irregular variants of 521 imp. & p. p. is common, as well as p. pr. &
453 these are less common. Words in this 522 vb. n. Irregular variants of these are less
454 field perhaps should be indexed. 523 common. Words in this field perhaps should be
455 524 indexed.
456<cs> smaller Collocation segment. The font and size is 525
457 vertical normal in a cs, but the spacing between lines 526<cs> smaller Collocation segment. The font and size is normal
458 spacing is smaller (0.9 mm between lower-case letters, 527 vertical in a cs, but the spacing between lines is smaller
459 rather than 1.1 mm in the main body of the 528 spacing (0.9 mm between lower-case letters, rather than
460 definition). For an on-line dictionary, 529 1.1 mm in the main body of the definition). For
461 reproducing this typography is probably 530 an on-line dictionary, reproducing this
462 pointless. 531 typography is probably pointless.
463 532
464<decf> small caps Declension form. The actual morphological 533<decf> small caps Declension form. The actual morphological
465 variants of nouns or pronouns. Should 534 variants of nouns or pronouns. Should be
466 be indexed. 535 indexed.
467 536
468<ecol> * Embedded Collocation. A word combination 537<ecol> * Embedded Collocation. A word combination
469 containing the headword (or a morphological 538 containing the headword (or a morphological
470 derivative, embedded within a definition 539 derivative, embedded within a definition without
471 without a separate definition of its own. 540 a separate definition of its own. These
472 These collocations should be defined 541 collocations should be defined implicitly by the
473 implicitly by the text of the definition in 542 text of the definition in which they are
474 which they are embedded. 543 embedded. See also <col>, tagging explicitly
475 See also <col>, tagging explicitly defined 544 defined collocations.
476 collocations. 545
477 546<ent> Bold Entry field. Gives the headword without accent or
478<ent> Bold Entry field. Gives the headword without accent or 547 syllabication marks, and with special-character
479 syllabication marks, and with special-character 548 symbols converted to their nearest ASCII
480 symbols converted to their nearest ASCII 549 equivalents. Can be used without conversion as
481 equivalents. Can be used without conversion 550 the string that serves as the index word for that
482 as the string that serves as the index word 551 entry.
483 for that entry. 552
484 553<er> small caps Entry reference. References to headwords within
485<er> Small Caps Entry reference. References to headwords 554 the "etymology" section are in small caps. Such
486 within the "etymology" section are in small 555 references also occur in the body of definitions,
487 caps. Such references also occur 556 and in "usage" segments. Such entry references
488 in the body of definitions, and in "usage" 557 should function as hypertext buttons to access
489 segments. 558 that entry.
490 Such entry references should function as hypertext 559
491 buttons to access that entry. 560<ety> * Etymology. Always contained within square
492
493<ety> * Etymology. Always contained within square
494 brackets. Normal type is used for explanatory 561 brackets. Normal type is used for explanatory
495 comments, and italics for the actual words 562 comments, and italics for the actual words
496 (marked <ets>) considered as etymological 563 (marked <ets>) considered as etymological
497 sources. 564 sources.
498 565
499<ets> italic Etymological source. Words from which the 566<ets> italic Etymological source. Words from which the
500 headword was derived, or to which it is related. 567 headword was derived, or to which it is related.
501 The Greek words within an etymology segment 568 The Greek words within an etymology segment are
502 are invariably etymology sources, and should 569 invariably etymology sources, and should be
503 be marked as such, but are not so marked, 570 marked as such, but are not so marked, even in
504 even in the rare cases where the Greek word 571 the rare cases where the Greek word
505 transliteration has been written in. 572 transliteration has been written in.
506 573
507<etsep> italic Etymological source, being the name of a person 574<etsep> italic Etymological source, being the name of a person
508 or geographical location which is the eponym 575 or geographical location which is the eponym for
509 for the concept. This is used to distinguish 576 the concept. This is used to distinguish
510 eponymous etymologies from others, and can also 577 eponymous etymologies from others, and can also
511 be found in the body of a definition or note, 578 be found in the body of a definition or note, not
512 not only in the etymology field. Very few 579 only in the etymology field. Very few of the
513 of the names that should be marked this way 580 names that should be marked this way have
514 have actually been so marked, as of version 581 actually been so marked, as of version 0.42. In
515 0.42. In cases where such eponymous names 582 cases where such eponymous names have not yet
516 have not yet been thus marked, they will 583 been thus marked, they will usually be marked by
517 usually be marked by <xex>, the non-semantic 584 <xex>, the non-semantic italic-font marker, or,
518 italic-font marker, or, in etymologies, by 585 in etymologies, by <ets>.
519 <ets>. 586
520 587<ex> italic Example. An example of usage of the headword,
521<ex> italic Example. An example of usage of the headword, 588 usually found within an <as> or <note> segment.
522 usually found within an <as> or <note> segment. 589
523 590<fr> * Frequency of use, ordinal rank. This is used for
524<fr> * Frequency of use, ordinal rank. This is used for 591 WordNet entries, in which the synonyms were
525 WordNet entries, in which the synonyms 592 ranked in order of frequency of use. <fr>1</fr>
526 were ranked in order of frequency of use. 593 indicates that the headword is the first word on
527 <fr>1</fr> indicates that the headword is the 594 the list of synonyms.
