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Revise tagset.txt
* tagset.txt: Review. * README: Reformat. * webfont.txt: Reformat. Document <and/ and <or/.
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- FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE
- =====================================
- Explanations of the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary
-and the CIDE (Collaborative International Dictionary of English).
-Note that the list of tags used to mark the public domain version
-of this dictionary is shorter than the full set described here.
- If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the
-"point" (font size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be
-self-explanatory; or (2) is a functional field with no effect on the
-typography.
+FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE
+=====================================
+
+* Overview
+
+This file describes the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary and
+the GCIDE (GNU Collaborative International Dictionary of English).
+
+If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the "point" (font
+size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be self-explanatory; or (2)
+is a functional field with no effect on the typography.
Last modified March 12, 1999.
For questions, contact:
Patrick Cassidy cassidy@micra.com
735 Belvidere Ave.
Plainfield, NJ 07062
(908) 561-3416 or (908) 668-5252
--------------------------------------------------------------
-A separate file, webfont.txt, contains the list of the individual
+
+A separate file, webfont.txt, contains the list of the individual
non-ASCII characters represented by either higher-order hexadecimal
-character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags
-(e.g., <root/, for the square root symbol.)
---------------------------------------------------------------
- Use of tags:
- In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster, each part of
-the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no
-part of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found
-outside of all fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged
-field. In the following description, the word "segment" usually refers to
-a major part of an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a
-collocation segment or a usage block, containing more than one field.
-The term "field" may also be used similarly to "segment", but may also
-denote single-word fields, such as an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>.
-
- Note: The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags. Each
-tag on this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between
-angle brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing
-the forward slash thus: </tagname>. No tags are used without closing
-tags. Thus the HTML <BR> to indicate a line break is symbolized
-here as an entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>.
- The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag
-without a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which
-there may be a significant number. Any errors detected should be brought
-to the attention of PJC or the appropriate editor.
- Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type,
-with a number of exceptions. Where a word is contained within more than
-one field, the innermost field determines the font to be used. Wherever
-recognizable functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the
-field with a functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only
-to represent the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases,
-the "italic" mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality
-of the word. The base font is considered "plain". Where an italic field
-is indicated, parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised.
- Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional
+character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags (e.g.,
+<root/, for the square root symbol.)
+
+* Introduction
+
+In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster and in GCIDE, each part
+of the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no part
+of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found outside of all
+fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged field. In the
+following description, the word "segment" usually refers to a major part of
+an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a collocation segment or a
+usage block, containing more than one field. The term "field" may also be
+used similarly to "segment", but may also denote single-word fields, such as
+an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>.
+
+The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags. Each tag on
+this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between angle
+brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing the
+forward slash thus: </tagname>. No tags are used without closing tags.
+Thus a line break (similar to HTML <br> tag) is symbolized here as an
+entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>.
+
+The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag without
+a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which there
+may be a significant number. Any errors detected should be brought to the
+attention of PJC or the appropriate editor.
+
+Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type, with a
+number of exceptions. Where a word is contained within more than one field,
+the innermost field determines the font to be used. Wherever recognizable
+functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the field with a
+functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only to represent
+the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases, the "italic"
+mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality of the word.
+The base font is considered "plain". Where an italic field is indicated,
+parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised.
+
+Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional
division, and was printed in plain font unless otherwise tagged. This type
-of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be.
- The size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for
-the height of capitalized letters.
-=============================================================
-Explicit typographical tags:
- These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to
-distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional
-tag seemed apropriate.
------------------------------------
-Tag Font
------------------------------------
-Explicit formatting tags:
-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-<plain> plain font (that used in the body of a definition) --
- normally not marked, except within fields of
- a different front.
-<it> italic (in master files)
-<i> italic (for use in HTML presentation)
-<bold> bold (in master files)
-<b> bold (for use in HTML presentation)
-<colf> bold, Collocation font. Same font as used in collocations.
- smaller This is used only in the list of "un-" words not
- by 1 point actually defined in the dictionary. Probably could be
- replaced by a segment mark for the entire list!
- The "un-" words should be indexed as headwords.
-
-<ct> bold Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used in
- collocations. However, this tag is used in a table
- and could be set to a different font.
-
-<h1> * HTML tag -- largest heading font.
-
-<h2> * HTML tag -- second largest heading font.
-
-<headrow> * Marks a Row title in a table.
-
-<hwf> Font the same as the headword <hw>, though the field is
- not a headword. Used only once.
-
-<mitem> * Multiple items, a set of items in a table.
-<point ...> A series of point size markers, many unique.
-<point1.5> * One of the tags of the form <point**> where **
-<point6> represents the typographic point size of the
- enclosed text.
-<pre> An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed text is
- of teletype form, preformatted in a uniform-spaced
- font.
-<sc> small caps (used mostly for "a. d.", "b. c.")
- This is the same font a <er>, but has no functional
- or semantic significance
-<str> group of table data elements in a table
-<sub> subscript, like <subs>
-<subs> subscript
-<sups> superscript
-<supr> superscript
-<sansserif> Sans-serif font
-<stypec> Bold (collocation font) and also a subtype.
-<tt> HTML tage -- teletype font
-<universbold> A squared bold font without serifs approximating the
- "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4, slightly
- larger than the capitals in a definition body. Used
- in expositions describing shapes, such as
- "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F".
-<vertical> Vertically organized column.
-<column1> Vertically organized column -- only part of a table
- which needs to be completed. Used once.
-<...type> A series of tags, many unique, designating certain
- unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype" for
- "bourgeois type", in the section on typography.
- Most of these occur only once, in the section on fonts.
+of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be. The
+size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for the height
+of capitalized letters.
+
+* Explicit typographical tags
+
+These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to
+distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional tag
+seemed apropriate.
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Tag Font Description
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+<plain> plain font that used in the body of a definition -- normally
+ not marked, except within fields of a different
+ front.
+
+<it> italic in master files
+
+<i> italic for use in HTML presentation
+
+<bold> bold in master files
+
+<b> bold for use in HTML presentation
+
+<colf> bold, Collocation font. Same font as used in
+ collocations.
+ smaller This is used only in the list of "un-"
+ by 1 point words not actually defined in the
+ dictionary.
+ Probably could be replaced by a segment mark
+ for the entire list! The "un-" words should
+ be indexed as headwords.
+
+<ct> bold Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used
+ in collocations. However, this tag is used
+ in a table and could be set to a different
+ font.
+
+<h1> * HTML tag -- largest heading font.
+
+<h2> * HTML tag -- second largest heading font.
+
+<headrow> * Marks a Row title in a table.
+
+<hwf> Font the same as the headword <hw>, though
+ the field is not a headword. Used only
+ once.
+
+<mitem> * Multiple items, a set of items in a table.
+<point ...> A series of point size markers, many
+ unique.
+
+<point1.5> * One of the tags of the form <point**> where **
+<point6> represents the typographic point size of the
+ enclosed text.
+
+<pre> An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed
+ text is of teletype form, preformatted in a
+ uniform-spaced font.
+
+<sc> small caps used mostly for "a. d.", "b. c."
+ This is the same font as in <er>, but has no
+ functional or semantic significance.
+
+<str> group of table data elements in a table.
+
+<sub> subscript
+
+<subs> subscript
+
+<sups> superscript
+
+<supr> superscript
+
+<sansserif> Sans-serif
+
+<stypec> Bold collocation font, and also a subtype.
+
+<tt> HTML tage -- teletype font
+
+<universbold> A squared bold font without serifs approximating
+ the "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4,
+ slightly larger than the capitals in a definition
+ body. Used in expositions describing shapes,
+ such as "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F".
+
+<vertical> Vertically organized column.
+
+<column1> Vertically organized column -- only part of a table
+ which needs to be completed. Used once.
+
+<...type> A series of tags, many unique, designating
+ certain unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype"
+ for "bourgeois type", in the section on
+ typography. Most of these occur only once, in
+ the section on fonts. Some examples follow:
<antiquetype>
<blacklettertype>
<boldfacetype>
<bourgeoistype>
<boxtype>
<clarendontype>
@@ -143,938 +175,961 @@ Explicit formatting tags:
<pearltype>
<picatype>
<scripttype>
<smpicatype>
<typewritertype>
-=============================================================
-Tags with semantic content:
-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-<altsp> * Alternative spelling segment. Almost always
- contained within square brackets after the main
- definition segment. Expository words
- such as "Spelled also" are in plain font;
- the actual alternative spelling is marked by
- <asp> ... </asp> tags within this segment.
