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authorSergey Poznyakoff <gray@gnu.org.ua>2012-01-29 22:25:18 (GMT)
committer Sergey Poznyakoff <gray@gnu.org.ua>2012-01-29 22:25:18 (GMT)
commit96d405c0c71882883e63a2fb19baa8d4017a698f (patch) (unidiff)
tree3b0ed7d61b1d04747c03622cea63eaeaf11e8ee7
parentf942c67a2d47f609962f43182f60028f72673726 (diff)
downloadgcide-96d405c0c71882883e63a2fb19baa8d4017a698f.tar.gz
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@@ -1,340 +1,340 @@
1 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE 1 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
2 Version 2, June 1991 2 Version 2, June 1991
3 3
4 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 4 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
5 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 5 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
6 617-542-5942 6 617-542-5942
7 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies 7 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
8 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 8 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
9 9
10 Preamble 10 Preamble
11 11
12 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your 12 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
13freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public 13freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
14License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free 14License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
15software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This 15software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
16General Public License applies to most of the Free Software 16General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
17Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to 17Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
18using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by 18using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
19the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to 19the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
20your programs, too. 20your programs, too.
21 21
22 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not 22 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
23price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you 23price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
24have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for 24have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
25this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it 25this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
26if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it 26if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
27in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things. 27in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
28 28
29 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid 29 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
30anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. 30anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
31These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you 31These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
32distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it. 32distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
33 33
34 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether 34 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
35gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that 35gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
36you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the 36you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
37source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their 37source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
38rights. 38rights.
39 39
40 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and 40 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
41(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, 41(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
42distribute and/or modify the software. 42distribute and/or modify the software.
43 43
44 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain 44 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
45that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free 45that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
46software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we 46software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
47want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so 47want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
48that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original 48that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
49authors' reputations. 49authors' reputations.
50 50
51 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software 51 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
52patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free 52patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
53program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the 53program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
54program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any 54program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
55patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. 55patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
56 56
57 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and 57 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
58modification follow. 58modification follow.
59 59
60 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE 60 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
61 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 61 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
62 62
63 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains 63 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
64a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed 64a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
65under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, 65under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
66refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" 66refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
67means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: 67means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
68that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, 68that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
69either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another 69either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
70language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in 70language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
71the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you". 71the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
72 72
73Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not 73Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
74covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of 74covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
75running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program 75running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
76is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the 76is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
77Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). 77Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
78Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. 78Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
79 79
80 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's 80 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
81source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you 81source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
82conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate 82conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
83copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the 83copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
84notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; 84notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
85and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License 85and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
86along with the Program. 86along with the Program.
87 87
88You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and 88You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
89you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. 89you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
90 90
91 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion 91 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
92of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and 92of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
93distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 93distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
94above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: 94above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
95 95
96 a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices 96 a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
97 stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. 97 stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
98 98
99 b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in 99 b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
100 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any 100 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
101 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third 101 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
102 parties under the terms of this License. 102 parties under the terms of this License.
103 103
104 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively 104 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
105 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such 105 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
106 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an 106 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
107 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a 107 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
108 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide 108 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
109 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under 109 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
110 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this 110 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
111 License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but 111 License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
112 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on 112 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
113 the Program is not required to print an announcement.) 113 the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
114 114
115These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If 115These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
116identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, 116identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
117and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in 117and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
118themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those 118themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
119sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you 119sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
120distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based 120distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
121on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of 121on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
122this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the 122this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
123entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. 123entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
124 124
125Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest 125Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
126your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to 126your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
127exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or 127exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
128collective works based on the Program. 128collective works based on the Program.
129 129
130In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program 130In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
131with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of 131with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
132a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under 132a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
133the scope of this License. 133the scope of this License.
