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authorSergey Poznyakoff <gray@gnu.org.ua>2012-02-03 10:48:52 (GMT)
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Revise tagset.txt
* tagset.txt: Review. * README: Reformat. * webfont.txt: Reformat. Document <and/ and <or/.
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FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE
=====================================
- Explanations of the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary
-and the CIDE (Collaborative International Dictionary of English).
-Note that the list of tags used to mark the public domain version
-of this dictionary is shorter than the full set described here.
- If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the
-"point" (font size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be
-self-explanatory; or (2) is a functional field with no effect on the
-typography.
+
+* Overview
+
+This file describes the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary and
+the GCIDE (GNU Collaborative International Dictionary of English).
+
+If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the "point" (font
+size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be self-explanatory; or (2)
+is a functional field with no effect on the typography.
Last modified March 12, 1999.
For questions, contact:
@@ -15,73 +16,86 @@ Last modified March 12, 1999.
735 Belvidere Ave.
Plainfield, NJ 07062
(908) 561-3416 or (908) 668-5252
--------------------------------------------------------------
+
A separate file, webfont.txt, contains the list of the individual
non-ASCII characters represented by either higher-order hexadecimal
-character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags
-(e.g., <root/, for the square root symbol.)
---------------------------------------------------------------
- Use of tags:
- In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster, each part of
-the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no
-part of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found
-outside of all fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged
-field. In the following description, the word "segment" usually refers to
-a major part of an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a
-collocation segment or a usage block, containing more than one field.
-The term "field" may also be used similarly to "segment", but may also
-denote single-word fields, such as an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>.
-
- Note: The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags. Each
-tag on this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between
-angle brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing
-the forward slash thus: </tagname>. No tags are used without closing
-tags. Thus the HTML <BR> to indicate a line break is symbolized
-here as an entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>.
- The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag
-without a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which
-there may be a significant number. Any errors detected should be brought
-to the attention of PJC or the appropriate editor.
- Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type,
-with a number of exceptions. Where a word is contained within more than
-one field, the innermost field determines the font to be used. Wherever
-recognizable functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the
-field with a functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only
-to represent the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases,
-the "italic" mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality
-of the word. The base font is considered "plain". Where an italic field
-is indicated, parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised.
+character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags (e.g.,
+<root/, for the square root symbol.)
+
+* Introduction
+
+In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster and in GCIDE, each part
+of the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no part
+of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found outside of all
+fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged field. In the
+following description, the word "segment" usually refers to a major part of
+an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a collocation segment or a
+usage block, containing more than one field. The term "field" may also be
+used similarly to "segment", but may also denote single-word fields, such as
+an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>.
+
+The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags. Each tag on
+this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between angle
+brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing the
+forward slash thus: </tagname>. No tags are used without closing tags.
+Thus a line break (similar to HTML <br> tag) is symbolized here as an
+entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>.
+
+The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag without
+a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which there
+may be a significant number. Any errors detected should be brought to the
+attention of PJC or the appropriate editor.
+
+Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type, with a
+number of exceptions. Where a word is contained within more than one field,
+the innermost field determines the font to be used. Wherever recognizable
+functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the field with a
+functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only to represent
+the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases, the "italic"
+mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality of the word.
+The base font is considered "plain". Where an italic field is indicated,
+parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised.
+
Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional
division, and was printed in plain font unless otherwise tagged. This type
-of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be.
- The size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for
-the height of capitalized letters.
-=============================================================
-Explicit typographical tags:
+of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be. The
+size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for the height
+of capitalized letters.
+
+* Explicit typographical tags
+
These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to
-distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional
-tag seemed apropriate.
------------------------------------
-Tag Font
------------------------------------
-Explicit formatting tags:
-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-<plain> plain font (that used in the body of a definition) --
- normally not marked, except within fields of
- a different front.
-<it> italic (in master files)
-<i> italic (for use in HTML presentation)
-<bold> bold (in master files)
-<b> bold (for use in HTML presentation)
-<colf> bold, Collocation font. Same font as used in collocations.
- smaller This is used only in the list of "un-" words not
- by 1 point actually defined in the dictionary. Probably could be
- replaced by a segment mark for the entire list!
- The "un-" words should be indexed as headwords.
-
-<ct> bold Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used in
- collocations. However, this tag is used in a table
- and could be set to a different font.
+distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional tag
+seemed apropriate.
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Tag Font Description
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+<plain> plain font that used in the body of a definition -- normally
+ not marked, except within fields of a different
+ front.
+
+<it> italic in master files
+
+<i> italic for use in HTML presentation
+
+<bold> bold in master files
+
+<b> bold for use in HTML presentation
+
+<colf> bold, Collocation font. Same font as used in
+ collocations.
+ smaller This is used only in the list of "un-"
+ by 1 point words not actually defined in the
+ dictionary.
+ Probably could be replaced by a segment mark
+ for the entire list! The "un-" words should
+ be indexed as headwords.
+
+<ct> bold Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used
+ in collocations. However, this tag is used
+ in a table and could be set to a different
+ font.
<h1> * HTML tag -- largest heading font.
@@ -89,40 +103,58 @@ Explicit formatting tags:
<headrow> * Marks a Row title in a table.
-<hwf> Font the same as the headword <hw>, though the field is
- not a headword. Used only once.
+<hwf> Font the same as the headword <hw>, though
+ the field is not a headword. Used only
+ once.
<mitem> * Multiple items, a set of items in a table.
-<point ...> A series of point size markers, many unique.
+<point ...> A series of point size markers, many
+ unique.
+
<point1.5> * One of the tags of the form <point**> where **
<point6> represents the typographic point size of the
enclosed text.
-<pre> An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed text is
- of teletype form, preformatted in a uniform-spaced
- font.
-<sc> small caps (used mostly for "a. d.", "b. c.")
- This is the same font a <er>, but has no functional
- or semantic significance
-<str> group of table data elements in a table
-<sub> subscript, like <subs>
+
+<pre> An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed
+ text is of teletype form, preformatted in a
+ uniform-spaced font.
+
+<sc> small caps used mostly for "a. d.", "b. c."
+ This is the same font as in <er>, but has no
+ functional or semantic significance.
+
+<str> group of table data elements in a table.
+
+<sub> subscript
+
<subs> subscript
+
<sups> superscript
+
<supr> superscript
-<sansserif> Sans-serif font
-<stypec> Bold (collocation font) and also a subtype.
+
+<sansserif> Sans-serif
+
+<stypec> Bold collocation font, and also a subtype.
+
<tt> HTML tage -- teletype font
-<universbold> A squared bold font without serifs approximating the
- "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4, slightly
- larger than the capitals in a definition body. Used
- in expositions describing shapes, such as
- "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F".
+
+<universbold> A squared bold font without serifs approximating
+ the "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4,
+ slightly larger than the capitals in a definition
+ body. Used in expositions describing shapes,
+ such as "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F".
+
<vertical> Vertically organized column.
+
<column1> Vertically organized column -- only part of a table
which needs to be completed. Used once.
-<...type> A series of tags, many unique, designating certain
- unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype" for
- "bourgeois type", in the section on typography.