-
-<ant> italic Antonym.
-
-<asp> italic Alternative spelling. The actual word which is an
- alternative spelling to the headword. These
- are functionally synonyms of the headword. In
- most cases these also occur as headwords, with
- reference to the word where the actual definition
- is found, but not all such words are listed
- separately, particularly if the spelling is
- close enough to the headword to be found at the
- same point in the dictionary. Whether listed
- separately or not, these words should
- be indexed at this location, also.
-
-<au> italic Authority or author. Used where an authority is
- (may be right- given for a definition, and also used for the
- justified. See author, where a quotation within double quotes
- in the section is given in the same paragraph as the
- on formatting). definition. The double quotes are indicated
- by the open-quote (\'bd) and close-quote
- (\'b8). In both cases, it is typically
- right-justified, almost always fitting on
- the same line with the last line of the
- definition or quotation.
- Within collocation segments, it is usually
- used only after quotations, and is not right-
- justified, except occasionally where it
+* Tags with semantic content:
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Tag Font Meaning and Description
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+<altsp> * Alternative spelling segment. Almost always
+ contained within square brackets after the main
+ definition segment. Expository words such as
+ "Spelled also" are in plain font; the actual
+ alternative spelling is marked by <asp> ...
+ </asp> tags within this segment.
+
+<ant> italic Antonym.
+
+<asp> italic Alternative spelling. The actual word which is
+ an alternative spelling to the headword. These
+ are functionally synonyms of the headword. In
+ most cases these also occur as headwords, with
+ reference to the word where the actual definition
+ is found, but not all such words are listed
+ separately, particularly if the spelling is close
+ enough to the headword to be found at the same
+ point in the dictionary. Whether listed
+ separately or not, these words should be indexed
+ at this location, also.
+
+<au> italic Authority or author. Used where an authority is
+ given for a definition, and also used for the
+ author, where a quotation within double quotes is
+ given in the same paragraph as the definition.
+ The double quotes are indicated by the open-quote
+ (\'bd) and close-quote (\'b8). In both cases, it
+ is typically right-justified, almost always
+ fitting on the same line with the last line of
+ the definition or quotation.
+
+ Within collocation segments, it is usually used
+ only after quotations, and is not
+ right-justified, except occasionally where it
would be close to the right margin, and then
- apparently is is right-justified. We have
- not explicitly marked those which are
- right-justified, but they can be
- recognized because they are on a line by
- themselves, preceded by two carriage returns.
+ apparently is is right-justified. We have not
+ explicitly marked those which are
+ right-justified, but they can be recognized
+ because they are on a line by themselves,
+ preceded by two carriage returns.
-<bio> * Marks a biography. Should be longer than
- a short mention of who a person was, which
- is typically included as a definition.
+<bio> * Marks a biography. Should be longer than a short
+ mention of who a person was, which is typically
+ included as a definition.
-<biography> * Same as <bio>
+<biography> * Same as <bio>
-<booki> italic Marks the name of a book, pamphlet, or similar
- document.
+<booki> italic Marks the name of a book, pamphlet, or similar
+ document.
-<branchof> * A field of knowledge which of which the headword
+<branchof> * A field of knowledge which of which the headword
is a division.
-<caption> * Caption of a figure or table.
-
-<cas> * tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) registry
- number for a chemical substance.
-
-<causes> italic tags the infectious disease caused by the headword.
- Implied type of the agent is a microorganism, and
- the tag must mark a disease.
+<caption> * Caption of a figure or table.
-<causesp> * Same as <causes> without the italic type.
-<causedbyp> * Same as <causedby> without the italic type.
+<cas> * tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service)
+ registry number for a chemical substance.
-<causedby> italic inverse of causes: tags the causative agent of an
- infectious disease, which is the headword .
- the tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or
- prion, and the implied type of the headword is
- a disease.
+<causes> italic tags the infectious disease caused by the
+ headword. Implied type of the agent is a
+ microorganism, and the tag must mark a disease.
-<centered> Used only for The single letter in the headers to each
- letter of the alphabet.
+<causesp> * Same as <causes> without the italic type.
+<causedbyp> * Same as <causedby> without the italic type.
-<city> * marks the proper name of a city. Used only
- occasionally and not consistently at this stage.
+<causedby> italic inverse of <causes>: tags the causative agent of
+ an infectious disease, which is the headword.
+ The tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or
+ prion, and the implied type of the headword is a
+ disease.
-<cnvto> italic Converted to: used to tag substances which are
- products prepared by conversion from the
- headword. Usually chemicals or complex
- products from mnatuarl materials. Rarely used
- up to 1998.
+<centered> Used only for the single letter in the headers to
+ each letter of the alphabet.
-<colheads> * List of heads for the columns of a table.
+<city> * marks the proper name of a city. Used only
+ occasionally and not consistently at this stage.
-<coltitle> * Title of a column in a table.
+<cnvto> italic Converted to: used to tag substances which are
+ products prepared by conversion from the
+ headword. Usually chemicals or complex products
+ from natuarl materials. Rarely used up to 1998.
-<comm> * Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line with
- the definition paragraph. Provides a little
- additional information.
+<colheads> * List of heads for the columns of a table.
-<company> * Name of a company (commercial firm). Compare <org>
+<coltitle> * Title of a column in a table.
-<compof> italic Composed of. Tags a substance of which the
- headword is at least partly composed. The
- substance may be particulate, such as
- diatoms composing diatomaceous earth.
+<comm> * Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line
+ with the definition paragraph. Provides a little
+ additional information.
-<contains> * marks an object contained within the headword.
+<company> * Name of a company (commercial firm). Compare
+ <org>.
-<contr> italic Contrasting word. Not exactly an antonym, which
- is marked <ant>, but a contrasting word which is
- often introduced as "opposite to" or "contrasts
- with".
+<compof> italic Composed of. Tags a substance of which the
+ headword is at least partly composed. The
+ substance may be particulate, such as diatoms
+ composing diatomaceous earth.
-<country> * Name of a country (nation) of the world.
+<contains> * marks an object contained within the headword.
-<cref> italic Collocation reference. A reference to a collocation.
- Each such collocation should have its own entry,
- marked by <col> ... </col> tags, and these
- references should function as hypertext buttons
- to access that entry.
+<contr> italic Contrasting word. Not exactly an antonym, which
+ is marked <ant>, but a contrasting word which is
+ often introduced as "opposite to" or "contrasts
+ with".
-<date> * A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>.
+<country> * Name of a country (nation) of the world.
-<datey> * Date-with-year tags a date containing a year.
-
-<def> * definition. The definition may have subfields,
- particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase
- starting with "as" or "thus" and containing
- the headword (or a morphological derivative).
- The <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and
- right double quotes) and <au> fields may be
- found within a definition field, but should
- and usually are located outside the definition
- proper. The marking macro was
- inconsistent in this placement, and the
- exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and quotations
- needs to be completed by the proof-readers.
- Certain definitions contain <pos>
- fields within them, where the headword is
- an irregular derivative of another headword.
- In these cases, the <pos> field follows
- immediately after the <def> tag, and these
- entries do not have a separate <pos> field.
- In such cases, the <pos> field is italic, as
- usual.
-
-<divof> * Division of the headword, usually an organization.
- E. g. a faculty or department of a university,
- or a United Nations agency.
+<cref> italic Collocation reference. A reference to a
+ collocation. Each such collocation should have
+ its own entry, marked by <col> ... </col> tags,
+ and these references should function as hypertext
+ buttons to access that entry.
-<edi> * Marks an education institution, a subtype of
+<date> * A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>.
+
+<datey> * Date-with-year tags a date containing a year.
+
+<def> * A definition. The definition may have subfields,
+ particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase
+ starting with "as" or "thus" and containing the
+ headword (or a morphological derivative). The
+ <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and right
+ double quotes) and <au> fields may be found
+ within a definition field, but should and usually
+ are located outside the definition proper. The
+ marking macro was inconsistent in this placement,
+ and the exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and
+ quotations needs to be completed by the
+ proof-readers.
+
+ Certain definitions contain <pos> fields within
+ them, where the headword is an irregular
+ derivative of another headword. In these cases,
+ the <pos> field follows immediately after the
+ <def> tag, and these entries do not have a
+ separate <pos> field. In such cases, the <pos>
+ field is italic, as usual.