134 134
135 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, 135 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
136under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of 136under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
137Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: 137Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
138 138
139 a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable 139 a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
140 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 140 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
141 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or, 141 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
142 142
143 b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three 143 b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
144 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your 144 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
145 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete 145 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
146 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be 146 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
147 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium 147 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
148 customarily used for software interchange; or, 148 customarily used for software interchange; or,
149 149
150 c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer 150 c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
151 to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is 151 to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
152 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you 152 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
153 received the program in object code or executable form with such 153 received the program in object code or executable form with such
154 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.) 154 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
155 155
156The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for 156The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
157making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source 157making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
158code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any 158code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
159associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to 159associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
160control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a 160control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
161special exception, the source code distributed need not include 161special exception, the source code distributed need not include
162anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary 162anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
163form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the 163form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
164operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component 164operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
165itself accompanies the executable. 165itself accompanies the executable.
166 166
167If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering 167If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
168access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent 168access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
169access to copy the source code from the same place counts as 169access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
170distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not 170distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
171compelled to copy the source along with the object code. 171compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
172 172
173 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program 173 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
174except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt 174except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
175otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is 175otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
176void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. 176void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
177However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under 177However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
178this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such 178this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
179parties remain in full compliance. 179parties remain in full compliance.
180 180
181 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not 181 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
182signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or 182signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
183distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are 183distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
184prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by 184prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
185modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the 185modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
186Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and 186Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
187all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying 187all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
188the Program or works based on it. 188the Program or works based on it.
189 189
190 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the 190 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
191Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the 191Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
192original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to 192original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
193these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further 193these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
194restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. 194restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
195You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to 195You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
196this License. 196this License.
197 197
198 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent 198 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
199infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), 199infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
200conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or 200conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
201otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not 201otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
202excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot 202excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
203distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this 203distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
204License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you 204License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
205may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent 205may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
206license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by 206license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
207all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then 207all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
208the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to 208the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
209refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. 209refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
210 210
211If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under 211If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
212any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to 212any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
213apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other 213apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
214circumstances. 214circumstances.
215 215
216It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any 216It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
217patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any 217patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
218such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the 218such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
219integrity of the free software distribution system, which is 219integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
220implemented by public license practices. Many people have made 220implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
221generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed 221generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
222through that system in reliance on consistent application of that 222through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
223system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing 223system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
224to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot 224to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
225impose that choice. 225impose that choice.
226 226
227This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to 227This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
228be a consequence of the rest of this License. 228be a consequence of the rest of this License.
229 229
230 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in 230 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
231certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the 231certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
232original copyright holder who places the Program under this License 232original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
233may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding 233may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
234those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among 234those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
235countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates 235countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
236the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 236the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
237 237
238 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions 238 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
239of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will 239of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
240be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to 240be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
241address new problems or concerns. 241address new problems or concerns.
242 242
243Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program 243Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
244specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any 244specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
245later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions 245later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
246either of that version or of any later version published by the Free 246either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
247Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of 247Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
248this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software 248this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
249Foundation. 249Foundation.
250 250
251 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free 251 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
252programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author 252programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
253to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free 253to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
254Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes 254Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
255make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals 255make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
256of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and 256of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
257of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. 257of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
258 258
259 NO WARRANTY 259 NO WARRANTY
260 260
261 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY 261 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
262FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN 262FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
263OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES 263OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
264PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED 264PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
265OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF 265OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
266MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS 266MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
267TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE 267TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
268PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, 268PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
269REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 269REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
270 270
271 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING 271 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
272WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR 272WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
273REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, 273REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
274INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING 274INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
275OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED 275OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
276TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY 276TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
277YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER 277YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
278PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE 278PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
279POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 279POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
280 280
281 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS 281 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
282 282
283 Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs 283 Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
284 284
285 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest 285 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
286possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it 286possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
287free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. 287free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
288 288
289 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest 289 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
290to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively 290to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
291convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least 291convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
292the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. 292the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
293 293
294 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.> 294 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
295 Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author> 295 Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
296 296
297 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify 297 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
298 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by 298 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
299 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or 299 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
300 (at your option) any later version. 300 (at your option) any later version.