528 first word on the list of synonyms. 595
529 596<fu> * First use. A date at or around which the first
530<fu> * First use. A date at or around which the first 597 use of this word in writing is recorded. Not in
531 use of this word in writing is recorded. 598 the original 1913 Webster, and usu. taken from a
532 Not in the original 1913 Webster, and usu. 599 recent dictionary. Only a few such fields have
533 taken from a recent dictionary. Only a few 600 been entered as of version 0.41
534 such fields have been entered as of version 601
535 0.41 602<grk> Greek transliteration. The Greek words have been
536 603 transliterated using roman letters. See
537<grk> transliteration Greek. The Greek words have been transliterated 604 chapter "Greek transliteration" in file
538 using the equivalents explained in the 605 "webfont.txt"
539 file "webfonts.asc". In most cases, the 606
540 transliterations are typical for Greek 607<hw> bold, A headword. Each main entry begins with the <hw>
541 letters, except for theta (transl = q), 608 larger by mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark. The main
542 phi (transl. = f), eta (transl. = h), and 609 2 points entries are not otherwise explicitly marked as a
543 upsilon (transl. = y, whether pronounced 610 distinctive field. The same word may appear as a
544 as y or u). This was to eliminate any 611 headword several times, usually as different
545 ambiguity. These words occur primarily 612 parts of speech, but sometimes with different
546 in etymologies, and to conform to the 613 entries as the same part of speech, presumably to
547 usage of <ets> should also be marked 614 indicate a different etymology. Within the hw
548 by <ets>, but as of version 0.41 they 615 field the heavy accent is represented by double
549 are not usually thus marked. 616 quote ("), the light accent by open-single-quote
550 617 (`), and the short dash separating syllables by
551<hw> bold, headword. Each main entry begins with the <hw>
552 larger by mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark. The
553 2 points main entries are not otherwise explicitly
554 marked as a distinctive field.
555 The same word may appear as a headword
556 several times, usually as different parts
557 of speech, but sometimes with different
558 entries as the same part of speech, presumably
559 to indicate a different etymology.
560 Within the hw field the heavy accent is
561 represented by double quote ("), the
562 light accent by open-single-quote (`),
563 and the short dash separating syllables by
564 an asterisk (*). A hyphen (-) is used to 618 an asterisk (*). A hyphen (-) is used to
565 represent the hyphen of hyphenated words. 619 represent the hyphen of hyphenated words.
566 620
567<mark> italic, Usage mark. Almost always within square 621<mark> italic, Usage mark. Almost always within square
568 brackets, occasionally in parentheses or 622 but brackets, occasionally in parentheses or without
569 without any bracketing. 623 explanatory any bracketing. The most common usage marks,
570 but The most common usage marks, 624 may be "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." =
571 explanatory "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." = 625 plain. colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
572 may be plain. colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
573 etc. are in italics. Some usage notes are also 626 etc. are in italics. Some usage notes are also
574 marked with <mark>, but are in plain. For 627 marked with <mark>, but are in plain. For
575 simplicity, all words in this field may be 628 simplicity, all words in this field may be
576 italic, until additional explicit marks are 629 italic, until additional explicit marks are
577 added. 630 added.
578 631
579<markp> * A usage mark in plain type (not italic). Found 632<markp> * A usage mark in plain type (not italic). Found
580 within a definition, when there are more than 633 within a definition, when there are more than one
581 one sense-number listed. "Fig." at the head 634 sense-number listed. "Fig." at the head of an
582 of an entry is the most common case. 635 entry is the most common case.
583 636
584<mcol> * Multiple collocation. Similar to multiple 637<mcol> * Multiple collocation. Similar to multiple
585 headword, when two or more collocations share 638 headword, when two or more collocations share one
586 one definition; however, the two collocations 639 definition; however, the two collocations are
587 are in-line, rather than stacked or justified. 640 in-line, rather than stacked or justified. There
588 There may be "or" or "and" words 641 may be "or" or "and" words (italicised), or an
589 (italicised), or an "etc." (plain type) 642 "etc." (plain type) within this field. In many
590 within this field. In many cases, the 643 cases, the <or/ and <and/ entities are used to
591 <or/ and <and/ entities are used to 644 signify the change of font for these words.
592 signify the change of font for these words. 645
593 646<mhw> * Multiple headword. This field is used where more
594<mhw> * Multiple headword. This field is used where 647 than one headword shares a single definition. In
595 more than one headword shares a single 648 the dictionary, the (usually) two headwords are
596 definition. In the dictionary, the 649 left-justified one below the other in the column,
597 (usually) two headwords are left-justified 650 and are tied together on the right side of the
598 one below the other in the column, and are 651 headwords by a long right curly brace. This
599 tied together on the right side of the 652 division is strictly functional, for analytical
600 headwords by a long right curly brace. 653 purposes, and does not affect the typography.
601 This division is strictly functional, 654
602 for analytical purposes, and does not 655<nmorph> * Noun morphology section. Rarely used, mostly for
603 affect the typography. 656 irregular personal pronouns.
604 657
605<nmorph> * Noun morphology section. Rarely used, mostly 658<note> * Explanatory note. No explicit font is indicated.