- Most of these occur only once, in the section on fonts.
+
+<...type> A series of tags, many unique, designating
+ certain unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype"
+ for "bourgeois type", in the section on
+ typography. Most of these occur only once, in
+ the section on fonts. Some examples follow:
<antiquetype>
<blacklettertype>
<boldfacetype>
@@ -146,53 +178,55 @@ Explicit formatting tags:
<smpicatype>
<typewritertype>
-=============================================================
-Tags with semantic content:
-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
+* Tags with semantic content:
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Tag Font Meaning and Description
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
<altsp> * Alternative spelling segment. Almost always
contained within square brackets after the main
- definition segment. Expository words
- such as "Spelled also" are in plain font;
- the actual alternative spelling is marked by
- <asp> ... </asp> tags within this segment.
+ definition segment. Expository words such as
+ "Spelled also" are in plain font; the actual
+ alternative spelling is marked by <asp> ...
+ </asp> tags within this segment.
<ant> italic Antonym.
-<asp> italic Alternative spelling. The actual word which is an
- alternative spelling to the headword. These
+<asp> italic Alternative spelling. The actual word which is
+ an alternative spelling to the headword. These
are functionally synonyms of the headword. In
most cases these also occur as headwords, with
reference to the word where the actual definition
is found, but not all such words are listed
- separately, particularly if the spelling is
- close enough to the headword to be found at the
- same point in the dictionary. Whether listed
- separately or not, these words should
- be indexed at this location, also.
+ separately, particularly if the spelling is close
+ enough to the headword to be found at the same
+ point in the dictionary. Whether listed
+ separately or not, these words should be indexed
+ at this location, also.
<au> italic Authority or author. Used where an authority is
- (may be right- given for a definition, and also used for the
- justified. See author, where a quotation within double quotes
- in the section is given in the same paragraph as the
- on formatting). definition. The double quotes are indicated
- by the open-quote (\'bd) and close-quote
- (\'b8). In both cases, it is typically
- right-justified, almost always fitting on
- the same line with the last line of the
- definition or quotation.
- Within collocation segments, it is usually
- used only after quotations, and is not right-
- justified, except occasionally where it
+ given for a definition, and also used for the
+ author, where a quotation within double quotes is
+ given in the same paragraph as the definition.
+ The double quotes are indicated by the open-quote
+ (\'bd) and close-quote (\'b8). In both cases, it
+ is typically right-justified, almost always
+ fitting on the same line with the last line of
+ the definition or quotation.
+
+ Within collocation segments, it is usually used
+ only after quotations, and is not
+ right-justified, except occasionally where it
would be close to the right margin, and then
- apparently is is right-justified. We have
- not explicitly marked those which are
- right-justified, but they can be
- recognized because they are on a line by
- themselves, preceded by two carriage returns.
+ apparently is is right-justified. We have not
+ explicitly marked those which are
+ right-justified, but they can be recognized
+ because they are on a line by themselves,
+ preceded by two carriage returns.
-<bio> * Marks a biography. Should be longer than
- a short mention of who a person was, which
- is typically included as a definition.
+<bio> * Marks a biography. Should be longer than a short
+ mention of who a person was, which is typically
+ included as a definition.
<biography> * Same as <bio>
@@ -204,48 +238,48 @@ Tags with semantic content:
<caption> * Caption of a figure or table.
-<cas> * tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) registry
- number for a chemical substance.
+<cas> * tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service)
+ registry number for a chemical substance.
-<causes> italic tags the infectious disease caused by the headword.
- Implied type of the agent is a microorganism, and
- the tag must mark a disease.
+<causes> italic tags the infectious disease caused by the
+ headword. Implied type of the agent is a
+ microorganism, and the tag must mark a disease.
<causesp> * Same as <causes> without the italic type.
<causedbyp> * Same as <causedby> without the italic type.
-<causedby> italic inverse of causes: tags the causative agent of an
- infectious disease, which is the headword .
- the tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or
- prion, and the implied type of the headword is
- a disease.
+<causedby> italic inverse of <causes>: tags the causative agent of
+ an infectious disease, which is the headword.
+ The tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or
+ prion, and the implied type of the headword is a
+ disease.
-<centered> Used only for The single letter in the headers to each
- letter of the alphabet.
+<centered> Used only for the single letter in the headers to
+ each letter of the alphabet.
<city> * marks the proper name of a city. Used only
occasionally and not consistently at this stage.
<cnvto> italic Converted to: used to tag substances which are
products prepared by conversion from the
- headword. Usually chemicals or complex
- products from mnatuarl materials. Rarely used
- up to 1998.
+ headword. Usually chemicals or complex products
+ from natuarl materials. Rarely used up to 1998.
<colheads> * List of heads for the columns of a table.
<coltitle> * Title of a column in a table.
-<comm> * Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line with
- the definition paragraph. Provides a little
+<comm> * Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line
+ with the definition paragraph. Provides a little
additional information.
-<company> * Name of a company (commercial firm). Compare <org>
+<company> * Name of a company (commercial firm). Compare
+ <org>.
<compof> italic Composed of. Tags a substance of which the
headword is at least partly composed. The
- substance may be particulate, such as
- diatoms composing diatomaceous earth.
+ substance may be particulate, such as diatoms
+ composing diatomaceous earth.
<contains> * marks an object contained within the headword.
@@ -256,239 +290,272 @@ Tags with semantic content:
<country> * Name of a country (nation) of the world.
-<cref> italic Collocation reference. A reference to a collocation.
- Each such collocation should have its own entry,
- marked by <col> ... </col> tags, and these
- references should function as hypertext buttons
- to access that entry.
+<cref> italic Collocation reference. A reference to a
+ collocation. Each such collocation should have
+ its own entry, marked by <col> ... </col> tags,
+ and these references should function as hypertext
+ buttons to access that entry.
<date> * A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>.
<datey> * Date-with-year tags a date containing a year.
-<def> * definition. The definition may have subfields,
+<def> * A definition. The definition may have subfields,
particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase
- starting with "as" or "thus" and containing
- the headword (or a morphological derivative).
- The <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and
- right double quotes) and <au> fields may be
- found within a definition field, but should
- and usually are located outside the definition
- proper. The marking macro was
- inconsistent in this placement, and the
- exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and quotations
- needs to be completed by the proof-readers.
- Certain definitions contain <pos>
- fields within them, where the headword is
- an irregular derivative of another headword.
- In these cases, the <pos> field follows
- immediately after the <def> tag, and these
- entries do not have a separate <pos> field.
- In such cases, the <pos> field is italic, as
- usual.
-
-<divof> * Division of the headword, usually an organization.
- E. g. a faculty or department of a university,
- or a United Nations agency.
+ starting with "as" or "thus" and containing the
+ headword (or a morphological derivative). The
+ <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and right
+ double quotes) and <au> fields may be found
+ within a definition field, but should and usually
+ are located outside the definition proper. The
+ marking macro was inconsistent in this placement,
+ and the exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and
+ quotations needs to be completed by the
+ proof-readers.