301 301
302 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, 302 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
303 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of 303 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
304 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the 304 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
305 GNU General Public License for more details. 305 GNU General Public License for more details.
306 306
307 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License 307 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
308 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software 308 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
309 Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. 309 Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
310 310
311Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. 311Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
312 312
313If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this 313If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
314when it starts in an interactive mode: 314when it starts in an interactive mode:
315 315
316 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author 316 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
317 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. 317 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
318 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it 318 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
319 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details. 319 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
320 320
321The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate 321The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
322parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may 322parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
323be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be 323be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
324mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. 324mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
325 325
326You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your 326You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
327school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if 327school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
328necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names: 328necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
329 329
330 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program 330 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
331 `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. 331 `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
332 332
333 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989 333 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
334 Ty Coon, President of Vice 334 Ty Coon, President of Vice
335 335
336This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into 336This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
337proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may 337proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
338consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the 338consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
339library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General 339library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
340Public License instead of this License. 340Public License instead of this License.
diff --git a/GNUCIDE.DIR b/GNUCIDE.DIR
deleted file mode 100644
index cc416a7..0000000
--- a/GNUCIDE.DIR
+++ b/dev/null
@@ -1,36 +0,0 @@
1CIDE A 3,680,387 04-10-02 9:29a CIDE.A
2CIDE B 3,154,243 04-10-02 9:32a CIDE.B
3CIDE C 5,525,332 04-10-02 9:33a CIDE.C
4CIDE D 3,370,374 04-10-02 9:35a cide.d
5CIDE E 2,289,630 01-17-02 10:58p CIDE.E
6CIDE F 2,453,360 01-17-02 11:00p CIDE.F
7CIDE G 1,795,200 04-10-02 9:37a CIDE.G
8CIDE H 2,086,911 01-17-02 11:04p CIDE.H
9CIDE I 2,390,954 01-17-02 11:06p CIDE.I
10CIDE J 497,623 01-17-02 11:07p CIDE.J
11CIDE K 460,759 01-17-02 11:08p CIDE.K
12CIDE L 2,001,288 01-17-02 11:10p CIDE.L
13CIDE M 2,977,038 01-17-02 11:12p CIDE.M
14CIDE N 1,054,928 01-17-02 11:16p CIDE.N
15CIDE O 1,404,418 01-17-02 11:18p CIDE.O
16CIDE P 4,645,196 04-10-02 9:41a CIDE.P
17CIDE Q 312,451 04-10-02 9:43a CIDE.Q
18CIDE R 2,673,840 01-17-02 11:25p CIDE.R
19CIDE S 6,331,172 04-10-02 9:46a CIDE.S
20CIDE T 2,985,967 01-17-02 11:30p CIDE.T
21CIDE U 963,375 01-17-02 11:32p CIDE.U
22CIDE V 962,468 01-17-02 11:33p CIDE.V
23CIDE W 1,569,184 01-17-02 11:35p CIDE.W
24CIDE X 48,494 01-17-02 11:36p CIDE.X
25CIDE Y 182,838 01-17-02 11:38p CIDE.Y
26CIDE Z 134,301 01-17-02 11:41p CIDE.Z
27README DIC 13,775 01-17-02 11:55p readme.dic
28GNUCIDE DIR 1,899 04-10-02 9:58a GNUCIDE.DIR
29PRONUNC JPG 2,569,796 06-18-00 3:11p PRONUNC.JPG
30PRONUNC WEB 14,312 06-18-00 3:02p PRONUNC.WEB
31SYMBOLS JPG 144,716 06-18-00 3:13p SYMBOLS.JPG
32TAGSET WEB 55,843 08-16-01 1:16p TAGSET.WEB