+
+<divof> * Division of the headword, usually an
+ organization. E. g. a faculty or department of a
+ university, or a United Nations agency.
+
+<edi> * Marks an education institution, a subtype of
organization.
-<emits> * tags a physical object or form of radiation
- emitted by the headword
+<emits> * Tags a physical object or form of radiation
+ emitted by the headword.
-<figure> Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom used.
+<figure> Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom
+ used.
-<film> italic Marks the name of a movie film.
+<film> italic Marks the name of a movie film.
-<fld> italic Field of specialization. Most often used for
+<fld> italic Field of specialization. Most often used for
Zoology and Botany, but many "fields of
- specialization" are marked for technical
- terms. The parentheses are usually within this
- field, but are not themselves in italics.
-
-<geog> * Name of a geograpahical region of any size;
- if applicable, the more specific <city>,
- <state>, or <country> are preferred.
-
-<hypen> * Hyperym. Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5
- Initially, used only for entries extracted
- from WordNet 1.5. Not present in the original
- 1913 version.
+ specialization" are marked for technical terms.
+ The parentheses are usually within this field,
+ but are not themselves in italics.
+
+<geog> * Name of a geograpahical region of any size; if
+ applicable, the more specific <city>, <state>, or
+ <country> are preferred.
+
+<hypen> * Hyperym. Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5
+ Initially, used only for entries extracted from
+ WordNet 1.5. Not present in the original 1913
+ version.
-<illu> * Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and placed
- outside the definition, in contrast to <as> usage.
- These should be converted to <as>...</as> illustrative
- usage format for consistency.
-
-<illust> * Illustration place-holder. Seldom used.
-<img> * HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually
- .gif or .jpg. These have no closing tag, and
- will appear as errors in parsing.
-<intensi> * Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified
- form of the headword. Taken from WordNet
- tags, used with some adjectives from WordNet
-<item> * Designates one item in a row of a table. Used only when
- intervening spaces do not serve properly as natural
- field separaters.
-<itran> italic Translation into a foreign (non-English) language
- of the previous word in the text -- italic font.
- (<sig> is a translation into English)
-<itrans> italic Same as <itran>
-<jour> * Title of a journal (periodical).
-<matrix> * Always a filled rectangular array.
-<matrix2x5> * A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns).
-<mstypec> * Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in
- def. of "grass".
-<mtable> * Multiple table, encloses <table> figures.
-<musfig> * Music figure. Only in a note under the entry "Figure",
- the two numbers of each such field
- are bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction with
- a bar between them, but also having a horizontal stroke
- midway through each numeral. Unique to this entry.
-<p> * paragraph tag, used always in pairs. Line breaks may
- be embedded inside the paragraphs.
-<person> * marks the proper name of a person. Used only
- occasionally, but should be used more frequently
- for cases where first names are abbreviated,
- to reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic
- analysis. Where a title is given, prefixed
- or postfixed, it is included in this tag.
-
-<persfn> * marks the name of a person, when only one name
- (usually the last name) is given. Not used
- consistently where it should be.
-
-<publ> * Marks the name of a publication other than book,
- which is marked by <booki>. It is often a
- magazine or journal.
-<qpers> * Tags the name of a person who is speaking,
- within a quotation.
-<qperson> Same as <qpers>
-<cp> * Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases that
- should be parsed as a unit, but has no typographical
- significance.
-<qau> italic Always right-justified, as described for <au>.
-<ref> * A reference to a word in the vocabulary.
-<refs> * Marks the set of references used for a longer article
- such as a biography.
-<river> * Marks the name of a river -- a proper name
-<rj> * Right justified
-<row> * Designates a row in a table.
-<state> * Name of a geopolitical state, the first subdivision of
- a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian provinces.
-<subtypes> * Lists subtypes of the headword.
-<sup> * superscript
-<supr> * Supra. The two parts of each such field
- are stacked, one over the other, *without* a
- horizontal bar between (as in a fraction).
- Used only in one entry, for a musical notation.
-<table> * Always a filled rectangular array, having <row> and <item>
- elements.
-<td> * Table datum - one cell in a table
-<th> * Table header
-<tradename> * Tags a commercial Trade name
-<ttitle> * Table title (Larger than normal font)
+<illu> * Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and
+ placed outside the definition, in contrast to
+ <as> usage. These should be converted to
+ <as>...</as> illustrative usage format for
+ consistency.
+
+<illust> * Illustration place-holder. Seldom used.
+
+<img> * HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually
+ .gif or .jpg. These have no closing tag, and
+ will appear as errors in parsing.
+
+<intensi> * Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified
+ form of the headword. Taken from WordNet tags,
+ used with some adjectives from WordNet.
+
+<item> * Designates one item in a row of a table. Used
+ only when intervening spaces do not serve
+ properly as natural field separaters.
+
+<itran> italic Translation into a foreign (non-English) language
+ of the previous word in the text -- italic font.
+ (<sig> is a translation into English)
+
+<itrans> italic Same as <itran>
+
+<jour> * Title of a journal (periodical).
+
+<matrix> * Always a filled rectangular array.
+
+<matrix2x5> * A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns).
+
+<mstypec> * Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in def. of
+ "grass".
+
+<mtable> * Multiple table, encloses <table> figures.
+
+<musfig> * Music figure. Only in a note under the entry
+ "Figure", the two numbers of each such field are
+ bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction
+ with a bar between them, but also having a
+ horizontal stroke midway through each
+ numeral. Unique to this entry.
+
+<p> * Paragraph tag, used always in pairs. Line breaks
+ may be embedded inside the paragraphs.
+
+<person> * Marks the proper name of a person. Used only
+ occasionally, but should be used more frequently
+ for cases where first names are abbreviated, to
+ reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic
+ analysis. Where a title is given, prefixed or
+ postfixed, it is included in this tag.
+
+<persfn> * Marks the name of a person, when only one name
+ (usually the last name) is given. Not used
+ consistently where it should be.
+
+<publ> * Marks the name of a publication other than book,
+ which is marked by <booki>. It is often a
+ magazine or journal.
+
+<qpers> * Tags the name of a person who is speaking, within
+ a quotation.
+
+<qperson> Same as <qpers>
+
+<cp> * Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases
+ that should be parsed as a unit, but has no
+ typographical significance.
+
+<qau> italic Always right-justified, as described for <au>.
+
+<ref> * A reference to a word in the vocabulary.
+
+<refs> * Marks the set of references used for a longer
+ article such as a biography.
+
+<river> * Marks the name of a river -- a proper name.
+
+<rj> * Right justified.
+
+<row> * Designates a row in a table.
+
+<state> * Name of a geopolitical state, the first
+ subdivision of a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian
+ provinces.
+
+<subtypes> * Lists subtypes of the headword.
+
+<sup> * Superscript
+
+<supr> * Supra. The two parts of each such field are
+ stacked, one over the other, *without* a
+ horizontal bar between (as in a fraction). Used
+ only in one entry, for a musical notation.
+
+<table> * Always a filled rectangular array, having <row>
+ and <item> elements.
+
+<td> * Table datum - one cell in a table.
+
+<th> * Table header.
+
+<tradename> * Tags a commercial Trade name.
+
+<ttitle> * Table title (Larger than normal font).
====================================================================
-Functional Tags
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-Tag Font Meaning
- (Comparatives are relative to the plain font.)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-<-- --> * Comment, not a tag. These segments should be deleted
- from the written or printed text.
- Page numbers of the original text are indicated
- within such comments; these may be left in, if
- desired.
-
-<! !> * HTML-style comment. Used to indicate page numbers
- in the public domain version.
-
-<abbr> italic Tag for abbreviations, when mentioned within
- the definition text.
-
-<adjf> small caps Tags for the actual adjective or adverb
- comparatives or superlatives. Should be
- indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and
- decf (nouns).
-
-<altname> italic Alternative name. Usually for plants or animals,
- but also used for other cases where words
- are introduced by "also called", "called also",
- "formerly called". These are functionally
- *synonyms* for that word-sense.
-
-<altnpluf> italic Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a
- plural form, whereas the headword is singular.
-
-<amorph> * Adjective morphological segment, primarily
- the comparative and superlative forms.
- The occasional adverb morphology is
- also tagged this way.
-
-<as> * A segment occurring within the definitional
- sentence, providing an example of usage of
- the headword. Not conceptually a part of the
- actual definition.
-
-<cd> smaller spacing Collocation definition. Similar in structure
- to headword definitions (the <def> field). May
- contain an <as> field. Plain type, but with
- closer spacing than main definitions.