606 for irregular personal pronouns. 659 These segments may be separate, as in the
607 660 separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/, or
608<note> * Explanatory note. No explicit font is indicated. 661 they may just be further explanation within (or
609 These segments may be separate, as in the 662 more usually, following) the main definition
610 separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/, 663 paragraph. Typographically, the notes following
611 or they may just be further explanation within 664 the main definition may not be distinguishable
612 (or more usually, following) the main 665 from additional sentences appended to the first
613 definition paragraph. Typographically, 666 sentence of a definition.
614 the notes following the main definition may 667
615 not be distinguishable from additional 668<plu> * Plural. The "plural" segment starts with a "pl."
616 sentences appended to the first sentence 669 which is italicised, but in this segment is not
617 of a definition. 670 otherwise marked as italicised. Other words
618 671 occurring in this segment are plain type. The
619<plu> * Plural. The "plural" segment starts with a 672 "pl." can be easily explicitly marked if
620 "pl." which is italicised, but in this 673 necessary.
621 segment is not otherwise marked as 674
622 italicised. Other words occurring in this 675<pos> italic Part of speech. Always an abbreviation: e.g.,
623 segment are plain type. The "pl." can be 676 n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep.
624 easily explicitly marked if necessary. 677 Combinations may occur, as "a. & n.".
625 678
626<pos> italic Part of speech. Always an abbreviation: e.g., 679<epos> * Part of speech, referring to words in
627 n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep. 680 etymologies, normal type. Always an
628 Combinations may occur, as "a. & n.". 681 abbreviation, as in <pos> above Combinations may
629 682 occur, as "a. or n.".
630<epos> * Part of speech, referring to words in 683
631 etymologies, normal type. Always an 684<plw> small caps Plural word. The actual plural form of the word,
632 abbreviation, as in <pos> above 685 found within a <plu> segment.
633 Combinations may occur, as "a. or n.". 686
634 687<pr> * Pronunciation. The default font is normal, but
635<plw> small caps Plural word. The actual plural form of the word, 688 many non-ASCII characters are used. The
636 found within a <plu> segment. 689 pronunciation field may have more than one
637 690 pronunciation, separated by an "<or/". (An "or"
638<pr> * pronunciation. The default font is normal, but 691 here is in italic, and usually is represented by
639 many non-ASCII characters are used. 692 the entity <or/). There may also be some
640 The pronunciation field may have more than 693 commentary, such as "Fr."(French pronunciation)
641 one pronunciation, separated by an "<or/". 694 or "archaic". The commentaries are typically
642 (An "or" here is in italic, and usually is 695 italic, and should be marked as such. In certain
643 represented by the entity <or/). 696 pronunciations there is a numbered reference to a
644 There may also be some commentary, such as 697 root form explained in an introductory section on
645 "Fr."(French pronunciation) or "archaic". 698 pronunciation.
646 The commentaries are typically italic, and 699
647 should be marked as such. In certain 700 Very few of the pronunciation fields have been
648 pronunciations there is a numbered reference 701 filled in. The pronunciation markings use a more
649 to a root form explained in an introductory 702 complicated method than more modern dictionaries.
650 section on pronunciation. 703 It would be interesting to have these fields
651 Very few of the pronunciation fields have 704 filled in, if there are any volunteers willing to
652 been filled in. The pronunciation markings use 705 do it.
653 a more complicated method than more modern 706
654 dictionaries. It would be interesting to have 707<q> smaller by Quotation. No bracketing quotation marks, though
655 these fields filled in, if there are any 708 two points, occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur within
656 volunteers willing to do it. 709 centered, these quotations. These quotations tend to be
657 710 Separate more complete sentences, rather than just
658<q> smaller by Quotation. No bracketing quotation marks, 711 paragraph phrases, such as are contained within quotation
659 two points, though occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur 712 marks within the definition paragraph.
660 centered, within these quotations. These quotations 713
661 Separate tend to be more complete sentences, rather 714<qau> italic, Quotation author. Used only for the
662 paragraph than just phrases, such as are contained 715 right quotations marked with <q> that are centered in
663 within quotation marks within the definition 716 justified their own paragraphs.
664 paragraph. 717
665 718<qex> italic Quotation example. An example of usage of the
666<qau> italic, Quotation author. Used only for the quotations 719 headword, within quotations marked by <q>..</q>
667 right justified marked with <q> that are centered in their 720 tags.
668 own paragraphs. 721
669 722<sd> italic Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc. These
670<qex> italic Quotation example. An example of usage of 723 are finer distinctions of word senses, used
671 the headword, within quotations marked 724 within numbered word-sense (for main entries),
672 by <q>..</q> tags. 725 and also used for subdefinitions within
673 726 collocation segments, which have no numbering of
674<sd> italic Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc. THese are 727 senses. The letter is italic, the parentheses
675 finer distinctions of word senses, used 728 are not. This tag is also used to indicate the
676 within numbered word-sense (for main entries), 729 lettered subdefinition when it is referred to at
677 and also used for subdefinitions within 730 another point in the text.
678 collocation segments, which have no numbering of 731
679 senses. The letter is italic, the parentheses 732<ship> italic The name of a ship. Rarely used.
680 are not. This tag is also used to indicate the 733
681 lettered subdefinition when it is referred to 734<sing> * Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but
682 at another point in the text. 735 more rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which
683 736 are listed in the plural form.
684<ship> italic The name of a ship. Rarely used. 737
685 738<singw> small caps Singular word. The singular form of the
686<sing> * Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but more 739 plural-form headword.