33WEBFONT ASC 35,234 12-12-01 3:27p WEBFONT.ASC
34WXXVII JPG 1,188,380 06-18-00 3:19p WXXVII.JPG
35COPYING 18,361 02-11-02 4:02p COPYING
36 35 file(s) 59,994,047 bytes
diff --git a/PRONUNC.WEB b/PRONUNC.WEB
index 39ed073..325f8ce 100644
--- a/PRONUNC.WEB
+++ b/PRONUNC.WEB
@@ -1,318 +1,318 @@
1file PRONUNC.WEB 1file PRONUNC.WEB
2================ 2================
3 This file gives a number of examples of pronunciation, 3 This file gives a number of examples of pronunciation,
4using the entity symbols representing the pronunciations as 4using the entity symbols representing the pronunciations as
5found in the 1913 Webster unabridged dictionary. Not all 5found in the 1913 Webster unabridged dictionary. Not all
6vowel sounds are given here, but the examples should allow one 6vowel sounds are given here, but the examples should allow one
7to recognize the characters and recall the symbols used to 7to recognize the characters and recall the symbols used to
8represent them. The set of symbols used for pronunciation 8represent them. The set of symbols used for pronunciation
9is different from that used in most modern dictionaries, 9is different from that used in most modern dictionaries,
10but a more worrisome problem is that the pronuncitions themselves 10but a more worrisome problem is that the pronuncitions themselves
11seem in many cases to differ from modern usage. The places of 11seem in many cases to differ from modern usage. The places of
12the strong and weak accent are, however, in every case 12the strong and weak accent are, however, in every case
13examined the same as in modern dictionaries. Anyone who is 13examined the same as in modern dictionaries. Anyone who is
14willing to work at revising the pronunciations to reflect modern 14willing to work at revising the pronunciations to reflect modern
15usage or modern symbols should contact PJC. 15usage or modern symbols should contact PJC.
16 16
17 17
18 Pronunciations in the 1913 Webster ASCII version 18 Pronunciations in the 1913 Webster ASCII version
19 ================================================= 19 =================================================
20 20
21Syllables: 21Syllables:
22---------------- 22----------------
23 in pronunciations, the short hyphen used in the printed version as a 23 in pronunciations, the short hyphen used in the printed version as a
24syllable-break is represented in the ASCII version by an asterisk (*). 24syllable-break is represented in the ASCII version by an asterisk (*).
25 the main (heavy) accent is represented by a double-quote ("). 25 the main (heavy) accent is represented by a double-quote (").
26 the secondary (light) accent is represented by a left-single-quote 26 the secondary (light) accent is represented by a left-single-quote
27(grave accent) (`) 27(grave accent) (`)
28 the hyphen in hyphenated words is represented by the ASCII hypen (-). 28 the hyphen in hyphenated words is represented by the ASCII hypen (-).
29 where an accent occurs, no other syllable break is used. 29 where an accent occurs, no other syllable break is used.
30 sometimes a hyphen occurs after an accent. 30 sometimes a hyphen occurs after an accent.
31 ------------------------------------------------ 31 ------------------------------------------------
32 32
33Consonants: 33Consonants:
34 Most consonants have their normal value in the pronunciations, 34 Most consonants have their normal value in the pronunciations,
35but there are a few special characters, as the n-submacron and the 35but there are a few special characters, as the n-submacron and the
36"th" ligature. See the end of the "special characters" section. 36"th" ligature. See the end of the "special characters" section.
37 37
38Special characters: 38Special characters:
39-------------------- 39--------------------
40 The special characters are represented by two different sets of 40 The special characters are represented by two different sets of
41symbols: (1) the RTF-format hexadecimal codes such as \'94 for 41symbols: (1) the RTF-format hexadecimal codes such as \'94 for
42o-umlaut, meaning that the byte code is hexadecimal 94. These 42o-umlaut, meaning that the byte code is hexadecimal 94. These
43are used only for those symbols which have been designed into a 43are used only for those symbols which have been designed into a
44special font set for this dictionary. The font set can only be used 44special font set for this dictionary. The font set can only be used
45in a DOS system; or 45in a DOS system; or
46(2) an "entity" symbol using "<" and "/" as opening and closing 46(2) an "entity" symbol using "<" and "/" as opening and closing
47delimiters, with a mnemonic string between. In the case of o-umlaut 47delimiters, with a mnemonic string between. In the case of o-umlaut
48the symbol is <oum/. For the vowels, the system is consistent, 48the symbol is <oum/. For the vowels, the system is consistent,
49thus <aum/ is a-umlaut, and <ium/ is i-umlaut, etc. 49thus <aum/ is a-umlaut, and <ium/ is i-umlaut, etc.