-
-<col> bold, Collocation. A word combination containing the
- smaller by headword (or a morphological derivative).
- 1 point The collocations do not have an explicitly
- marked part of speech.
- See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations.
-
-<colp> Collocation, no typographic significance.
- Used to mark a word combination defined in
- the dictionary without affect on font.
-
-<conjf> small caps The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of
- verbs. imp. & p. p. is common, as well as
- p. pr. & vb. n. Irregular variants of
- these are less common. Words in this
- field perhaps should be indexed.
-
-<cs> smaller Collocation segment. The font and size is
- vertical normal in a cs, but the spacing between lines
- spacing is smaller (0.9 mm between lower-case letters,
- rather than 1.1 mm in the main body of the
- definition). For an on-line dictionary,
- reproducing this typography is probably
- pointless.
-
-<decf> small caps Declension form. The actual morphological
- variants of nouns or pronouns. Should
- be indexed.
-
-<ecol> * Embedded Collocation. A word combination
+* Functional Tags
+
+In the table below, font size comparatives are relative to the plain font.
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Tag Font Meaning and Description
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+<-- --> * Comment, not a tag. These segments should be
+ deleted from the written or printed text. Page
+ numbers of the original text are indicated within
+ such comments; these may be left in, if desired.
+
+<! !> * A comment. Used to indicate page numbers in the
+ public domain version.
+
+<abbr> italic Tag for abbreviations, when mentioned within the
+ definition text.
+
+<adjf> small caps Tags for the actual adjective or adverb
+ comparatives or superlatives. Should be
+ indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and decf (nouns).
+
+<altname> italic Alternative name. Usually for plants or animals,
+ but also used for other cases where words are
+ introduced by "also called", "called also",
+ "formerly called". These are
+ functionally *synonyms* for that word-sense.
+
+<altnpluf> italic Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a
+ plural form, whereas the headword is singular.
+
+<amorph> * Adjective morphological segment, primarily the
+ comparative and superlative forms. The
+ occasional adverb morphology is also tagged this
+ way.
+
+<as> * A segment occurring within the definitional
+ sentence, providing an example of usage of the
+ headword. Not conceptually a part of the actual
+ definition.
+
+<cd> smaller Collocation definition. Similar in structure to
+ spacing headword definitions (the <def> field). May
+ contain an <as> field. Plain type, but with
+ closer spacing than main definitions.
+
+
+<col> bold, Collocation. A word combination containing the
+ smaller by headword (or a morphological derivative).
+ 1 point The collocations do not have an explicitly
+ marked part of speech.
+ See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations.
+
+<colp> Collocation, no typographic significance. Used
+ to mark a word combination defined in the
+ dictionary without affect on font.
+
+<conjf> small caps The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of verbs.
+ imp. & p. p. is common, as well as p. pr. &
+ vb. n. Irregular variants of these are less
+ common. Words in this field perhaps should be
+ indexed.
+
+<cs> smaller Collocation segment. The font and size is normal
+ vertical in a cs, but the spacing between lines is smaller
+ spacing (0.9 mm between lower-case letters, rather than
+ 1.1 mm in the main body of the definition). For
+ an on-line dictionary, reproducing this
+ typography is probably pointless.
+
+<decf> small caps Declension form. The actual morphological
+ variants of nouns or pronouns. Should be
+ indexed.
+
+<ecol> * Embedded Collocation. A word combination
containing the headword (or a morphological
- derivative, embedded within a definition
- without a separate definition of its own.
- These collocations should be defined
- implicitly by the text of the definition in
- which they are embedded.
- See also <col>, tagging explicitly defined
- collocations.
-
-<ent> Bold Entry field. Gives the headword without accent or
- syllabication marks, and with special-character
- symbols converted to their nearest ASCII
- equivalents. Can be used without conversion
- as the string that serves as the index word
- for that entry.
-
-<er> Small Caps Entry reference. References to headwords
- within the "etymology" section are in small
- caps. Such references also occur
- in the body of definitions, and in "usage"
- segments.
- Such entry references should function as hypertext
- buttons to access that entry.
-
-<ety> * Etymology. Always contained within square
+ derivative, embedded within a definition without
+ a separate definition of its own. These
+ collocations should be defined implicitly by the
+ text of the definition in which they are
+ embedded. See also <col>, tagging explicitly
+ defined collocations.
+
+<ent> Bold Entry field. Gives the headword without accent or
+ syllabication marks, and with special-character
+ symbols converted to their nearest ASCII
+ equivalents. Can be used without conversion as
+ the string that serves as the index word for that
+ entry.
+
+<er> small caps Entry reference. References to headwords within
+ the "etymology" section are in small caps. Such
+ references also occur in the body of definitions,
+ and in "usage" segments. Such entry references
+ should function as hypertext buttons to access
+ that entry.
+
+<ety> * Etymology. Always contained within square
brackets. Normal type is used for explanatory
comments, and italics for the actual words
(marked <ets>) considered as etymological
sources.
-<ets> italic Etymological source. Words from which the
+<ets> italic Etymological source. Words from which the
headword was derived, or to which it is related.
- The Greek words within an etymology segment
- are invariably etymology sources, and should
- be marked as such, but are not so marked,
- even in the rare cases where the Greek word
+ The Greek words within an etymology segment are
+ invariably etymology sources, and should be
+ marked as such, but are not so marked, even in
+ the rare cases where the Greek word
transliteration has been written in.
-<etsep> italic Etymological source, being the name of a person
- or geographical location which is the eponym
- for the concept. This is used to distinguish
- eponymous etymologies from others, and can also
- be found in the body of a definition or note,
- not only in the etymology field. Very few
- of the names that should be marked this way
- have actually been so marked, as of version
- 0.42. In cases where such eponymous names
- have not yet been thus marked, they will
- usually be marked by <xex>, the non-semantic
- italic-font marker, or, in etymologies, by
- <ets>.
-
-<ex> italic Example. An example of usage of the headword,
- usually found within an <as> or <note> segment.
-
-<fr> * Frequency of use, ordinal rank. This is used for
- WordNet entries, in which the synonyms
- were ranked in order of frequency of use.
- <fr>1</fr> indicates that the headword is the
- first word on the list of synonyms.
-
-<fu> * First use. A date at or around which the first
- use of this word in writing is recorded.
- Not in the original 1913 Webster, and usu.
- taken from a recent dictionary. Only a few
- such fields have been entered as of version
- 0.41
-
-<grk> transliteration Greek. The Greek words have been transliterated
- using the equivalents explained in the
- file "webfonts.asc". In most cases, the
- transliterations are typical for Greek
- letters, except for theta (transl = q),
- phi (transl. = f), eta (transl. = h), and
- upsilon (transl. = y, whether pronounced
- as y or u). This was to eliminate any
- ambiguity. These words occur primarily
- in etymologies, and to conform to the
- usage of <ets> should also be marked
- by <ets>, but as of version 0.41 they
- are not usually thus marked.
-
-<hw> bold, headword. Each main entry begins with the <hw>
- larger by mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark. The
- 2 points main entries are not otherwise explicitly
- marked as a distinctive field.
- The same word may appear as a headword
- several times, usually as different parts
- of speech, but sometimes with different
- entries as the same part of speech, presumably
- to indicate a different etymology.
- Within the hw field the heavy accent is
- represented by double quote ("), the
- light accent by open-single-quote (`),
- and the short dash separating syllables by
+<etsep> italic Etymological source, being the name of a person
+ or geographical location which is the eponym for
+ the concept. This is used to distinguish
+ eponymous etymologies from others, and can also
+ be found in the body of a definition or note, not
+ only in the etymology field. Very few of the
+ names that should be marked this way have
+ actually been so marked, as of version 0.42. In
+ cases where such eponymous names have not yet
+ been thus marked, they will usually be marked by
+ <xex>, the non-semantic italic-font marker, or,
+ in etymologies, by <ets>.
+
+<ex> italic Example. An example of usage of the headword,
+ usually found within an <as> or <note> segment.
+
+<fr> * Frequency of use, ordinal rank. This is used for
+ WordNet entries, in which the synonyms were
+ ranked in order of frequency of use. <fr>1</fr>
+ indicates that the headword is the first word on
+ the list of synonyms.