687 rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which 740
688 are listed in the plural form. 741<sn> bold, Sense number. A headword may have over 20
689 742 larger by different sense numbers. Within each numbered
690<singw> small caps Singular word. The singular form of the 743 2 points sense there may be lettered sub-senses. See the
691 plural-form headword. 744 <sd> (sub-definition) field.
692 745
693<sn> bold, Sense number. A headword may have over 20 746<source> italic Source. The author of the definition. Used only
694 larger by different sense numbers. Within each numbered 747 for definitions not originally present in Webster
695 2 points sense there may be lettered sub-senses. See 748 1913, and not present in the original version
696 the <sd> (sub-definition) field. 749 intended to mimic the 1913 printed dictionary.
697 750 This source is used for each word sense, and may
698<source> italic Source. The author of the definition. Used only 751 differ for different senses of a word, especially
699 for definitions not originally present in 752 where a Web1913 definition was substantially
700 Webster 1913, and not present in the original 753 modified, or a new word sense was added to a
701 version intended to mimic the 1913 printed 754 previously defined word.
702 dictionary. This source is used for each 755
703 word sense, and may differ for different 756<syn> plain Synonyms. A list of synonyms, sometimes followed
704 senses of a word, especially where a Web1913 757 by a <usage> segment.
705 definition was substantially modified, or a 758
706 new word sense was added to a previously 759<usage> narrower Comparisons of word usage for words which are
707 defined word. 760 spacing sometimes confused. As with collocation
708 761 segments, font is plain, but spacing is smaller
709<syn> plain Synonyms. A list of synonyms, sometimes followed 762 than normal definition spacing. This seems
710 by a <usage> segment. 763 pointlessly complicating for an on-line display.
711 764
712<usage> narrower Comparisons of word usage for words which are 765<ver> * Verified for current accuracy by a technical
713 spacing sometimes confused. As with collocation segments, 766 editor, without changes.
714 font is plain, but spacing is smaller than 767
715 normal definition spacing. This seems pointlessly 768<vmorph> * Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited
716 complicating for an on-line display. 769 by square brackets.
717 770
718<ver> * Verified for current accuracy by a technical editor, 771<wordforms> * Morphological derivatives not contained in the
719 without changes. 772 bracketed segments, as above. For nouns derived
720 773 from adjectives, adverbs from adjectives, etc.
721<vmorph> * Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited 774 This segment is usually found at the end of the
722 by square brackets. 775 main entry. The adverbial and nominalized
723 776 derivatives at the end of a main entry are
724<wordforms> * Morphological derivatives not contained in the 777 usually introduced by an em dash [represented as
725 bracketed segments, as above. For nouns 778 two hyphens (--)].
726 derived from adjectives, adverbs from 779
727 adjectives, etc. This segment is usually 780<wf> bold, Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable
728 found at the end of the main entry. The 781 larger by breaks marked as in the headword. Marks the
729 adverbial and nominalized derivatives at the 782 2 points actual morphological forms within a <wordforms>
730 end of a main entry are usually introduced 783 segment; typically, adverbial or nominalized form
731 by an em dash [represented as two hyphens (--)]. 784 of an adjective.
732 785
733<wf> bold, Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable 786
734 larger by breaks marked as in the headword. 787<def2> * Second definition (occasionally, a third
735 2 points Marks the actual morphological forms within 788 definition is present). This is used where a
736 a <wordforms> segment; typically, adverbial or 789 second or third part of speech with the same
737 nominalized form of an adjective. 790 orthography is placed under one headword. Within
738 791 this segment, there will be a <pos> field, and
739 792 sometimes a <mark> and/or a quotation.
740<def2> * Second definition (occasionally, a third definition is 793
741 present). This is used where a second or third 794<specif> * "Specifically:" Used to mark the words
742 part of speech with the same orthography is 795 "specifically", "Hence", "as" which are used to
743 placed under one headword. Within this segment, 796 introduce a second definition typically more
744 there will be a <pos> field, and sometimes 797 specific than the first, but in general derived by
745 a <mark> and/or a quotation. 798 extension of the initial definition. This
746 799 functions as a warning of multiple definitions
747<specif> * "Specifically:" Used to mark the words "specifically", 800 where the sense-numbers are not explicitly used.
748 "Hence", "as" which are used to introduce a second 801 It is also useful in separate senses, to tag
749 definition typically more specific than the first, 802 polysemous definitions which may be
750 but in general derived by extension of the initial 803 specializations or generalizations of the
751 definition. This functions as a warning of multiple 804 preceding definition.
752 definitions where the sense-numbers are not explicitly 805
753 used. It is also useful in separate senses, to 806<pluf> italic Plural form. Used exclusively to mark the "pl."
754 tag polysemous definitions which may be 807 abbreviation, which introduces a definition for the
755 specializations or generalizations of the preceding 808 headword, *when used in the plural form*. Not
756 definition. 809 related to <plu>, which spells out the plural form,
757 810 but does define it.
758<pluf> italic. Plural form. 811
759 Used exclusively to mark the "pl." abbreviation, 812<uex> italic Usage example. Used only a few times, within
760 which introduces a definition for the headword, 813 <usage> segments.
761 *when used in the plural form*. Not related to 814
762 <plu>, which spells out the plural form, but does 815<isa> italic Supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and
763 define it. 816 identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet.