50 These delimiters are used in preference to the HTML-style 50 These delimiters are used in preference to the HTML-style
51(e.g. &auml;) delimiters because of the heavy use of ampersands in 51(e.g. &auml;) delimiters because of the heavy use of ampersands in
52the dictionary, to minimize file length. For the same reason, 52the dictionary, to minimize file length. For the same reason,
53the codes within the delimiters are generally shorter than the 53the codes within the delimiters are generally shorter than the
54corresponding ISO 8879 codes ( <aum/ rather than &auml; ). 54corresponding ISO 8879 codes ( <aum/ rather than &auml; ).
55 For this discussion, I will use the "entity" coding. The 55 For this discussion, I will use the "entity" coding. The
56equivalent hexadecimal codes, where they exist, will be found in 56equivalent hexadecimal codes, where they exist, will be found in
57the tables in the file "webfont.asc". 57the tables in the file "webfont.asc".
58 58
59 The pronunciation system of the 1913 Webster has three peculiarities 59 The pronunciation system of the 1913 Webster has three peculiarities
60relative to systems used in recent dictionaries. 60relative to systems used in recent dictionaries.
61(1) a more complex set of symbols are used. This is evident, for 61(1) a more complex set of symbols are used. This is evident, for
62 example, where the long vowels have different symbols whether 62 example, where the long vowels have different symbols whether
63 they are used in stressed or unstressed syllables. Thus 63 they are used in stressed or unstressed syllables. Thus
64 long a in "acre" or "chaos"is represented as a-macron (<amac/ in 64 long a in "acre" or "chaos"is represented as a-macron (<amac/ in
65 our notation). But in "chaotic" or "connate" or "comate" it is 65 our notation). But in "chaotic" or "connate" or "comate" it is
66 represented as a symbol looking like a-macron, but with a short 66 represented as a symbol looking like a-macron, but with a short
67 ascender in the middle of the macron above the a. This is denoted 67 ascender in the middle of the macron above the a. This is denoted
68 <asl/ ("a semilong") in our notation. 68 <asl/ ("a semilong") in our notation.
69 69
70 Also, some sounds have more than one symbol. Thus, there are several 70 Also, some sounds have more than one symbol. Thus, there are several
71 symbols using "y" with a diacritical mark above, representing 71 symbols using "y" with a diacritical mark above, representing
72 identical sounds using "i" or "e", but used in those cases where the 72 identical sounds using "i" or "e", but used in those cases where the
73 written word has a "y" in it. So words ending in "y" with 73 written word has a "y" in it. So words ending in "y" with
74 pronunciations like the unaccented long "e" usually have 74 pronunciations like the unaccented long "e" usually have
75 a y-breve (<ycr/) in the pronunciation. Why? Apparently, 75 a y-breve (<ycr/) in the pronunciation. Why? Apparently,
76 just to look more like the spelling. In these cases its 76 just to look more like the spelling. In these cases its
77 meaning is unambuiguous. 77 meaning is unambuiguous.
78 78
79(2) The indicated pronunciations themselves are in some cases 79(2) The indicated pronunciations themselves are in some cases
80 different from what one would find in a modern dictionary. 80 different from what one would find in a modern dictionary.