+
+<fu> * First use. A date at or around which the first
+ use of this word in writing is recorded. Not in
+ the original 1913 Webster, and usu. taken from a
+ recent dictionary. Only a few such fields have
+ been entered as of version 0.41
+
+<grk> Greek transliteration. The Greek words have been
+ transliterated using roman letters. See
+ chapter "Greek transliteration" in file
+ "webfont.txt"
+
+<hw> bold, A headword. Each main entry begins with the <hw>
+ larger by mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark. The main
+ 2 points entries are not otherwise explicitly marked as a
+ distinctive field. The same word may appear as a
+ headword several times, usually as different
+ parts of speech, but sometimes with different
+ entries as the same part of speech, presumably to
+ indicate a different etymology. Within the hw
+ field the heavy accent is represented by double
+ quote ("), the light accent by open-single-quote
+ (`), and the short dash separating syllables by
an asterisk (*). A hyphen (-) is used to
represent the hyphen of hyphenated words.
-<mark> italic, Usage mark. Almost always within square
- brackets, occasionally in parentheses or
- without any bracketing.
- but The most common usage marks,
- explanatory "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." =
- may be plain. colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
+<mark> italic, Usage mark. Almost always within square
+ but brackets, occasionally in parentheses or without
+ explanatory any bracketing. The most common usage marks,
+ may be "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." =
+ plain. colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
etc. are in italics. Some usage notes are also
- marked with <mark>, but are in plain. For
- simplicity, all words in this field may be
- italic, until additional explicit marks are
- added.
-
-<markp> * A usage mark in plain type (not italic). Found
- within a definition, when there are more than
- one sense-number listed. "Fig." at the head
- of an entry is the most common case.
-
-<mcol> * Multiple collocation. Similar to multiple
- headword, when two or more collocations share
- one definition; however, the two collocations
- are in-line, rather than stacked or justified.
- There may be "or" or "and" words
- (italicised), or an "etc." (plain type)
- within this field. In many cases, the
- <or/ and <and/ entities are used to
- signify the change of font for these words.
-
-<mhw> * Multiple headword. This field is used where
- more than one headword shares a single
- definition. In the dictionary, the
- (usually) two headwords are left-justified
- one below the other in the column, and are
- tied together on the right side of the
- headwords by a long right curly brace.
- This division is strictly functional,
- for analytical purposes, and does not
- affect the typography.
-
-<nmorph> * Noun morphology section. Rarely used, mostly
- for irregular personal pronouns.
-
-<note> * Explanatory note. No explicit font is indicated.
- These segments may be separate, as in the
- separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/,
- or they may just be further explanation within
- (or more usually, following) the main
- definition paragraph. Typographically,
- the notes following the main definition may
- not be distinguishable from additional
- sentences appended to the first sentence
- of a definition.
-
-<plu> * Plural. The "plural" segment starts with a
- "pl." which is italicised, but in this
- segment is not otherwise marked as
- italicised. Other words occurring in this
- segment are plain type. The "pl." can be
- easily explicitly marked if necessary.
-
-<pos> italic Part of speech. Always an abbreviation: e.g.,
- n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep.
- Combinations may occur, as "a. & n.".
-
-<epos> * Part of speech, referring to words in
- etymologies, normal type. Always an
- abbreviation, as in <pos> above
- Combinations may occur, as "a. or n.".
-
-<plw> small caps Plural word. The actual plural form of the word,
- found within a <plu> segment.
-
-<pr> * pronunciation. The default font is normal, but
- many non-ASCII characters are used.
- The pronunciation field may have more than
- one pronunciation, separated by an "<or/".
- (An "or" here is in italic, and usually is
- represented by the entity <or/).
- There may also be some commentary, such as
- "Fr."(French pronunciation) or "archaic".
- The commentaries are typically italic, and
- should be marked as such. In certain
- pronunciations there is a numbered reference
- to a root form explained in an introductory
- section on pronunciation.
- Very few of the pronunciation fields have
- been filled in. The pronunciation markings use
- a more complicated method than more modern
- dictionaries. It would be interesting to have
- these fields filled in, if there are any
- volunteers willing to do it.
-
-<q> smaller by Quotation. No bracketing quotation marks,
- two points, though occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur
- centered, within these quotations. These quotations
- Separate tend to be more complete sentences, rather
- paragraph than just phrases, such as are contained
- within quotation marks within the definition
- paragraph.
-
-<qau> italic, Quotation author. Used only for the quotations
- right justified marked with <q> that are centered in their
- own paragraphs.
-
-<qex> italic Quotation example. An example of usage of
- the headword, within quotations marked
- by <q>..</q> tags.
-
-<sd> italic Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc. THese are
- finer distinctions of word senses, used
- within numbered word-sense (for main entries),
- and also used for subdefinitions within
- collocation segments, which have no numbering of
- senses. The letter is italic, the parentheses
- are not. This tag is also used to indicate the
- lettered subdefinition when it is referred to
- at another point in the text.
-
-<ship> italic The name of a ship. Rarely used.
-
-<sing> * Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but more
- rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which
- are listed in the plural form.
-
-<singw> small caps Singular word. The singular form of the
- plural-form headword.
-
-<sn> bold, Sense number. A headword may have over 20
- larger by different sense numbers. Within each numbered
- 2 points sense there may be lettered sub-senses. See
- the <sd> (sub-definition) field.
-
-<source> italic Source. The author of the definition. Used only
- for definitions not originally present in
- Webster 1913, and not present in the original
- version intended to mimic the 1913 printed
- dictionary. This source is used for each
- word sense, and may differ for different
- senses of a word, especially where a Web1913
- definition was substantially modified, or a
- new word sense was added to a previously
- defined word.
-
-<syn> plain Synonyms. A list of synonyms, sometimes followed
- by a <usage> segment.
-
-<usage> narrower Comparisons of word usage for words which are
- spacing sometimes confused. As with collocation segments,
- font is plain, but spacing is smaller than
- normal definition spacing. This seems pointlessly
- complicating for an on-line display.
-
-<ver> * Verified for current accuracy by a technical editor,
- without changes.
-
-<vmorph> * Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited
- by square brackets.
-
-<wordforms> * Morphological derivatives not contained in the
- bracketed segments, as above. For nouns
- derived from adjectives, adverbs from
- adjectives, etc. This segment is usually
- found at the end of the main entry. The
- adverbial and nominalized derivatives at the
- end of a main entry are usually introduced
- by an em dash [represented as two hyphens (--)].
-
-<wf> bold, Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable
- larger by breaks marked as in the headword.
- 2 points Marks the actual morphological forms within
- a <wordforms> segment; typically, adverbial or
- nominalized form of an adjective.
-
-
-<def2> * Second definition (occasionally, a third definition is
- present). This is used where a second or third
- part of speech with the same orthography is
- placed under one headword. Within this segment,
- there will be a <pos> field, and sometimes
- a <mark> and/or a quotation.
-
-<specif> * "Specifically:" Used to mark the words "specifically",
- "Hence", "as" which are used to introduce a second
- definition typically more specific than the first,
- but in general derived by extension of the initial
- definition. This functions as a warning of multiple
- definitions where the sense-numbers are not explicitly
- used. It is also useful in separate senses, to
- tag polysemous definitions which may be
- specializations or generalizations of the preceding
- definition.
-
-<pluf> italic. Plural form.
- Used exclusively to mark the "pl." abbreviation,
- which introduces a definition for the headword,
- *when used in the plural form*. Not related to
- <plu>, which spells out the plural form, but does
- define it.
-
-<uex> italic Usage example. Used only a few times, within
- <usage> segments.
-
-<isa> italic supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and
- identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet.
-
-<chform> plain, Chemical formula. The letters are plain font,
- numbers but the numbers are subscript. This is mostly
- subscript useful as a functional mark to pinpoint
- chemicals.
-
-<chformi> plain, Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not
- processed specially by the tag-converter program.
- The letters are plain font, but the numbers are
- subscript.
- Used in place of <chform> when the formula has
- a tag inside, which cannot now be processed by the
- <chform> processing routine.
-
-<chname> * chemical name. Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
- name to be processed as a unit in spite of
- embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas.
-
-<see> * "see" reference to related words, outside of the
- main <def>definition</def> field.
+ marked with <mark>, but are in plain. For
+ simplicity, all words in this field may be
+ italic, until additional explicit marks are
+ added.
+
+<markp> * A usage mark in plain type (not italic). Found
+ within a definition, when there are more than one
+ sense-number listed. "Fig." at the head of an
+ entry is the most common case.