+
+ Certain definitions contain <pos> fields within
+ them, where the headword is an irregular
+ derivative of another headword. In these cases,
+ the <pos> field follows immediately after the
+ <def> tag, and these entries do not have a
+ separate <pos> field. In such cases, the <pos>
+ field is italic, as usual.
+
+<divof> * Division of the headword, usually an
+ organization. E. g. a faculty or department of a
+ university, or a United Nations agency.
<edi> * Marks an education institution, a subtype of
organization.
-<emits> * tags a physical object or form of radiation
- emitted by the headword
+<emits> * Tags a physical object or form of radiation
+ emitted by the headword.
-<figure> Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom used.
+<figure> Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom
+ used.
<film> italic Marks the name of a movie film.
<fld> italic Field of specialization. Most often used for
Zoology and Botany, but many "fields of
- specialization" are marked for technical
- terms. The parentheses are usually within this
- field, but are not themselves in italics.
+ specialization" are marked for technical terms.
+ The parentheses are usually within this field,
+ but are not themselves in italics.
-<geog> * Name of a geograpahical region of any size;
- if applicable, the more specific <city>,
- <state>, or <country> are preferred.
+<geog> * Name of a geograpahical region of any size; if
+ applicable, the more specific <city>, <state>, or
+ <country> are preferred.
<hypen> * Hyperym. Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5
- Initially, used only for entries extracted
- from WordNet 1.5. Not present in the original
- 1913 version.
+ Initially, used only for entries extracted from
+ WordNet 1.5. Not present in the original 1913
+ version.
-<illu> * Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and placed
- outside the definition, in contrast to <as> usage.
- These should be converted to <as>...</as> illustrative
- usage format for consistency.
+<illu> * Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and
+ placed outside the definition, in contrast to
+ <as> usage. These should be converted to
+ <as>...</as> illustrative usage format for
+ consistency.
<illust> * Illustration place-holder. Seldom used.
+
<img> * HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually
.gif or .jpg. These have no closing tag, and
will appear as errors in parsing.
+
<intensi> * Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified
- form of the headword. Taken from WordNet
- tags, used with some adjectives from WordNet
-<item> * Designates one item in a row of a table. Used only when
- intervening spaces do not serve properly as natural
- field separaters.
+ form of the headword. Taken from WordNet tags,
+ used with some adjectives from WordNet.
+
+<item> * Designates one item in a row of a table. Used
+ only when intervening spaces do not serve
+ properly as natural field separaters.
+
<itran> italic Translation into a foreign (non-English) language
of the previous word in the text -- italic font.
(<sig> is a translation into English)
+
<itrans> italic Same as <itran>
+
<jour> * Title of a journal (periodical).
+
<matrix> * Always a filled rectangular array.
+
<matrix2x5> * A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns).
-<mstypec> * Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in
- def. of "grass".
+
+<mstypec> * Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in def. of
+ "grass".
+
<mtable> * Multiple table, encloses <table> figures.
-<musfig> * Music figure. Only in a note under the entry "Figure",
- the two numbers of each such field
- are bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction with
- a bar between them, but also having a horizontal stroke
- midway through each numeral. Unique to this entry.
-<p> * paragraph tag, used always in pairs. Line breaks may
- be embedded inside the paragraphs.
-<person> * marks the proper name of a person. Used only
+
+<musfig> * Music figure. Only in a note under the entry
+ "Figure", the two numbers of each such field are
+ bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction
+ with a bar between them, but also having a
+ horizontal stroke midway through each
+ numeral. Unique to this entry.
+
+<p> * Paragraph tag, used always in pairs. Line breaks
+ may be embedded inside the paragraphs.
+
+<person> * Marks the proper name of a person. Used only
occasionally, but should be used more frequently
- for cases where first names are abbreviated,
- to reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic
- analysis. Where a title is given, prefixed
- or postfixed, it is included in this tag.
+ for cases where first names are abbreviated, to
+ reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic
+ analysis. Where a title is given, prefixed or
+ postfixed, it is included in this tag.
-<persfn> * marks the name of a person, when only one name
+<persfn> * Marks the name of a person, when only one name
(usually the last name) is given. Not used
consistently where it should be.
<publ> * Marks the name of a publication other than book,
which is marked by <booki>. It is often a
magazine or journal.
-<qpers> * Tags the name of a person who is speaking,
- within a quotation.
+
+<qpers> * Tags the name of a person who is speaking, within
+ a quotation.
+
<qperson> Same as <qpers>
-<cp> * Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases that
- should be parsed as a unit, but has no typographical
- significance.
+
+<cp> * Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases
+ that should be parsed as a unit, but has no
+ typographical significance.
+
<qau> italic Always right-justified, as described for <au>.
+
<ref> * A reference to a word in the vocabulary.
-<refs> * Marks the set of references used for a longer article
- such as a biography.
-<river> * Marks the name of a river -- a proper name
-<rj> * Right justified
+
+<refs> * Marks the set of references used for a longer
+ article such as a biography.
+
+<river> * Marks the name of a river -- a proper name.
+
+<rj> * Right justified.
+
<row> * Designates a row in a table.
-<state> * Name of a geopolitical state, the first subdivision of
- a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian provinces.
+
+<state> * Name of a geopolitical state, the first
+ subdivision of a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian
+ provinces.
+
<subtypes> * Lists subtypes of the headword.
-<sup> * superscript
-<supr> * Supra. The two parts of each such field
- are stacked, one over the other, *without* a
- horizontal bar between (as in a fraction).
- Used only in one entry, for a musical notation.
-<table> * Always a filled rectangular array, having <row> and <item>
- elements.
-<td> * Table datum - one cell in a table
-<th> * Table header
-<tradename> * Tags a commercial Trade name
-<ttitle> * Table title (Larger than normal font)
+
+<sup> * Superscript
+
+<supr> * Supra. The two parts of each such field are
+ stacked, one over the other, *without* a
+ horizontal bar between (as in a fraction). Used
+ only in one entry, for a musical notation.
+
+<table> * Always a filled rectangular array, having <row>
+ and <item> elements.
+
+<td> * Table datum - one cell in a table.
+
+<th> * Table header.
+
+<tradename> * Tags a commercial Trade name.
+
+<ttitle> * Table title (Larger than normal font).
====================================================================
-Functional Tags
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-Tag Font Meaning
- (Comparatives are relative to the plain font.)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-<-- --> * Comment, not a tag. These segments should be deleted
- from the written or printed text.
- Page numbers of the original text are indicated
- within such comments; these may be left in, if
- desired.
+* Functional Tags
+
+In the table below, font size comparatives are relative to the plain font.
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Tag Font Meaning and Description
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+<-- --> * Comment, not a tag. These segments should be
+ deleted from the written or printed text. Page
+ numbers of the original text are indicated within
+ such comments; these may be left in, if desired.
-<! !> * HTML-style comment. Used to indicate page numbers
- in the public domain version.
+<! !> * A comment. Used to indicate page numbers in the
+ public domain version.
-<abbr> italic Tag for abbreviations, when mentioned within
- the definition text.
+<abbr> italic Tag for abbreviations, when mentioned within the
+ definition text.
<adjf> small caps Tags for the actual adjective or adverb
comparatives or superlatives. Should be
- indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and
- decf (nouns).
+ indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and decf (nouns).
<altname> italic Alternative name. Usually for plants or animals,
- but also used for other cases where words
- are introduced by "also called", "called also",
- "formerly called". These are functionally
- *synonyms* for that word-sense.
+ but also used for other cases where words are
+ introduced by "also called", "called also",
+ "formerly called". These are
+ functionally *synonyms* for that word-sense.
<altnpluf> italic Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a
plural form, whereas the headword is singular.
-<amorph> * Adjective morphological segment, primarily
- the comparative and superlative forms.
- The occasional adverb morphology is
- also tagged this way.
+<amorph> * Adjective morphological segment, primarily the
+ comparative and superlative forms. The
+ occasional adverb morphology is also tagged this
+ way.
<as> * A segment occurring within the definitional
- sentence, providing an example of usage of
- the headword. Not conceptually a part of the
- actual definition.
+ sentence, providing an example of usage of the
+ headword. Not conceptually a part of the actual
+ definition.
-<cd> smaller spacing Collocation definition. Similar in structure
- to headword definitions (the <def> field). May
+<cd> smaller Collocation definition. Similar in structure to
+ spacing headword definitions (the <def> field). May
contain an <as> field. Plain type, but with
closer spacing than main definitions.
+
<col> bold, Collocation. A word combination containing the
smaller by headword (or a morphological derivative).
1 point The collocations do not have an explicitly
marked part of speech.
See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations.
-<colp> Collocation, no typographic significance.
- Used to mark a word combination defined in
- the dictionary without affect on font.
+<colp> Collocation, no typographic significance. Used
+ to mark a word combination defined in the
+ dictionary without affect on font.
-<conjf> small caps The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of
- verbs. imp. & p. p. is common, as well as
- p. pr. & vb. n. Irregular variants of
- these are less common. Words in this
- field perhaps should be indexed.
+<conjf> small caps The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of verbs.
+ imp. & p. p. is common, as well as p. pr. &
+ vb. n. Irregular variants of these are less
+ common. Words in this field perhaps should be
+ indexed.
-<cs> smaller Collocation segment. The font and size is
- vertical normal in a cs, but the spacing between lines
- spacing is smaller (0.9 mm between lower-case letters,
- rather than 1.1 mm in the main body of the
- definition). For an on-line dictionary,
- reproducing this typography is probably
- pointless.
+<cs> smaller Collocation segment. The font and size is normal
+ vertical in a cs, but the spacing between lines is smaller
+ spacing (0.9 mm between lower-case letters, rather than
+ 1.1 mm in the main body of the definition). For
+ an on-line dictionary, reproducing this
+ typography is probably pointless.
<decf> small caps Declension form. The actual morphological
- variants of nouns or pronouns. Should
- be indexed.
+ variants of nouns or pronouns. Should be
+ indexed.
<ecol> * Embedded Collocation. A word combination
containing the headword (or a morphological
- derivative, embedded within a definition
- without a separate definition of its own.
- These collocations should be defined
- implicitly by the text of the definition in
- which they are embedded.
- See also <col>, tagging explicitly defined
- collocations.
+ derivative, embedded within a definition without
+ a separate definition of its own. These
+ collocations should be defined implicitly by the
+ text of the definition in which they are
+ embedded. See also <col>, tagging explicitly
+ defined collocations.
<ent> Bold Entry field. Gives the headword without accent or
syllabication marks, and with special-character
symbols converted to their nearest ASCII
- equivalents. Can be used without conversion
- as the string that serves as the index word
- for that entry.
-
-<er> Small Caps Entry reference. References to headwords
- within the "etymology" section are in small
- caps. Such references also occur
- in the body of definitions, and in "usage"
- segments.
- Such entry references should function as hypertext
- buttons to access that entry.
+ equivalents. Can be used without conversion as
+ the string that serves as the index word for that
+ entry.
+
+<er> small caps Entry reference. References to headwords within
+ the "etymology" section are in small caps. Such
+ references also occur in the body of definitions,
+ and in "usage" segments. Such entry references
+ should function as hypertext buttons to access
+ that entry.
<ety> * Etymology. Always contained within square
brackets. Normal type is used for explanatory
@@ -498,78 +565,64 @@ Tag Font Meaning
<ets> italic Etymological source. Words from which the
headword was derived, or to which it is related.
- The Greek words within an etymology segment
- are invariably etymology sources, and should
- be marked as such, but are not so marked,
- even in the rare cases where the Greek word
+ The Greek words within an etymology segment are
+ invariably etymology sources, and should be
+ marked as such, but are not so marked, even in
+ the rare cases where the Greek word
transliteration has been written in.
<etsep> italic Etymological source, being the name of a person
- or geographical location which is the eponym
- for the concept. This is used to distinguish
+ or geographical location which is the eponym for
+ the concept. This is used to distinguish
eponymous etymologies from others, and can also
- be found in the body of a definition or note,
- not only in the etymology field. Very few
- of the names that should be marked this way
- have actually been so marked, as of version
- 0.42. In cases where such eponymous names
- have not yet been thus marked, they will
- usually be marked by <xex>, the non-semantic
- italic-font marker, or, in etymologies, by
- <ets>.
+ be found in the body of a definition or note, not
+ only in the etymology field. Very few of the
+ names that should be marked this way have
+ actually been so marked, as of version 0.42. In
+ cases where such eponymous names have not yet
+ been thus marked, they will usually be marked by
+ <xex>, the non-semantic italic-font marker, or,
+ in etymologies, by <ets>.
<ex> italic Example. An example of usage of the headword,
usually found within an <as> or <note> segment.
<fr> * Frequency of use, ordinal rank. This is used for
- WordNet entries, in which the synonyms
- were ranked in order of frequency of use.
- <fr>1</fr> indicates that the headword is the
- first word on the list of synonyms.
+ WordNet entries, in which the synonyms were
+ ranked in order of frequency of use. <fr>1</fr>
+ indicates that the headword is the first word on
+ the list of synonyms.
<fu> * First use. A date at or around which the first
- use of this word in writing is recorded.
- Not in the original 1913 Webster, and usu.
- taken from a recent dictionary. Only a few
- such fields have been entered as of version
- 0.41
-
-<grk> transliteration Greek. The Greek words have been transliterated
- using the equivalents explained in the
- file "webfonts.asc". In most cases, the
- transliterations are typical for Greek
- letters, except for theta (transl = q),
- phi (transl. = f), eta (transl. = h), and
- upsilon (transl. = y, whether pronounced
- as y or u). This was to eliminate any
- ambiguity. These words occur primarily
- in etymologies, and to conform to the
- usage of <ets> should also be marked
- by <ets>, but as of version 0.41 they
- are not usually thus marked.
-
-<hw> bold, headword. Each main entry begins with the <hw>
- larger by mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark. The
- 2 points main entries are not otherwise explicitly
- marked as a distinctive field.
- The same word may appear as a headword
- several times, usually as different parts
- of speech, but sometimes with different
- entries as the same part of speech, presumably
- to indicate a different etymology.