81 In part this is due to differences among orthoepists with 81 In part this is due to differences among orthoepists with
82 different notions of how a word should sound, and possibly 82 different notions of how a word should sound, and possibly
83 it is due to differences in the pronunciation between 1890, 83 it is due to differences in the pronunciation between 1890,
84 when British pronunciations may have had more influence, and 84 when British pronunciations may have had more influence, and
85 the present. Thus we see that words ending in -"ties", 85 the present. Thus we see that words ending in -"ties",
86 which are given the pronunciation "-t<icr/z", which sounds 86 which are given the pronunciation "-t<icr/z", which sounds
87 like "tizz", whereas I have always heard such words pronounced 87 like "tizz", whereas I have always heard such words pronounced
88 with a long "e", as in "teez" (and most modern dictionaries 88 with a long "e", as in "teez" (and most modern dictionaries
89 give it the long-e pronunciation. In Webster's 10th collegiate, 89 give it the long-e pronunciation. In Webster's 10th collegiate,
90 they mention that unstressed long e may be pronounced as i in 90 they mention that unstressed long e may be pronounced as i in
91 southern British or southern US dialects, and perhaps it 91 southern British or southern US dialects, and perhaps it
92 was more common in the US in 1890. The <icr/ is an unreliable 92 was more common in the US in 1890. The <icr/ is an unreliable
93 indicator of modern standard American pronunciation. A long-e 93 indicator of modern standard American pronunciation. A long-e
94 pronunciation on the antepenult is also sometimes given an 94 pronunciation on the antepenult is also sometimes given an
95 <icr/ symbol in this dictionary. 95 <icr/ symbol in this dictionary.
96 96
97(3) The indefinite value, represented by an upside-down e (called 97(3) The indefinite value, represented by an upside-down e (called
98 the "schwa" is not used, the same sound being represented by 98 the "schwa" is not used, the same sound being represented by
99 symbols like short u <ucr/, or sometimes other vowels. 99 symbols like short u <ucr/, or sometimes other vowels.
100 100
101 So be warned, the pronunciations may not be quite what one would 101 So be warned, the pronunciations may not be quite what one would
102 expect. But for the first phase of this effort, we are trying 102 expect. But for the first phase of this effort, we are trying
103 to reproduce exactly the pronuciations in the original work. 103 to reproduce exactly the pronuciations in the original work.
104 104
105 Notice that in pronunciations, vowels that are obscured are often 105 Notice that in pronunciations, vowels that are obscured are often
106 represented by the italicised vowel without any diacritical marks; 106 represented by the italicised vowel without any diacritical marks;
107 these italicised vowels are represented as either <ait/, <eit/, etc. 107 these italicised vowels are represented as either <ait/, <eit/, etc.
108 or with an <it> tag, as in m<it>e</it>nt 108 or with an <it> tag, as in m<it>e</it>nt
109 Thus "Christian" is represented as kr<icr/s"ch<it>a</it>n 109 Thus "Christian" is represented as kr<icr/s"ch<it>a</it>n
110 communicant is represented as k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt 110 communicant is represented as k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt
111 111
112 112
113 Some examples of pronunciations follow: 113 Some examples of pronunciations follow:
114 for further explanations of the entities, see the file "webfont.asc" 114 for further explanations of the entities, see the file "webfont.asc"