+
+<mcol> * Multiple collocation. Similar to multiple
+ headword, when two or more collocations share one
+ definition; however, the two collocations are
+ in-line, rather than stacked or justified. There
+ may be "or" or "and" words (italicised), or an
+ "etc." (plain type) within this field. In many
+ cases, the <or/ and <and/ entities are used to
+ signify the change of font for these words.
+
+<mhw> * Multiple headword. This field is used where more
+ than one headword shares a single definition. In
+ the dictionary, the (usually) two headwords are
+ left-justified one below the other in the column,
+ and are tied together on the right side of the
+ headwords by a long right curly brace. This
+ division is strictly functional, for analytical
+ purposes, and does not affect the typography.
+
+<nmorph> * Noun morphology section. Rarely used, mostly for
+ irregular personal pronouns.
+
+<note> * Explanatory note. No explicit font is indicated.
+ These segments may be separate, as in the
+ separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/, or
+ they may just be further explanation within (or
+ more usually, following) the main definition
+ paragraph. Typographically, the notes following
+ the main definition may not be distinguishable
+ from additional sentences appended to the first
+ sentence of a definition.
+
+<plu> * Plural. The "plural" segment starts with a "pl."
+ which is italicised, but in this segment is not
+ otherwise marked as italicised. Other words
+ occurring in this segment are plain type. The
+ "pl." can be easily explicitly marked if
+ necessary.
+
+<pos> italic Part of speech. Always an abbreviation: e.g.,
+ n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep.
+ Combinations may occur, as "a. & n.".
+
+<epos> * Part of speech, referring to words in
+ etymologies, normal type. Always an
+ abbreviation, as in <pos> above Combinations may
+ occur, as "a. or n.".
+
+<plw> small caps Plural word. The actual plural form of the word,
+ found within a <plu> segment.
+
+<pr> * Pronunciation. The default font is normal, but
+ many non-ASCII characters are used. The
+ pronunciation field may have more than one
+ pronunciation, separated by an "<or/". (An "or"
+ here is in italic, and usually is represented by
+ the entity <or/). There may also be some
+ commentary, such as "Fr."(French pronunciation)
+ or "archaic". The commentaries are typically
+ italic, and should be marked as such. In certain
+ pronunciations there is a numbered reference to a
+ root form explained in an introductory section on
+ pronunciation.
+
+ Very few of the pronunciation fields have been
+ filled in. The pronunciation markings use a more
+ complicated method than more modern dictionaries.
+ It would be interesting to have these fields
+ filled in, if there are any volunteers willing to
+ do it.
+
+<q> smaller by Quotation. No bracketing quotation marks, though
+ two points, occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur within
+ centered, these quotations. These quotations tend to be
+ Separate more complete sentences, rather than just
+ paragraph phrases, such as are contained within quotation
+ marks within the definition paragraph.
+
+<qau> italic, Quotation author. Used only for the
+ right quotations marked with <q> that are centered in
+ justified their own paragraphs.
+
+<qex> italic Quotation example. An example of usage of the
+ headword, within quotations marked by <q>..</q>
+ tags.
+
+<sd> italic Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc. These
+ are finer distinctions of word senses, used
+ within numbered word-sense (for main entries),
+ and also used for subdefinitions within
+ collocation segments, which have no numbering of
+ senses. The letter is italic, the parentheses
+ are not. This tag is also used to indicate the
+ lettered subdefinition when it is referred to at
+ another point in the text.
+
+<ship> italic The name of a ship. Rarely used.
+
+<sing> * Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but
+ more rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which
+ are listed in the plural form.
+
+<singw> small caps Singular word. The singular form of the
+ plural-form headword.
+
+<sn> bold, Sense number. A headword may have over 20
+ larger by different sense numbers. Within each numbered
+ 2 points sense there may be lettered sub-senses. See the
+ <sd> (sub-definition) field.
+
+<source> italic Source. The author of the definition. Used only
+ for definitions not originally present in Webster
+ 1913, and not present in the original version
+ intended to mimic the 1913 printed dictionary.
+ This source is used for each word sense, and may
+ differ for different senses of a word, especially
+ where a Web1913 definition was substantially
+ modified, or a new word sense was added to a
+ previously defined word.
+
+<syn> plain Synonyms. A list of synonyms, sometimes followed
+ by a <usage> segment.
+
+<usage> narrower Comparisons of word usage for words which are
+ spacing sometimes confused. As with collocation
+ segments, font is plain, but spacing is smaller
+ than normal definition spacing. This seems
+ pointlessly complicating for an on-line display.
+
+<ver> * Verified for current accuracy by a technical
+ editor, without changes.
+
+<vmorph> * Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited
+ by square brackets.
+
+<wordforms> * Morphological derivatives not contained in the
+ bracketed segments, as above. For nouns derived
+ from adjectives, adverbs from adjectives, etc.
+ This segment is usually found at the end of the
+ main entry. The adverbial and nominalized
+ derivatives at the end of a main entry are
+ usually introduced by an em dash [represented as
+ two hyphens (--)].
+
+<wf> bold, Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable
+ larger by breaks marked as in the headword. Marks the
+ 2 points actual morphological forms within a <wordforms>
+ segment; typically, adverbial or nominalized form
+ of an adjective.
+
+
+<def2> * Second definition (occasionally, a third
+ definition is present). This is used where a
+ second or third part of speech with the same
+ orthography is placed under one headword. Within
+ this segment, there will be a <pos> field, and
+ sometimes a <mark> and/or a quotation.
+
+<specif> * "Specifically:" Used to mark the words
+ "specifically", "Hence", "as" which are used to
+ introduce a second definition typically more
+ specific than the first, but in general derived by
+ extension of the initial definition. This
+ functions as a warning of multiple definitions
+ where the sense-numbers are not explicitly used.
+ It is also useful in separate senses, to tag
+ polysemous definitions which may be
+ specializations or generalizations of the
+ preceding definition.
+
+<pluf> italic Plural form. Used exclusively to mark the "pl."
+ abbreviation, which introduces a definition for the
+ headword, *when used in the plural form*. Not
+ related to <plu>, which spells out the plural form,
+ but does define it.
+
+<uex> italic Usage example. Used only a few times, within
+ <usage> segments.
+
+<isa> italic Supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and
+ identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet.
+
+<chform> plain, Chemical formula. The letters are plain font, but
+ numbers the numbers are subscript. This is mostly useful
+ subscript as a functional mark to pinpoint chemicals.
+
+<chformi> plain Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not
+ processed specially by the tag-converter program.
+ The letters are plain font, but the numbers are
+ subscript. Used in place of <chform> when the
+ formula has a tag inside, which cannot now be
+ processed by the <chform> processing routine.
+
+<chname> * Chemical name. Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
+ name to be processed as a unit in spite of
+ embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas.
+
+<see> * A "see" reference to related words, outside of the
+ main <def>definition</def> field.
-<mathex> italic Mathematical expression. In this dictionary,
- essentially all letters (used as variable labels)
- in math expressions are in italic font.
- The "+" and "-" may also appear typographically
- different from elsewhere in the dictionary.
-
-<ratio> italic Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and
- double colon may have a different typography
- than usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio>
-
-<singf> italic Singular form. Analogous to <pluf>, to define
- the singular word where the headword is the
- plural form. ** only modifies the word "sing."
-
-<mord> * Morphological derivation. Used to mark the
- entry-reference portions of those
- entries which are defined as morphological
- derivatives (plural, p. p., imp.) of other
- headwords. Used just as an attempt to
- mark and regularize the entry format.
- May be ignored typographically.
-
-<fract> a stack, Fraction. Used for non-numerical fractions
- with which cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style
- numerator, entity. The forward slash "/" is to be
- horizontal interpreted as a horizontal line separating
- bar, and the numerator and denominator.
- denominator
-
-<exp> superscript, Exponential. Used in mathematical expressions.
- smaller
- font.
-
-<xlati> italic Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a
- definition or etymology. Used only twice.
-
-<tran> italic Word translated: the word in italic is translated
- by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies, where
- the word translated is not actually etymologically
- related to the headword. The translated word
- is not necessarily English.
-
-<tr> italic translation of the preceding word (or of the
- headword) into English.
-
-<fexp> * Functional expression (math). The function names are
- in plain type, the variables are italic.
-
-<iref> italic Illustration reference. Used ony occasionally, not
- yet (v. 0.41) consistently.
-
-<figref> italic Figure reference.
-
-<figcap> * Figure caption.
-
-<figtitle> * Figure title.
-
-<funct> * tags a mathematical function or expression.