- Within the hw field the heavy accent is
- represented by double quote ("), the
- light accent by open-single-quote (`),
- and the short dash separating syllables by
+ use of this word in writing is recorded. Not in
+ the original 1913 Webster, and usu. taken from a
+ recent dictionary. Only a few such fields have
+ been entered as of version 0.41
+
+<grk> Greek transliteration. The Greek words have been
+ transliterated using roman letters. See
+ chapter "Greek transliteration" in file
+ "webfont.txt"
+
+<hw> bold, A headword. Each main entry begins with the <hw>
+ larger by mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark. The main
+ 2 points entries are not otherwise explicitly marked as a
+ distinctive field. The same word may appear as a
+ headword several times, usually as different
+ parts of speech, but sometimes with different
+ entries as the same part of speech, presumably to
+ indicate a different etymology. Within the hw
+ field the heavy accent is represented by double
+ quote ("), the light accent by open-single-quote
+ (`), and the short dash separating syllables by
an asterisk (*). A hyphen (-) is used to
represent the hyphen of hyphenated words.
<mark> italic, Usage mark. Almost always within square
- brackets, occasionally in parentheses or
- without any bracketing.
- but The most common usage marks,
- explanatory "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." =
- may be plain. colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
+ but brackets, occasionally in parentheses or without
+ explanatory any bracketing. The most common usage marks,
+ may be "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." =
+ plain. colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
etc. are in italics. Some usage notes are also
marked with <mark>, but are in plain. For
simplicity, all words in this field may be
@@ -577,51 +630,47 @@ Tag Font Meaning
added.
<markp> * A usage mark in plain type (not italic). Found
- within a definition, when there are more than
- one sense-number listed. "Fig." at the head
- of an entry is the most common case.
+ within a definition, when there are more than one
+ sense-number listed. "Fig." at the head of an
+ entry is the most common case.
<mcol> * Multiple collocation. Similar to multiple
- headword, when two or more collocations share
- one definition; however, the two collocations
- are in-line, rather than stacked or justified.
- There may be "or" or "and" words
- (italicised), or an "etc." (plain type)
- within this field. In many cases, the
- <or/ and <and/ entities are used to
+ headword, when two or more collocations share one
+ definition; however, the two collocations are
+ in-line, rather than stacked or justified. There
+ may be "or" or "and" words (italicised), or an
+ "etc." (plain type) within this field. In many
+ cases, the <or/ and <and/ entities are used to
signify the change of font for these words.
-<mhw> * Multiple headword. This field is used where
- more than one headword shares a single
- definition. In the dictionary, the
- (usually) two headwords are left-justified
- one below the other in the column, and are
- tied together on the right side of the
- headwords by a long right curly brace.
- This division is strictly functional,
- for analytical purposes, and does not
- affect the typography.
+<mhw> * Multiple headword. This field is used where more
+ than one headword shares a single definition. In
+ the dictionary, the (usually) two headwords are
+ left-justified one below the other in the column,
+ and are tied together on the right side of the
+ headwords by a long right curly brace. This
+ division is strictly functional, for analytical
+ purposes, and does not affect the typography.
-<nmorph> * Noun morphology section. Rarely used, mostly
- for irregular personal pronouns.
+<nmorph> * Noun morphology section. Rarely used, mostly for
+ irregular personal pronouns.
<note> * Explanatory note. No explicit font is indicated.
These segments may be separate, as in the
- separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/,
- or they may just be further explanation within
- (or more usually, following) the main
- definition paragraph. Typographically,
- the notes following the main definition may
- not be distinguishable from additional
- sentences appended to the first sentence
- of a definition.
-
-<plu> * Plural. The "plural" segment starts with a
- "pl." which is italicised, but in this
- segment is not otherwise marked as
- italicised. Other words occurring in this
- segment are plain type. The "pl." can be
- easily explicitly marked if necessary.
+ separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/, or
+ they may just be further explanation within (or
+ more usually, following) the main definition
+ paragraph. Typographically, the notes following
+ the main definition may not be distinguishable
+ from additional sentences appended to the first
+ sentence of a definition.
+
+<plu> * Plural. The "plural" segment starts with a "pl."
+ which is italicised, but in this segment is not
+ otherwise marked as italicised. Other words
+ occurring in this segment are plain type. The
+ "pl." can be easily explicitly marked if
+ necessary.
<pos> italic Part of speech. Always an abbreviation: e.g.,
n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep.
@@ -629,62 +678,61 @@ Tag Font Meaning
<epos> * Part of speech, referring to words in
etymologies, normal type. Always an
- abbreviation, as in <pos> above
- Combinations may occur, as "a. or n.".
+ abbreviation, as in <pos> above Combinations may
+ occur, as "a. or n.".
<plw> small caps Plural word. The actual plural form of the word,
found within a <plu> segment.
-<pr> * pronunciation. The default font is normal, but
- many non-ASCII characters are used.
- The pronunciation field may have more than
- one pronunciation, separated by an "<or/".
- (An "or" here is in italic, and usually is
- represented by the entity <or/).
- There may also be some commentary, such as
- "Fr."(French pronunciation) or "archaic".
- The commentaries are typically italic, and
- should be marked as such. In certain
- pronunciations there is a numbered reference
- to a root form explained in an introductory
- section on pronunciation.
- Very few of the pronunciation fields have
- been filled in. The pronunciation markings use
- a more complicated method than more modern
- dictionaries. It would be interesting to have
- these fields filled in, if there are any
- volunteers willing to do it.
-
-<q> smaller by Quotation. No bracketing quotation marks,
- two points, though occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur
- centered, within these quotations. These quotations
- Separate tend to be more complete sentences, rather
- paragraph than just phrases, such as are contained
- within quotation marks within the definition
- paragraph.
-
-<qau> italic, Quotation author. Used only for the quotations
- right justified marked with <q> that are centered in their
- own paragraphs.
-
-<qex> italic Quotation example. An example of usage of
- the headword, within quotations marked
- by <q>..</q> tags.
-
-<sd> italic Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc. THese are
- finer distinctions of word senses, used
+<pr> * Pronunciation. The default font is normal, but
+ many non-ASCII characters are used. The
+ pronunciation field may have more than one
+ pronunciation, separated by an "<or/". (An "or"
+ here is in italic, and usually is represented by
+ the entity <or/). There may also be some
+ commentary, such as "Fr."(French pronunciation)
+ or "archaic". The commentaries are typically
+ italic, and should be marked as such. In certain
+ pronunciations there is a numbered reference to a
+ root form explained in an introductory section on
+ pronunciation.
+
+ Very few of the pronunciation fields have been
+ filled in. The pronunciation markings use a more
+ complicated method than more modern dictionaries.
+ It would be interesting to have these fields
+ filled in, if there are any volunteers willing to
+ do it.
+
+<q> smaller by Quotation. No bracketing quotation marks, though
+ two points, occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur within
+ centered, these quotations. These quotations tend to be
+ Separate more complete sentences, rather than just
+ paragraph phrases, such as are contained within quotation
+ marks within the definition paragraph.
+
+<qau> italic, Quotation author. Used only for the
+ right quotations marked with <q> that are centered in
+ justified their own paragraphs.