764 817
765<uex> italic Usage example. Used only a few times, within 818<chform> plain, Chemical formula. The letters are plain font, but
766 <usage> segments. 819 numbers the numbers are subscript. This is mostly useful
767 820 subscript as a functional mark to pinpoint chemicals.
768<isa> italic supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and 821
769 identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet. 822<chformi> plain Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not
770 823 processed specially by the tag-converter program.
771<chform> plain, Chemical formula. The letters are plain font, 824 The letters are plain font, but the numbers are
772 numbers but the numbers are subscript. This is mostly 825 subscript. Used in place of <chform> when the
773 subscript useful as a functional mark to pinpoint 826 formula has a tag inside, which cannot now be
774 chemicals. 827 processed by the <chform> processing routine.
775 828
776<chformi> plain, Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not 829<chname> * Chemical name. Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
777 processed specially by the tag-converter program. 830 name to be processed as a unit in spite of
778 The letters are plain font, but the numbers are 831 embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas.
779 subscript. 832
780 Used in place of <chform> when the formula has 833<see> * A "see" reference to related words, outside of the
781 a tag inside, which cannot now be processed by the 834 main <def>definition</def> field.
782 <chform> processing routine.
783
784<chname> * chemical name. Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
785 name to be processed as a unit in spite of
786 embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas.
787
788<see> * "see" reference to related words, outside of the
789 main <def>definition</def> field.
790 835
791<mathex> italic Mathematical expression. In this dictionary, 836<mathex> italic Mathematical expression. In this dictionary,
792 essentially all letters (used as variable labels) 837 essentially all letters (used as variable labels)
793 in math expressions are in italic font. 838 in math expressions are in italic font. The "+"
794 The "+" and "-" may also appear typographically 839 and "-" may also appear typographically different
795 different from elsewhere in the dictionary. 840 from elsewhere in the dictionary.
796 841
797<ratio> italic Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and 842<ratio> italic Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and
798 double colon may have a different typography 843 double colon may have a different typography than
799 than usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio> 844 usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio>
800 845
801<singf> italic Singular form. Analogous to <pluf>, to define 846<singf> italic Singular form. Analogous to <pluf>, to define the
802 the singular word where the headword is the 847 singular word where the headword is the plural
803 plural form. ** only modifies the word "sing." 848 form. ** only modifies the word "sing."
804 849
805<mord> * Morphological derivation. Used to mark the 850<mord> * Morphological derivation. Used to mark the
806 entry-reference portions of those 851 entry-reference portions of those entries which
807 entries which are defined as morphological 852 are defined as morphological derivatives (plural,
808 derivatives (plural, p. p., imp.) of other 853 p. p., imp.) of other headwords. Used just as an
809 headwords. Used just as an attempt to 854 attempt to mark and regularize the entry format.
810 mark and regularize the entry format. 855 May be ignored typographically.
811 May be ignored typographically. 856
812 857<fract> a stack, Fraction. Used for non-numerical fractions which
813<fract> a stack, Fraction. Used for non-numerical fractions 858 with cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style entity.
814 with which cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style 859 numerator, The forward slash "/" is to be interpreted as a
815 numerator, entity. The forward slash "/" is to be 860 horizontal horizontal line separating the numerator and
816 horizontal interpreted as a horizontal line separating 861 bar, and denominator.
817 bar, and the numerator and denominator. 862 denominator
818 denominator 863
819 864<exp> superscript, Exponential. Used in mathematical expressions.
820<exp> superscript, Exponential. Used in mathematical expressions. 865 smaller font.
821 smaller 866
822 font. 867<xlati> italic Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a
823 868 definition or etymology. Used only twice.
824<xlati> italic Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a 869
825 definition or etymology. Used only twice. 870<tran> italic Word translated: the word in italic is translated
826 871 by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies,
827<tran> italic Word translated: the word in italic is translated 872 where the word translated is not actually
828 by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies, where 873 etymologically related to the headword. The
829 the word translated is not actually etymologically 874 translated word is not necessarily English.
830 related to the headword. The translated word 875
831 is not necessarily English. 876<tr> italic Translation of the preceding word (or of the
832 877 headword) into English.
833<tr> italic translation of the preceding word (or of the 878
834 headword) into English. 879<fexp> * Functional expression (math). The function names
835 880 are in plain type, the variables are italic.
836<fexp> * Functional expression (math). The function names are 881
837 in plain type, the variables are italic. 882<iref> italic Illustration reference. Used ony occasionally,
838 883 not yet (v. 0.41) consistently.
839<iref> italic Illustration reference. Used ony occasionally, not 884
840 yet (v. 0.41) consistently. 885<figref> italic Figure reference.
841 886
842<figref> italic Figure reference. 887<figcap> * Figure caption.
843 888
844<figcap> * Figure caption. 889<figtitle> * Figure title.
845 890
846<figtitle> * Figure title. 891<funct> * Tags a mathematical function or expression.
847 892
848<funct> * tags a mathematical function or expression. 893<chreact> * Chemical reaction. Similar to chemical formulas
849 894 (which are contained but not explicitly marked),
850<chreact> * Chemical reaction. Similar to chemical formulas (which 895 with some other symbols.
851 are contained but not explicitly marked), with 896
852 some other symbols. 897<ptcl> italic Verb Particle. Only a few particles were actually
853 898 marked, but in a future version more may be.