-
-<chreact> * Chemical reaction. Similar to chemical formulas (which
- are contained but not explicitly marked), with
- some other symbols.
-
-<ptcl> italic Verb Particle. Only a few particles were actually
- marked, but in a future version more may be.
-
-<tabtitle> ? Table Title. Used only once.
-
-<title> italic Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical
- composition, etc. Used rarely but should be
- used in every case, except in <au> references.
-
-<root> * Square root -- differs from the entity <root/,
- which is a square root sign that does not extend
- beyond the number following it. The <root>
- field has a bar (vinvulum) over the expression
- within the field, as well as the square root symbol
- preceding the expression in the field. Used only
- once.
-
-<vinc> * Vinculum. In a mathematical expression, a bar
- extending over the expression within the field.
- Used only once. This apparently serves the same
- function as a parentheses, of causing the
- expression within the field to be evaluated
- and the result used as the (mathematical) value
- of the field.
-
-<nul> plain Nultype. An older version of <plain>.
-
-<cd2> * Second collocation definition. Somewhat similar to
- <def2>. Purely a mark to reduce functional ambiguity,
- with no effect on the typography.
-
-<hypen> * Hypernym. Mark introduced for the World Wide Webster,
- when adding words from WordNet. In most cases, this
- tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for nouns and verbs).
- Where the <au> mark is PJC or includes a +PJC, the
- hypernym may not be the same as in WordNet. The words
- marked by this tag need to be bracketed in some way,
- but this is deferred until the definitions included
- with the hypernyms have been deleted, and other
- disambiguating marks substituted.
-
-<stype> italic Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which
- are conceptually subtypes of the headword.
-
-<styp> * Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which
- are conceptually subtypes of the headword, but
- with no *typographical* significance.
-
-<simto> * Similar-to. A semantic relational mark for
- closely related words which are not quite
- synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms. Introduced
- with WordNet data.
-
-<conseq> * Consequence. For adjectives, is an attribute which
- or is a consequence of possessing the headword attribute.
-<hascons> Introduced with WordNet data.
-
-<consof> * Consequence of. For adjectives, an attribute which
- implies the headword as a natural consequence.
-
-<part> italic Part. Marks a word designating something which is
- conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely used.
-
-<parts> italic Part, plural form. Same as <part>, but marks the
- name of the part in its plural form.
-
-<partof> * Marks a word designating something of which the headword
- is conceptually a part. Inverse of <part>.
- This is very broad, and may mean constituent or
- separable part.
- Rarely used.
-
-<contxt> * Context. Used only for introductions to definitions,
- giving the context of usage, which are not part
- of the definition proper, as:
- <contxt>when used of a person:</contxt>
-
-<grp> * Marks the name of a group of people not formally
- organized.
-
-<membof> italic marks a group of which the headword is a member.
- This is rarely used, but should be indexed as
- an entry word or phrase.
-
-<member> italic marks a member of a group defined by the headword.
- This is rarely used, but should be indexed as
- an entry word or phrase.
-
-<members> italic Same as <member>, but marks a plural word,
- designating the name of the members in its plural form,
- for lack of ambiguity.
-
-<method> * Designates a special type of definition which
- describes a method for achieving the headword,
-
- used only once for the word "amend". The
- subdefinitions begin with "by".
-
-<corpn> * Name of a business company, corporation, or partnership.
- Started using November 1988. Rare.
-
-<corr> italic Correlative. A word intimately associated with the
- headword in a manner such that one cannot
- appear without the other. NOt exactly an inverse.
-
-<qperson> italic marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue.
- Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45.
-
-<org> * marks the name of an organization; sometimes used
- for the names of groups of people not
- formally organized *see also <grp>.
-
-<prod> italic produces. Designates a substance produced by
- a living organism. Rarely used.
-
-<prodp> * produces (plainfont). Designates a substance
- produced by a living organism. Same as <prod>,
- but does not affect font. Rarely used.
-
-<prodby> * produced by. Designates a living organism which
- produces the headword substance. Rarely used.
-
-<prodmac> italic produces. Designates an object or substance produced
- by a machine or process. Rarely used.
-
-<stage> italic life stage of an organism. Used to indicate
- variant forms of an organism defined by the
- headword. Rarely used.
-
-<stageof> * an organism one of whose life stages is the headword.
- Inverse (correlative) of <stage>. Rarely used.
-
-<inv> italic inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository
- is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse of
- seller. Called "correlative" in the Webster 1913 and
- the CIDE. Rarely used.
-
-<methodfor> italic is a method to accomplish the action defined by
- the headword. Rarely used, and only in the
- supplemental section.
-
-<examp> italic example or instance of the headword, where the
- tagged and emphasized word is not a proper subtype.
---------------------------------------
-<p><hw>Pa*ron"y*mous</hw> <p><sn>2.</sn> <def>Having a similar sound, but different orthography and different meaning; -- said of certain words, as <examp>all</examp> and <examp>awl</examp>; <examp>hair</examp> and <examp>hare</examp>, etc.</def><br/
-[<source>1913 Webster</source>]</p>
--------------------------------------
-
-<sfield> * subfield of the headword, which must be a field
- of study or of knowledge
-<stage> italic a stage of life of the headword -- for living things,
- such as insects, whose life stages may take different
- names.
-
-<unit> italic a unit of measure, usually preceded by a number.
- Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is the
- headword.
-
-<uses> italic tags a tool or method used by the headword,
- which is usually some process.
-
-<usedfor> * tags a method or process for which the headword
- is a tool.
-
-<usedby> italic tags a tool or method which uses the headword,
- which is usually a physical object.
-
-<perf> italic performs -- tags a word which is a process or
- activity performed by the headword.
-
-<recipr> italic reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged word
- is a reciprocal participant in an action, such as
- donor and recipient. The difference between this and
- <inv> inverse has not yet been systematically settled.
- Used seldom, and mostly in the supplemented version.
-
-<sig> italic significance, meaning -- used in definitions where the
- actual meaning is prefixed with commentary explaining
- usage or other attributes of the word, as with
- prefixes or suffixes.
-
-<wns> italic WordNet sense. Where known, the correspondence of the
- sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6 is
- given after the definition, in a tag of the
- form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number
- is the numbered sense in WordNet.
-
-<w16ns> italic WordNet version 1.6 sense. See <wns> for
- explanation.
-<wnote> * A note related to usage in the corresponding
- WordNet definition.
- =============================================================
-Biological classifications:
----------------------------
-<spn> italic Species name. Used to mark the taxonomic names
- of living things which are represented in
- italic font in the original printed version.
- Originally, not only species, but genera, orders and
- families were also thus marked. The conversion from
- <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord> is not completed, and
- <spn> may stil be found marking such groups.
- However, orders and families are also frequently
- mentioned in the original in normal font, and in such
- cases are not marked with any tag. So, this mark
- is not a reliable indicator of all mentions of
- taxonomic names.
-<kingdom> italic Taxonomic biological Kingdom name.
-<phylum> italic Taxonomic phylum name.
-<subphylum> italic Taxonomic subphylum name.
-<class> italic Taxonomic class name.
-<subclass> italic Taxonomic subclass name.
-<ord> italic Taxonomic order name.
- Also used for suborders, initially.
-<subord> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
-<suborder> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
-<fam> italic Taxonomic family name. Also used to tag "tribes".
-<subfam> italic Taxonomic subfamily name.
-<gen> italic Taxonomic genus name.
-<var> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below
- the level of species in living organism systematic
- names.
-
-<varn> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below
- the level of species in living organism systematic
- names. Duplicative variant of <var>
-
-
+<mathex> italic Mathematical expression. In this dictionary,
+ essentially all letters (used as variable labels)
+ in math expressions are in italic font. The "+"
+ and "-" may also appear typographically different
+ from elsewhere in the dictionary.
+
+<ratio> italic Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and
+ double colon may have a different typography than
+ usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio>
+
+<singf> italic Singular form. Analogous to <pluf>, to define the
+ singular word where the headword is the plural
+ form. ** only modifies the word "sing."
+
+<mord> * Morphological derivation. Used to mark the
+ entry-reference portions of those entries which
+ are defined as morphological derivatives (plural,
+ p. p., imp.) of other headwords. Used just as an
+ attempt to mark and regularize the entry format.
+ May be ignored typographically.
+
+<fract> a stack, Fraction. Used for non-numerical fractions which
+ with cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style entity.
+ numerator, The forward slash "/" is to be interpreted as a
+ horizontal horizontal line separating the numerator and
+ bar, and denominator.