+
+<qex> italic Quotation example. An example of usage of the
+ headword, within quotations marked by <q>..</q>
+ tags.
+
+<sd> italic Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc. These
+ are finer distinctions of word senses, used
within numbered word-sense (for main entries),
and also used for subdefinitions within
collocation segments, which have no numbering of
senses. The letter is italic, the parentheses
are not. This tag is also used to indicate the
- lettered subdefinition when it is referred to
- at another point in the text.
+ lettered subdefinition when it is referred to at
+ another point in the text.
<ship> italic The name of a ship. Rarely used.
-<sing> * Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but more
- rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which
+<sing> * Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but
+ more rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which
are listed in the plural form.
<singw> small caps Singular word. The singular form of the
@@ -692,152 +740,147 @@ Tag Font Meaning
<sn> bold, Sense number. A headword may have over 20
larger by different sense numbers. Within each numbered
- 2 points sense there may be lettered sub-senses. See
- the <sd> (sub-definition) field.
+ 2 points sense there may be lettered sub-senses. See the
+ <sd> (sub-definition) field.
<source> italic Source. The author of the definition. Used only
- for definitions not originally present in
- Webster 1913, and not present in the original
- version intended to mimic the 1913 printed
- dictionary. This source is used for each
- word sense, and may differ for different
- senses of a word, especially where a Web1913
- definition was substantially modified, or a
- new word sense was added to a previously
- defined word.
+ for definitions not originally present in Webster
+ 1913, and not present in the original version
+ intended to mimic the 1913 printed dictionary.
+ This source is used for each word sense, and may
+ differ for different senses of a word, especially
+ where a Web1913 definition was substantially
+ modified, or a new word sense was added to a
+ previously defined word.
<syn> plain Synonyms. A list of synonyms, sometimes followed
by a <usage> segment.
<usage> narrower Comparisons of word usage for words which are
- spacing sometimes confused. As with collocation segments,
- font is plain, but spacing is smaller than
- normal definition spacing. This seems pointlessly
- complicating for an on-line display.
+ spacing sometimes confused. As with collocation
+ segments, font is plain, but spacing is smaller
+ than normal definition spacing. This seems
+ pointlessly complicating for an on-line display.
-<ver> * Verified for current accuracy by a technical editor,
- without changes.
+<ver> * Verified for current accuracy by a technical
+ editor, without changes.
<vmorph> * Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited
by square brackets.
<wordforms> * Morphological derivatives not contained in the
- bracketed segments, as above. For nouns
- derived from adjectives, adverbs from
- adjectives, etc. This segment is usually
- found at the end of the main entry. The
- adverbial and nominalized derivatives at the
- end of a main entry are usually introduced
- by an em dash [represented as two hyphens (--)].
+ bracketed segments, as above. For nouns derived
+ from adjectives, adverbs from adjectives, etc.
+ This segment is usually found at the end of the
+ main entry. The adverbial and nominalized
+ derivatives at the end of a main entry are
+ usually introduced by an em dash [represented as
+ two hyphens (--)].
<wf> bold, Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable
- larger by breaks marked as in the headword.
- 2 points Marks the actual morphological forms within
- a <wordforms> segment; typically, adverbial or
- nominalized form of an adjective.
-
-
-<def2> * Second definition (occasionally, a third definition is
- present). This is used where a second or third
- part of speech with the same orthography is
- placed under one headword. Within this segment,
- there will be a <pos> field, and sometimes
- a <mark> and/or a quotation.
-
-<specif> * "Specifically:" Used to mark the words "specifically",
- "Hence", "as" which are used to introduce a second
- definition typically more specific than the first,
- but in general derived by extension of the initial
- definition. This functions as a warning of multiple
- definitions where the sense-numbers are not explicitly
- used. It is also useful in separate senses, to
- tag polysemous definitions which may be
- specializations or generalizations of the preceding
- definition.
-
-<pluf> italic. Plural form.
- Used exclusively to mark the "pl." abbreviation,
- which introduces a definition for the headword,
- *when used in the plural form*. Not related to
- <plu>, which spells out the plural form, but does
- define it.
+ larger by breaks marked as in the headword. Marks the
+ 2 points actual morphological forms within a <wordforms>
+ segment; typically, adverbial or nominalized form
+ of an adjective.
+
+
+<def2> * Second definition (occasionally, a third
+ definition is present). This is used where a
+ second or third part of speech with the same
+ orthography is placed under one headword. Within
+ this segment, there will be a <pos> field, and
+ sometimes a <mark> and/or a quotation.
+
+<specif> * "Specifically:" Used to mark the words
+ "specifically", "Hence", "as" which are used to
+ introduce a second definition typically more
+ specific than the first, but in general derived by
+ extension of the initial definition. This
+ functions as a warning of multiple definitions
+ where the sense-numbers are not explicitly used.
+ It is also useful in separate senses, to tag
+ polysemous definitions which may be
+ specializations or generalizations of the
+ preceding definition.
+
+<pluf> italic Plural form. Used exclusively to mark the "pl."
+ abbreviation, which introduces a definition for the
+ headword, *when used in the plural form*. Not
+ related to <plu>, which spells out the plural form,
+ but does define it.
<uex> italic Usage example. Used only a few times, within
<usage> segments.
-<isa> italic supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and
+<isa> italic Supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and
identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet.
-<chform> plain, Chemical formula. The letters are plain font,
- numbers but the numbers are subscript. This is mostly
- subscript useful as a functional mark to pinpoint
- chemicals.
+<chform> plain, Chemical formula. The letters are plain font, but
+ numbers the numbers are subscript. This is mostly useful
+ subscript as a functional mark to pinpoint chemicals.
-<chformi> plain, Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not
+<chformi> plain Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not
processed specially by the tag-converter program.
The letters are plain font, but the numbers are
- subscript.
- Used in place of <chform> when the formula has
- a tag inside, which cannot now be processed by the
- <chform> processing routine.
+ subscript. Used in place of <chform> when the
+ formula has a tag inside, which cannot now be
+ processed by the <chform> processing routine.
-<chname> * chemical name. Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
+<chname> * Chemical name. Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
name to be processed as a unit in spite of
embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas.
-<see> * "see" reference to related words, outside of the
+<see> * A "see" reference to related words, outside of the
main <def>definition</def> field.
<mathex> italic Mathematical expression. In this dictionary,
essentially all letters (used as variable labels)
- in math expressions are in italic font.
- The "+" and "-" may also appear typographically
- different from elsewhere in the dictionary.
+ in math expressions are in italic font. The "+"
+ and "-" may also appear typographically different
+ from elsewhere in the dictionary.
<ratio> italic Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and
- double colon may have a different typography
- than usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio>
+ double colon may have a different typography than
+ usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio>
-<singf> italic Singular form. Analogous to <pluf>, to define
- the singular word where the headword is the
- plural form. ** only modifies the word "sing."
+<singf> italic Singular form. Analogous to <pluf>, to define the
+ singular word where the headword is the plural
+ form. ** only modifies the word "sing."
<mord> * Morphological derivation. Used to mark the
- entry-reference portions of those
- entries which are defined as morphological
- derivatives (plural, p. p., imp.) of other
- headwords. Used just as an attempt to
- mark and regularize the entry format.