854<ptcl> italic Verb Particle. Only a few particles were actually 899
855 marked, but in a future version more may be. 900<tabtitle> Table Title. Used only once.
856 901
857<tabtitle> ? Table Title. Used only once. 902<title> italic Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical
858 903 composition, etc. Used rarely but should be used
859<title> italic Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical 904 in every case, except in <au> references.
860 composition, etc. Used rarely but should be 905
861 used in every case, except in <au> references. 906<root> * Square root -- differs from the entity <root/,
862 907 which is a square root sign that does not extend
863<root> * Square root -- differs from the entity <root/, 908 beyond the number following it. The <root> field
864 which is a square root sign that does not extend 909 has a bar (vinculum) over the expression within
865 beyond the number following it. The <root> 910 the field, as well as the square root symbol
866 field has a bar (vinvulum) over the expression 911 preceding the expression in the field. Used only
867 within the field, as well as the square root symbol 912 once.
868 preceding the expression in the field. Used only 913
869 once. 914<vinc> * Vinculum. In a mathematical expression, a bar
870 915 extending over the expression within the field.
871<vinc> * Vinculum. In a mathematical expression, a bar 916 Used only once. This apparently serves the same
872 extending over the expression within the field. 917 function as a parentheses, of causing the
873 Used only once. This apparently serves the same 918 expression within the field to be evaluated and
874 function as a parentheses, of causing the 919 the result used as the (mathematical) value of
875 expression within the field to be evaluated 920 the field.
876 and the result used as the (mathematical) value 921
877 of the field. 922<nul> plain Nultype. An older version of <plain>.
878 923
879<nul> plain Nultype. An older version of <plain>. 924<cd2> * Second collocation definition. Somewhat similar
880 925 to <def2>. Purely a mark to reduce functional
881<cd2> * Second collocation definition. Somewhat similar to 926 ambiguity, with no effect on the typography.
882 <def2>. Purely a mark to reduce functional ambiguity, 927
883 with no effect on the typography. 928<hypen> * Hypernym. Mark introduced for the World Wide
884 929 Webster, when adding words from WordNet. In most
885<hypen> * Hypernym. Mark introduced for the World Wide Webster, 930 cases, this tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for
886 when adding words from WordNet. In most cases, this 931 nouns and verbs). Where the <au> mark is PJC or
887 tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for nouns and verbs). 932 includes a +PJC, the hypernym may not be the same
888 Where the <au> mark is PJC or includes a +PJC, the 933 as in WordNet. The words marked by this tag need
889 hypernym may not be the same as in WordNet. The words 934 to be bracketed in some way, but this is deferred
890 marked by this tag need to be bracketed in some way, 935 until the definitions included with the hypernyms
891 but this is deferred until the definitions included 936 have been deleted, and other disambiguating marks
892 with the hypernyms have been deleted, and other 937 substituted.
893 disambiguating marks substituted. 938
894 939<stype> italic Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which
895<stype> italic Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which 940 are conceptually subtypes of the styp.
896 are conceptually subtypes of the headword. 941
897 942<headword> * Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words
898<styp> * Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which 943 which are conceptually subtypes of the headword,
899 are conceptually subtypes of the headword, but 944 but with no *typographical* significance.
900 with no *typographical* significance. 945
901 946<simto> * Similar-to. A semantic relational mark for
902<simto> * Similar-to. A semantic relational mark for 947 closely related words which are not quite
903 closely related words which are not quite 948 synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms.
904 synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms. Introduced 949 Introduced with WordNet data.
905 with WordNet data. 950
906 951<conseq> * Consequence. For adjectives, is an attribute
907<conseq> * Consequence. For adjectives, is an attribute which 952or which is a consequence of possessing the headword
908 or is a consequence of possessing the headword attribute. 953<hascons> attribute. Introduced with WordNet data.
909<hascons> Introduced with WordNet data. 954
910 955<consof> * Consequence of. For adjectives, an attribute
911<consof> * Consequence of. For adjectives, an attribute which 956 which implies the headword as a natural
912 implies the headword as a natural consequence. 957 consequence.
913 958
914<part> italic Part. Marks a word designating something which is 959<part> italic Part. Marks a word designating something which
915 conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely used. 960 is conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely
916 961 used.
917<parts> italic Part, plural form. Same as <part>, but marks the 962
918 name of the part in its plural form. 963<parts> italic Part, plural form. Same as <part>, but marks the
919 964 name of the part in its plural form.
920<partof> * Marks a word designating something of which the headword 965
921 is conceptually a part. Inverse of <part>. 966<partof> * Marks a word designating something of which the
922 This is very broad, and may mean constituent or 967 headword is conceptually a part. Inverse of
923 separable part. 968 <part>. This is very broad, and may mean
924 Rarely used. 969 constituent or separable part. Rarely used.
925 970
926<contxt> * Context. Used only for introductions to definitions, 971<contxt> * Context. Used only for introductions to
927 giving the context of usage, which are not part 972 definitions, giving the context of usage, which
928 of the definition proper, as: 973 are not part of the definition proper, as:
929 <contxt>when used of a person:</contxt> 974 <contxt>when used of a person:</contxt>
930 975
931<grp> * Marks the name of a group of people not formally 976<grp> * Marks the name of a group of people not formally
932 organized. 977 organized.