115 ============================================================== 115 ==============================================================
116 116
117 <amac/ long a (stressed) (a with a macron above it) 117 <amac/ long a (stressed) (a with a macron above it)
118 late = l<amac/t 118 late = l<amac/t
119 later = l<amac/t"<etil/r 119 later = l<amac/t"<etil/r
120 comb-shaped = k<omac/m"-sh<amac/pt` 120 comb-shaped = k<omac/m"-sh<amac/pt`
121 commemorate = k<ocr/m*m<ecr/m"<osl/*r<amac/t 121 commemorate = k<ocr/m*m<ecr/m"<osl/*r<amac/t
122 deign = d<amac/n 122 deign = d<amac/n
123 deflate = d<esl/*fl<amac/t" 123 deflate = d<esl/*fl<amac/t"
124 defray = d<esl/*fr<amac/" 124 defray = d<esl/*fr<amac/"
125 defrayal = d<esl/*fr<amac/"<ait/l 125 defrayal = d<esl/*fr<amac/"<ait/l
126 126
127 127
128 <asl/ long a (unstressed) 128 <asl/ long a (unstressed)
129 commodate = k<ocr/m"m<osl/*d<asl/t 129 commodate = k<ocr/m"m<osl/*d<asl/t
130 cometary = k<ocr/m"<ecr/t*<asl/*r<ycr/ 130 cometary = k<ocr/m"<ecr/t*<asl/*r<ycr/
131 131
132 <ait/ italic a 132 <ait/ italic a
133 communicant = k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt 133 communicant = k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt
134 defeasance = d<esl/*f<emac/"z<ait/ns 134 defeasance = d<esl/*f<emac/"z<ait/ns
135 commercial = k<ocr/m*m<etil/r"sh<ait/l 135 commercial = k<ocr/m*m<etil/r"sh<ait/l
136 compass = k<ucr/m"p<ait/s 136 compass = k<ucr/m"p<ait/s
137 137
138 <acr/ short a (a with a crescent [breve] above it) 138 <acr/ short a (a with a crescent [breve] above it)
139 adipose = <acr/d"<icr/*p<omac/s 139 adipose = <acr/d"<icr/*p<omac/s
140 absolve = <acr/b*s<ocr/lv" 140 absolve = <acr/b*s<ocr/lv"
141 land = l<acr/nd 141 land = l<acr/nd
142 lamp = l<acr/mp 142 lamp = l<acr/mp
143 143
144 <adot/ short a (a with a dot above it) 144 <adot/ short a (a with a dot above it)
145 again = <adot/*g<ecr/n" 145 again = <adot/*g<ecr/n"
146 carouse = k<adot/*rouz" 146 carouse = k<adot/*rouz"
147 coma = k<omac/"m<adot/ 147 coma = k<omac/"m<adot/
148 comma = k<ocr/m"m<adot/ | *These sound different 148 comma = k<ocr/m"m<adot/ | *These sound different
149 command = k<ocr/m*m<adot/nd" | to me 149 command = k<ocr/m*m<adot/nd" | to me
150 mass = m<adot/s 150 mass = m<adot/s
151 mash = m<adot/sh 151 mash = m<adot/sh
152 mat = m<adot/t 152 mat = m<adot/t
153 153
154 <acir/ a-circumflex ("only in syllables closed by r") 154 <acir/ a-circumflex ("only in syllables closed by r")
155 care = k<acir/r 155 care = k<acir/r
156 chair = ch<acir/r 156 chair = ch<acir/r
157 share = sh<acir/r 157 share = sh<acir/r
158 compare = k<ocr/m*p<acir/r" 158 compare = k<ocr/m*p<acir/r"
159 159
160 <aum/ a-umlaut (in pronunciations not the same as in words) 160 <aum/ a-umlaut (in pronunciations not the same as in words)
161 arsenic = <aum/r"s<esl/*n<icr/k 161 arsenic = <aum/r"s<esl/*n<icr/k
162 arson = <aum/r"s'n 162 arson = <aum/r"s'n
163 arm = <aum/rm 163 arm = <aum/rm
164 carp = k<aum/rp 164 carp = k<aum/rp
165 far = f<aum/r 165 far = f<aum/r
166 mar = m<aum/r 166 mar = m<aum/r
167 compart = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt" 167 compart = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"
168 compartment = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"m<eit/nt 168 compartment = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"m<eit/nt
169 169
170 <add/ a double dot ( with a double dot *below*) 170 <add/ a double dot ( with a double dot *below*)
171 all = <add/l 171 all = <add/l
172 talk = t<add/k 172 talk = t<add/k
173 swarm = sw<add/rm [not aum??] 173 swarm = sw<add/rm [not aum??]