+ entry-reference portions of those entries which
+ are defined as morphological derivatives (plural,
+ p. p., imp.) of other headwords. Used just as an
+ attempt to mark and regularize the entry format.
May be ignored typographically.
-<fract> a stack, Fraction. Used for non-numerical fractions
- with which cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style
- numerator, entity. The forward slash "/" is to be
- horizontal interpreted as a horizontal line separating
- bar, and the numerator and denominator.
+<fract> a stack, Fraction. Used for non-numerical fractions which
+ with cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style entity.
+ numerator, The forward slash "/" is to be interpreted as a
+ horizontal horizontal line separating the numerator and
+ bar, and denominator.
denominator
<exp> superscript, Exponential. Used in mathematical expressions.
- smaller
- font.
+ smaller font.
<xlati> italic Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a
definition or etymology. Used only twice.
<tran> italic Word translated: the word in italic is translated
- by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies, where
- the word translated is not actually etymologically
- related to the headword. The translated word
- is not necessarily English.
+ by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies,
+ where the word translated is not actually
+ etymologically related to the headword. The
+ translated word is not necessarily English.
-<tr> italic translation of the preceding word (or of the
+<tr> italic Translation of the preceding word (or of the
headword) into English.
-<fexp> * Functional expression (math). The function names are
- in plain type, the variables are italic.
+<fexp> * Functional expression (math). The function names
+ are in plain type, the variables are italic.
-<iref> italic Illustration reference. Used ony occasionally, not
- yet (v. 0.41) consistently.
+<iref> italic Illustration reference. Used ony occasionally,
+ not yet (v. 0.41) consistently.
<figref> italic Figure reference.
@@ -845,26 +888,26 @@ Tag Font Meaning
<figtitle> * Figure title.
-<funct> * tags a mathematical function or expression.
+<funct> * Tags a mathematical function or expression.
-<chreact> * Chemical reaction. Similar to chemical formulas (which
- are contained but not explicitly marked), with
- some other symbols.
+<chreact> * Chemical reaction. Similar to chemical formulas
+ (which are contained but not explicitly marked),
+ with some other symbols.
<ptcl> italic Verb Particle. Only a few particles were actually
marked, but in a future version more may be.
-<tabtitle> ? Table Title. Used only once.
+<tabtitle> Table Title. Used only once.
<title> italic Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical
- composition, etc. Used rarely but should be
- used in every case, except in <au> references.
+ composition, etc. Used rarely but should be used
+ in every case, except in <au> references.
<root> * Square root -- differs from the entity <root/,
which is a square root sign that does not extend
- beyond the number following it. The <root>
- field has a bar (vinvulum) over the expression
- within the field, as well as the square root symbol
+ beyond the number following it. The <root> field
+ has a bar (vinculum) over the expression within
+ the field, as well as the square root symbol
preceding the expression in the field. Used only
once.
@@ -872,99 +915,101 @@ Tag Font Meaning
extending over the expression within the field.
Used only once. This apparently serves the same
function as a parentheses, of causing the
- expression within the field to be evaluated
- and the result used as the (mathematical) value
- of the field.
+ expression within the field to be evaluated and
+ the result used as the (mathematical) value of
+ the field.
<nul> plain Nultype. An older version of <plain>.
-<cd2> * Second collocation definition. Somewhat similar to
- <def2>. Purely a mark to reduce functional ambiguity,
- with no effect on the typography.
-
-<hypen> * Hypernym. Mark introduced for the World Wide Webster,
- when adding words from WordNet. In most cases, this
- tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for nouns and verbs).
- Where the <au> mark is PJC or includes a +PJC, the
- hypernym may not be the same as in WordNet. The words
- marked by this tag need to be bracketed in some way,
- but this is deferred until the definitions included
- with the hypernyms have been deleted, and other
- disambiguating marks substituted.
+<cd2> * Second collocation definition. Somewhat similar
+ to <def2>. Purely a mark to reduce functional
+ ambiguity, with no effect on the typography.
+
+<hypen> * Hypernym. Mark introduced for the World Wide
+ Webster, when adding words from WordNet. In most
+ cases, this tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for
+ nouns and verbs). Where the <au> mark is PJC or
+ includes a +PJC, the hypernym may not be the same
+ as in WordNet. The words marked by this tag need
+ to be bracketed in some way, but this is deferred
+ until the definitions included with the hypernyms
+ have been deleted, and other disambiguating marks
+ substituted.
<stype> italic Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which
- are conceptually subtypes of the headword.
+ are conceptually subtypes of the styp.
-<styp> * Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which
- are conceptually subtypes of the headword, but
- with no *typographical* significance.
+<headword> * Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words
+ which are conceptually subtypes of the headword,
+ but with no *typographical* significance.
<simto> * Similar-to. A semantic relational mark for
closely related words which are not quite
- synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms. Introduced
- with WordNet data.
+ synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms.
+ Introduced with WordNet data.
-<conseq> * Consequence. For adjectives, is an attribute which
- or is a consequence of possessing the headword attribute.
-<hascons> Introduced with WordNet data.
+<conseq> * Consequence. For adjectives, is an attribute
+or which is a consequence of possessing the headword
+<hascons> attribute. Introduced with WordNet data.
-<consof> * Consequence of. For adjectives, an attribute which
- implies the headword as a natural consequence.
+<consof> * Consequence of. For adjectives, an attribute
+ which implies the headword as a natural
+ consequence.
-<part> italic Part. Marks a word designating something which is
- conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely used.
+<part> italic Part. Marks a word designating something which
+ is conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely
+ used.
<parts> italic Part, plural form. Same as <part>, but marks the
name of the part in its plural form.
-<partof> * Marks a word designating something of which the headword
- is conceptually a part. Inverse of <part>.
- This is very broad, and may mean constituent or
- separable part.
- Rarely used.
+<partof> * Marks a word designating something of which the
+ headword is conceptually a part. Inverse of
+ <part>. This is very broad, and may mean
+ constituent or separable part. Rarely used.
-<contxt> * Context. Used only for introductions to definitions,
- giving the context of usage, which are not part
- of the definition proper, as:
+<contxt> * Context. Used only for introductions to
+ definitions, giving the context of usage, which
+ are not part of the definition proper, as:
<contxt>when used of a person:</contxt>
<grp> * Marks the name of a group of people not formally
organized.
-<membof> italic marks a group of which the headword is a member.
- This is rarely used, but should be indexed as
- an entry word or phrase.
+<membof> italic Marks a group of which the headword is a member.
+ This is rarely used, but should be indexed as an
+ entry word or phrase.
-<member> italic marks a member of a group defined by the headword.
- This is rarely used, but should be indexed as
- an entry word or phrase.
+<member> italic Marks a member of a group defined by the
+ headword. This is rarely used, but should be
+ indexed as an entry word or phrase.
<members> italic Same as <member>, but marks a plural word,
- designating the name of the members in its plural form,
- for lack of ambiguity.
+ designating the name of the members in its plural
+ form, for lack of ambiguity.
<method> * Designates a special type of definition which
describes a method for achieving the headword,
-
used only once for the word "amend". The
subdefinitions begin with "by".