933 978
934<membof> italic marks a group of which the headword is a member. 979<membof> italic Marks a group of which the headword is a member.
935 This is rarely used, but should be indexed as 980 This is rarely used, but should be indexed as an
936 an entry word or phrase. 981 entry word or phrase.
937 982
938<member> italic marks a member of a group defined by the headword. 983<member> italic Marks a member of a group defined by the
939 This is rarely used, but should be indexed as 984 headword. This is rarely used, but should be
940 an entry word or phrase. 985 indexed as an entry word or phrase.
941 986
942<members> italic Same as <member>, but marks a plural word, 987<members> italic Same as <member>, but marks a plural word,
943 designating the name of the members in its plural form, 988 designating the name of the members in its plural
944 for lack of ambiguity. 989 form, for lack of ambiguity.
945 990
946<method> * Designates a special type of definition which 991<method> * Designates a special type of definition which
947 describes a method for achieving the headword, 992 describes a method for achieving the headword,
948 993 used only once for the word "amend". The
949 used only once for the word "amend". The 994 subdefinitions begin with "by".
950 subdefinitions begin with "by". 995
951 996<corpn> * Name of a business company, corporation, or
952<corpn> * Name of a business company, corporation, or partnership. 997 partnership. Started using November 1988. Rare.
953 Started using November 1988. Rare. 998
954 999<corr> italic Correlative. A word intimately associated with
955<corr> italic Correlative. A word intimately associated with the 1000 the headword in a manner such that one cannot
956 headword in a manner such that one cannot 1001 appear without the other. Not exactly an
957 appear without the other. NOt exactly an inverse. 1002 inverse.
958 1003
959<qperson> italic marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue. 1004<qperson> italic Marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue.
960 Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45. 1005 Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45.
961 1006
962<org> * marks the name of an organization; sometimes used 1007<org> * Marks the name of an organization; sometimes used
963 for the names of groups of people not 1008 for the names of groups of people not formally
964 formally organized *see also <grp>. 1009 organized; see also <grp>.
965 1010
966<prod> italic produces. Designates a substance produced by 1011<prod> italic produces. Designates a substance produced by a
967 a living organism. Rarely used. 1012 living organism. Rarely used.
968 1013
969<prodp> * produces (plainfont). Designates a substance 1014<prodp> * produces (plainfont). Designates a substance
970 produced by a living organism. Same as <prod>, 1015 produced by a living organism. Same as <prod>,
971 but does not affect font. Rarely used. 1016 but does not affect font. Rarely used.
972 1017
973<prodby> * produced by. Designates a living organism which 1018<prodby> * produced by. Designates a living organism which
974 produces the headword substance. Rarely used. 1019 produces the headword substance. Rarely used.
975 1020
976<prodmac> italic produces. Designates an object or substance produced 1021<prodmac> italic produces. Designates an object or substance
977 by a machine or process. Rarely used. 1022 produced by a machine or process. Rarely used.
978 1023
979<stage> italic life stage of an organism. Used to indicate 1024<stage> italic life stage of an organism. Used to indicate
980 variant forms of an organism defined by the 1025 variant forms of an organism defined by the
981 headword. Rarely used. 1026 headword. Rarely used.
982 1027
983<stageof> * an organism one of whose life stages is the headword. 1028<stageof> * An organism one of whose life stages is the
984 Inverse (correlative) of <stage>. Rarely used. 1029 headword. Inverse (correlative) of
985 1030 <stage>. Rarely used.
986<inv> italic inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository 1031
987 is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse of 1032<inv> italic Inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository
988 seller. Called "correlative" in the Webster 1913 and 1033 is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse
989 the CIDE. Rarely used. 1034 of seller. Called "correlative" in the Webster
990 1035 1913 and the CIDE. Rarely used.
991<methodfor> italic is a method to accomplish the action defined by 1036
992 the headword. Rarely used, and only in the 1037<methodfor> italic Is a method to accomplish the action defined by
993 supplemental section. 1038 the headword. Rarely used, and only in the
994 1039 supplemental section.
995<examp> italic example or instance of the headword, where the 1040
996 tagged and emphasized word is not a proper subtype. 1041<examp> italic Example or instance of the headword, where the
997-------------------------------------- 1042 tagged and emphasized word is not a proper
998<p><hw>Pa*ron"y*mous</hw> <p><sn>2.</sn> <def>Having a similar sound, but different orthography and different meaning; -- said of certain words, as <examp>all</examp> and <examp>awl</examp>; <examp>hair</examp> and <examp>hare</examp>, etc.</def><br/ 1043 subtype.
999[<source>1913 Webster</source>]</p> 1044
1000------------------------------------- 1045<sfield> * Subfield of the headword, which must be a field
1001 1046 of study or of knowledge.
1002<sfield> * subfield of the headword, which must be a field 1047
1003 of study or of knowledge 1048<stage> italic A stage of life of the headword -- for living
1004<stage> italic a stage of life of the headword -- for living things, 1049 things, such as insects, whose life stages may
1005 such as insects, whose life stages may take different 1050 take different names.
1006 names. 1051
1007 1052<unit> italic A unit of measure, usually preceded by a number.
1008<unit> italic a unit of measure, usually preceded by a number. 1053 Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is
1009 Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is the 1054 the headword.