+ denominator
+
+<exp> superscript, Exponential. Used in mathematical expressions.
+ smaller font.
+
+<xlati> italic Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a
+ definition or etymology. Used only twice.
+
+<tran> italic Word translated: the word in italic is translated
+ by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies,
+ where the word translated is not actually
+ etymologically related to the headword. The
+ translated word is not necessarily English.
+
+<tr> italic Translation of the preceding word (or of the
+ headword) into English.
+
+<fexp> * Functional expression (math). The function names
+ are in plain type, the variables are italic.
+
+<iref> italic Illustration reference. Used ony occasionally,
+ not yet (v. 0.41) consistently.
+
+<figref> italic Figure reference.
+
+<figcap> * Figure caption.
+
+<figtitle> * Figure title.
+
+<funct> * Tags a mathematical function or expression.
+
+<chreact> * Chemical reaction. Similar to chemical formulas
+ (which are contained but not explicitly marked),
+ with some other symbols.
+
+<ptcl> italic Verb Particle. Only a few particles were actually
+ marked, but in a future version more may be.
+
+<tabtitle> Table Title. Used only once.
+
+<title> italic Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical
+ composition, etc. Used rarely but should be used
+ in every case, except in <au> references.
+
+<root> * Square root -- differs from the entity <root/,
+ which is a square root sign that does not extend
+ beyond the number following it. The <root> field
+ has a bar (vinculum) over the expression within
+ the field, as well as the square root symbol
+ preceding the expression in the field. Used only
+ once.
+
+<vinc> * Vinculum. In a mathematical expression, a bar
+ extending over the expression within the field.
+ Used only once. This apparently serves the same
+ function as a parentheses, of causing the
+ expression within the field to be evaluated and
+ the result used as the (mathematical) value of
+ the field.
+
+<nul> plain Nultype. An older version of <plain>.
+
+<cd2> * Second collocation definition. Somewhat similar
+ to <def2>. Purely a mark to reduce functional
+ ambiguity, with no effect on the typography.
+
+<hypen> * Hypernym. Mark introduced for the World Wide
+ Webster, when adding words from WordNet. In most
+ cases, this tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for
+ nouns and verbs). Where the <au> mark is PJC or
+ includes a +PJC, the hypernym may not be the same
+ as in WordNet. The words marked by this tag need
+ to be bracketed in some way, but this is deferred
+ until the definitions included with the hypernyms
+ have been deleted, and other disambiguating marks
+ substituted.
+
+<stype> italic Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which
+ are conceptually subtypes of the styp.
+
+<headword> * Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words
+ which are conceptually subtypes of the headword,
+ but with no *typographical* significance.
+
+<simto> * Similar-to. A semantic relational mark for
+ closely related words which are not quite
+ synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms.
+ Introduced with WordNet data.
+
+<conseq> * Consequence. For adjectives, is an attribute
+or which is a consequence of possessing the headword
+<hascons> attribute. Introduced with WordNet data.
+
+<consof> * Consequence of. For adjectives, an attribute
+ which implies the headword as a natural
+ consequence.
+
+<part> italic Part. Marks a word designating something which
+ is conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely
+ used.
+
+<parts> italic Part, plural form. Same as <part>, but marks the
+ name of the part in its plural form.
+
+<partof> * Marks a word designating something of which the
+ headword is conceptually a part. Inverse of
+ <part>. This is very broad, and may mean
+ constituent or separable part. Rarely used.
+
+<contxt> * Context. Used only for introductions to
+ definitions, giving the context of usage, which
+ are not part of the definition proper, as:
+ <contxt>when used of a person:</contxt>
+
+<grp> * Marks the name of a group of people not formally
+ organized.
+
+<membof> italic Marks a group of which the headword is a member.
+ This is rarely used, but should be indexed as an
+ entry word or phrase.
+
+<member> italic Marks a member of a group defined by the
+ headword. This is rarely used, but should be
+ indexed as an entry word or phrase.
+
+<members> italic Same as <member>, but marks a plural word,
+ designating the name of the members in its plural
+ form, for lack of ambiguity.
+
+<method> * Designates a special type of definition which
+ describes a method for achieving the headword,
+ used only once for the word "amend". The
+ subdefinitions begin with "by".
+
+<corpn> * Name of a business company, corporation, or
+ partnership. Started using November 1988. Rare.
+
+<corr> italic Correlative. A word intimately associated with
+ the headword in a manner such that one cannot
+ appear without the other. Not exactly an
+ inverse.
+
+<qperson> italic Marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue.
+ Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45.
+
+<org> * Marks the name of an organization; sometimes used
+ for the names of groups of people not formally
+ organized; see also <grp>.
+
+<prod> italic produces. Designates a substance produced by a
+ living organism. Rarely used.
+
+<prodp> * produces (plainfont). Designates a substance
+ produced by a living organism. Same as <prod>,
+ but does not affect font. Rarely used.
+
+<prodby> * produced by. Designates a living organism which
+ produces the headword substance. Rarely used.
+
+<prodmac> italic produces. Designates an object or substance
+ produced by a machine or process. Rarely used.
+
+<stage> italic life stage of an organism. Used to indicate
+ variant forms of an organism defined by the
+ headword. Rarely used.
+
+<stageof> * An organism one of whose life stages is the
+ headword. Inverse (correlative) of
+ <stage>. Rarely used.
+
+<inv> italic Inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository
+ is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse
+ of seller. Called "correlative" in the Webster
+ 1913 and the CIDE. Rarely used.
+
+<methodfor> italic Is a method to accomplish the action defined by
+ the headword. Rarely used, and only in the
+ supplemental section.
+
+<examp> italic Example or instance of the headword, where the
+ tagged and emphasized word is not a proper
+ subtype.
+
+<sfield> * Subfield of the headword, which must be a field
+ of study or of knowledge.
+
+<stage> italic A stage of life of the headword -- for living
+ things, such as insects, whose life stages may
+ take different names.
+
+<unit> italic A unit of measure, usually preceded by a number.
+ Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is
+ the headword.
+
+<uses> italic Tags a tool or method used by the headword, which
+ is usually some process.
+
+<usedfor> * Tags a method or process for which the headword
+ is a tool.
+
+<usedby> italic Tags a tool or method which uses the headword,
+ which is usually a physical object.
+
+<perf> italic performs -- tags a word which is a process or
+ activity performed by the headword.
+
+<recipr> italic reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged
+ word is a reciprocal participant in an action,
+ such as donor and recipient. The difference
+ between this and <inv> inverse has not yet been
+ systematically settled. Used seldom, and mostly
+ in the supplemented version.
+
+<sig> italic significance, meaning -- used in definitions
+ where the actual meaning is prefixed with
+ commentary explaining usage or other attributes
+ of the word, as with prefixes or suffixes.
+
+<wns> italic WordNet sense. Where known, the correspondence
+ of the sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6
+ is given after the definition, in a tag of the
+ form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number is
+ the numbered sense in WordNet.
+
+<w16ns> italic WordNet version 1.6 sense. See <wns> for
+ explanation.
+<wnote> * A note related to usage in the corresponding
+ WordNet definition.
+
+* Biological classifications
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Tag Font Meaning and Description
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+<spn> italic Species name. Used to mark the taxonomic names
+ of living things which are represented in italic
+ font in the original printed version.
+ Originally, not only species, but genera, orders
+ and families were also thus marked. The
+ conversion from <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord>
+ is not completed, and <spn> may stil be found
+ marking such groups. However, orders and
+ families are also frequently mentioned in the
+ original in normal font, and in such cases are
+ not marked with any tag. So, this mark is not a
+ reliable indicator of all mentions of taxonomic
+ names.
+<kingdom> italic Taxonomic biological Kingdom name.
+<phylum> italic Taxonomic phylum name.
+<subphylum> italic Taxonomic subphylum name.
+<class> italic Taxonomic class name.
+<subclass> italic Taxonomic subclass name.
+<ord> italic Taxonomic order name. Also used for suborders,
+ initially.
+<subord> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
+<suborder> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
+<fam> italic Taxonomic family name. Also used to tag "tribes".
+<subfam> italic Taxonomic subfamily name.
+<gen> italic Taxonomic genus name.
+<var> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities
+ below the level of species in living organism
+ systematic names.
+
+<varn> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities
+ below the level of species in living organism
+ systematic names. Duplicative variant of <var>.
+
+
+
+Local Variables:
+mode: Outline
+coding: utf-8
+fill-column: 76
+End:

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