-<corpn> * Name of a business company, corporation, or partnership.
- Started using November 1988. Rare.
+<corpn> * Name of a business company, corporation, or
+ partnership. Started using November 1988. Rare.
-<corr> italic Correlative. A word intimately associated with the
- headword in a manner such that one cannot
- appear without the other. NOt exactly an inverse.
+<corr> italic Correlative. A word intimately associated with
+ the headword in a manner such that one cannot
+ appear without the other. Not exactly an
+ inverse.
-<qperson> italic marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue.
+<qperson> italic Marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue.
Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45.
-<org> * marks the name of an organization; sometimes used
- for the names of groups of people not
- formally organized *see also <grp>.
+<org> * Marks the name of an organization; sometimes used
+ for the names of groups of people not formally
+ organized; see also <grp>.
-<prod> italic produces. Designates a substance produced by
- a living organism. Rarely used.
+<prod> italic produces. Designates a substance produced by a
+ living organism. Rarely used.
<prodp> * produces (plainfont). Designates a substance
produced by a living organism. Same as <prod>,
@@ -973,108 +1018,118 @@ Tag Font Meaning
<prodby> * produced by. Designates a living organism which
produces the headword substance. Rarely used.
-<prodmac> italic produces. Designates an object or substance produced
- by a machine or process. Rarely used.
+<prodmac> italic produces. Designates an object or substance
+ produced by a machine or process. Rarely used.
<stage> italic life stage of an organism. Used to indicate
variant forms of an organism defined by the
headword. Rarely used.
-<stageof> * an organism one of whose life stages is the headword.
- Inverse (correlative) of <stage>. Rarely used.
+<stageof> * An organism one of whose life stages is the
+ headword. Inverse (correlative) of
+ <stage>. Rarely used.
-<inv> italic inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository
- is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse of
- seller. Called "correlative" in the Webster 1913 and
- the CIDE. Rarely used.
+<inv> italic Inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository
+ is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse
+ of seller. Called "correlative" in the Webster
+ 1913 and the CIDE. Rarely used.
-<methodfor> italic is a method to accomplish the action defined by
+<methodfor> italic Is a method to accomplish the action defined by
the headword. Rarely used, and only in the
supplemental section.
-<examp> italic example or instance of the headword, where the
- tagged and emphasized word is not a proper subtype.
---------------------------------------
-<p><hw>Pa*ron"y*mous</hw> <p><sn>2.</sn> <def>Having a similar sound, but different orthography and different meaning; -- said of certain words, as <examp>all</examp> and <examp>awl</examp>; <examp>hair</examp> and <examp>hare</examp>, etc.</def><br/
-[<source>1913 Webster</source>]</p>
--------------------------------------
-
-<sfield> * subfield of the headword, which must be a field
- of study or of knowledge
-<stage> italic a stage of life of the headword -- for living things,
- such as insects, whose life stages may take different
- names.
+<examp> italic Example or instance of the headword, where the
+ tagged and emphasized word is not a proper
+ subtype.
+
+<sfield> * Subfield of the headword, which must be a field
+ of study or of knowledge.
+
+<stage> italic A stage of life of the headword -- for living
+ things, such as insects, whose life stages may
+ take different names.
-<unit> italic a unit of measure, usually preceded by a number.
- Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is the
- headword.
+<unit> italic A unit of measure, usually preceded by a number.
+ Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is
+ the headword.
-<uses> italic tags a tool or method used by the headword,
- which is usually some process.
+<uses> italic Tags a tool or method used by the headword, which
+ is usually some process.
-<usedfor> * tags a method or process for which the headword
+<usedfor> * Tags a method or process for which the headword
is a tool.
-<usedby> italic tags a tool or method which uses the headword,
+<usedby> italic Tags a tool or method which uses the headword,
which is usually a physical object.
<perf> italic performs -- tags a word which is a process or
activity performed by the headword.
-<recipr> italic reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged word
- is a reciprocal participant in an action, such as
- donor and recipient. The difference between this and
- <inv> inverse has not yet been systematically settled.
- Used seldom, and mostly in the supplemented version.
+<recipr> italic reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged
+ word is a reciprocal participant in an action,
+ such as donor and recipient. The difference
+ between this and <inv> inverse has not yet been
+ systematically settled. Used seldom, and mostly
+ in the supplemented version.
-<sig> italic significance, meaning -- used in definitions where the
- actual meaning is prefixed with commentary explaining
- usage or other attributes of the word, as with
- prefixes or suffixes.
+<sig> italic significance, meaning -- used in definitions
+ where the actual meaning is prefixed with
+ commentary explaining usage or other attributes
+ of the word, as with prefixes or suffixes.
-<wns> italic WordNet sense. Where known, the correspondence of the
- sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6 is
- given after the definition, in a tag of the
- form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number
- is the numbered sense in WordNet.
+<wns> italic WordNet sense. Where known, the correspondence
+ of the sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6
+ is given after the definition, in a tag of the
+ form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number is
+ the numbered sense in WordNet.
<w16ns> italic WordNet version 1.6 sense. See <wns> for
explanation.
<wnote> * A note related to usage in the corresponding
WordNet definition.
- =============================================================
-Biological classifications:
----------------------------
+
+* Biological classifications
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Tag Font Meaning and Description
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
<spn> italic Species name. Used to mark the taxonomic names
- of living things which are represented in
- italic font in the original printed version.
- Originally, not only species, but genera, orders and
- families were also thus marked. The conversion from
- <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord> is not completed, and
- <spn> may stil be found marking such groups.
- However, orders and families are also frequently
- mentioned in the original in normal font, and in such
- cases are not marked with any tag. So, this mark
- is not a reliable indicator of all mentions of
- taxonomic names.
+ of living things which are represented in italic
+ font in the original printed version.
+ Originally, not only species, but genera, orders
+ and families were also thus marked. The
+ conversion from <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord>
+ is not completed, and <spn> may stil be found
+ marking such groups. However, orders and
+ families are also frequently mentioned in the
+ original in normal font, and in such cases are
+ not marked with any tag. So, this mark is not a
+ reliable indicator of all mentions of taxonomic
+ names.
<kingdom> italic Taxonomic biological Kingdom name.
<phylum> italic Taxonomic phylum name.
<subphylum> italic Taxonomic subphylum name.
<class> italic Taxonomic class name.
<subclass> italic Taxonomic subclass name.
-<ord> italic Taxonomic order name.
- Also used for suborders, initially.
+<ord> italic Taxonomic order name. Also used for suborders,
+ initially.
<subord> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
<suborder> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
<fam> italic Taxonomic family name. Also used to tag "tribes".
<subfam> italic Taxonomic subfamily name.
<gen> italic Taxonomic genus name.
-<var> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below
- the level of species in living organism systematic
- names.
+<var> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities
+ below the level of species in living organism
+ systematic names.
+
+<varn> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities
+ below the level of species in living organism
+ systematic names. Duplicative variant of <var>.
-<varn> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below
- the level of species in living organism systematic
- names. Duplicative variant of <var>
+Local Variables:
+mode: Outline
+coding: utf-8
+fill-column: 76
+End:

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