1010 headword. 1055
1011 1056<uses> italic Tags a tool or method used by the headword, which
1012<uses> italic tags a tool or method used by the headword, 1057 is usually some process.
1013 which is usually some process. 1058
1014 1059<usedfor> * Tags a method or process for which the headword
1015<usedfor> * tags a method or process for which the headword 1060 is a tool.
1016 is a tool. 1061
1017 1062<usedby> italic Tags a tool or method which uses the headword,
1018<usedby> italic tags a tool or method which uses the headword, 1063 which is usually a physical object.
1019 which is usually a physical object. 1064
1020 1065<perf> italic performs -- tags a word which is a process or
1021<perf> italic performs -- tags a word which is a process or 1066 activity performed by the headword.
1022 activity performed by the headword. 1067
1023 1068<recipr> italic reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged
1024<recipr> italic reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged word 1069 word is a reciprocal participant in an action,
1025 is a reciprocal participant in an action, such as 1070 such as donor and recipient. The difference
1026 donor and recipient. The difference between this and 1071 between this and <inv> inverse has not yet been
1027 <inv> inverse has not yet been systematically settled. 1072 systematically settled. Used seldom, and mostly
1028 Used seldom, and mostly in the supplemented version. 1073 in the supplemented version.
1029 1074
1030<sig> italic significance, meaning -- used in definitions where the 1075<sig> italic significance, meaning -- used in definitions
1031 actual meaning is prefixed with commentary explaining 1076 where the actual meaning is prefixed with
1032 usage or other attributes of the word, as with 1077 commentary explaining usage or other attributes
1033 prefixes or suffixes. 1078 of the word, as with prefixes or suffixes.
1034 1079
1035<wns> italic WordNet sense. Where known, the correspondence of the 1080<wns> italic WordNet sense. Where known, the correspondence
1036 sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6 is 1081 of the sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6
1037 given after the definition, in a tag of the 1082 is given after the definition, in a tag of the
1038 form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number 1083 form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number is
1039 is the numbered sense in WordNet. 1084 the numbered sense in WordNet.
1040 1085
1041<w16ns> italic WordNet version 1.6 sense. See <wns> for 1086<w16ns> italic WordNet version 1.6 sense. See <wns> for
1042 explanation. 1087 explanation.
1043<wnote> * A note related to usage in the corresponding 1088<wnote> * A note related to usage in the corresponding
1044 WordNet definition. 1089 WordNet definition.
1045 ============================================================= 1090
1046Biological classifications: 1091* Biological classifications
1047--------------------------- 1092
1048<spn> italic Species name. Used to mark the taxonomic names 1093-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1049 of living things which are represented in 1094Tag Font Meaning and Description
1050 italic font in the original printed version. 1095-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1051 Originally, not only species, but genera, orders and 1096<spn> italic Species name. Used to mark the taxonomic names
1052 families were also thus marked. The conversion from 1097 of living things which are represented in italic
1053 <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord> is not completed, and 1098 font in the original printed version.
1054 <spn> may stil be found marking such groups. 1099 Originally, not only species, but genera, orders
1055 However, orders and families are also frequently 1100 and families were also thus marked. The
1056 mentioned in the original in normal font, and in such 1101 conversion from <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord>
1057 cases are not marked with any tag. So, this mark 1102 is not completed, and <spn> may stil be found
1058 is not a reliable indicator of all mentions of 1103 marking such groups. However, orders and
1059 taxonomic names. 1104 families are also frequently mentioned in the
1060<kingdom> italic Taxonomic biological Kingdom name. 1105 original in normal font, and in such cases are
1061<phylum> italic Taxonomic phylum name. 1106 not marked with any tag. So, this mark is not a
1062<subphylum> italic Taxonomic subphylum name. 1107 reliable indicator of all mentions of taxonomic
1063<class> italic Taxonomic class name. 1108 names.
1064<subclass> italic Taxonomic subclass name. 1109<kingdom> italic Taxonomic biological Kingdom name.
1065<ord> italic Taxonomic order name. 1110<phylum> italic Taxonomic phylum name.
1066 Also used for suborders, initially. 1111<subphylum> italic Taxonomic subphylum name.
1067<subord> italic Taxonomic suborder name. 1112<class> italic Taxonomic class name.
1068<suborder> italic Taxonomic suborder name. 1113<subclass> italic Taxonomic subclass name.
1069<fam> italic Taxonomic family name. Also used to tag "tribes". 1114<ord> italic Taxonomic order name. Also used for suborders,
1070<subfam> italic Taxonomic subfamily name. 1115 initially.
1071<gen> italic Taxonomic genus name. 1116<subord> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
1072<var> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below 1117<suborder> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
1073 the level of species in living organism systematic 1118<fam> italic Taxonomic family name. Also used to tag "tribes".
1074 names. 1119<subfam> italic Taxonomic subfamily name.
1075 1120<gen> italic Taxonomic genus name.
1076<varn> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below 1121<var> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities
1077 the level of species in living organism systematic 1122 below the level of species in living organism
1078 names. Duplicative variant of <var> 1123 systematic names.
1079 1124
1080 1125<varn> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities
1126 below the level of species in living organism
1127 systematic names. Duplicative variant of <var>.
1128
1129
1130
1131Local Variables:
1132mode: Outline
1133coding: utf-8
1134fill-column: 76
1135End:

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