174 water = w<add/"t<etil/r 174 water = w<add/"t<etil/r
175 default = d<esl/*f<add/lt" 175 default = d<esl/*f<add/lt"
176 defraud = d<esl/*fr<add/d" 176 defraud = d<esl/*fr<add/d"
177 deerstalker = d<emac/r"st<add/k`<etil/r 177 deerstalker = d<emac/r"st<add/k`<etil/r
178 178
179 179
180 <ecr/ short e (e with a crescent [breve] above it) 180 <ecr/ short e (e with a crescent [breve] above it)
181 degenerate = d<esl/*j<ecr/n"<etil/r*<amac/t 181 degenerate = d<esl/*j<ecr/n"<etil/r*<amac/t
182 delve = d<ecr/lv 182 delve = d<ecr/lv
183 end = <ecr/nd 183 end = <ecr/nd
184 pet = p<ecr/t 184 pet = p<ecr/t
185 ten = t<ecr/n 185 ten = t<ecr/n
186 186
187 <esl/ long e (unstressed) 187 <esl/ long e (unstressed)
188 committee = k<ocr/m*m<icr/t"t<esl/ 188 committee = k<ocr/m*m<icr/t"t<esl/
189 defame = d<esl/*f<amac/m" 189 defame = d<esl/*f<amac/m"
190 define = d<esl/*f<imac/n" 190 define = d<esl/*f<imac/n"
191 comedy = k<ocr/m"<esl/*d<ycr/ 191 comedy = k<ocr/m"<esl/*d<ycr/
192 192
193 <eit/ e italic 193 <eit/ e italic
194 compartment = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"m<eit/nt 194 compartment = k<ocr/m*p<aum/rt"m<eit/nt
195 -ment = -"m<eit/nt (for most -ment endings) 195 -ment = -"m<eit/nt (for most -ment endings)
196 196
197 <emac/ e macron (long e, stressed) 197 <emac/ e macron (long e, stressed)
198 compeer = k<ocr/m*p<emac/r" 198 compeer = k<ocr/m*p<emac/r"
199 deer = d<emac/r" 199 deer = d<emac/r"
200 200
201 <etil/ e-tilde 201 <etil/ e-tilde
202 (representing the e before r in many words) 202 (representing the e before r in many words)
203 (for the same sound in -ur words, <ucir/ is used!) 203 (for the same sound in -ur words, <ucir/ is used!)
204 fern = f<etil/rn 204 fern = f<etil/rn
205 commercial = k<ocr/m*m<etil/r"sh<ait/l 205 commercial = k<ocr/m*m<etil/r"sh<ait/l
206 commerce = k<ocr/m"m<etil/rs 206 commerce = k<ocr/m"m<etil/rs
207 207
208 <icr/ short i (i with a crescent [breve] above it) 208 <icr/ short i (i with a crescent [breve] above it)
209 Note: In most cases, this is used where the 209 Note: In most cases, this is used where the
210 short i sound of "lip" is intended, but it is 210 short i sound of "lip" is intended, but it is
211 also used in the middle of words where Americans 211 also used in the middle of words where Americans
212 use an unstressed long "e" sound, (as the 212 use an unstressed long "e" sound, (as the
213 "i" in "serial" and "serious")!? 213 "i" in "serial" and "serious")!?
214 and also in words ending in "ies", 214 and also in words ending in "ies",
215 coded as "<icr/z" (as in liberties) 215 coded as "<icr/z" (as in liberties)
216 lip = l<icr/p 216 lip = l<icr/p
217 pin = p<icr/n 217 pin = p<icr/n
218 commission = k<ocr/m*m<icr/sh"<ucr/n 218 commission = k<ocr/m*m<icr/sh"<ucr/n
219 committal = k<ocr/m*m<icr/t"t<ait/l 219 committal = k<ocr/m*m<icr/t"t<ait/l
220 *serial = s<emac/"r<icr/*<ait/l 220 *serial = s<emac/"r<icr/*<ait/l
221 *serious = s<emac/"r<icr/*<ucr/s 221 *serious = s<emac/"r<icr/*<ucr/s
222 liberty = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<ycr/ 222 liberty = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<ycr/
223 *but: liberties = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<icr/z 223 *but: liberties = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<icr/z
224 224
225 <imac/ i-macron (long i, stressed) (i with a macron above it) 225 <imac/ i-macron (long i, stressed) (i with a macron above it)
226 combine = k<ocr/m*b<imac/n" 226 combine = k<ocr/m*b<imac/n"
227 combined = k<ocr/m*b<imac/"nd 227 combined = k<ocr/m*b<imac/"nd
228 228
229 <isl/ long i (unstressed) 229 <isl/ long i (unstressed)
230 diameter = d<isl/*<acr/m"<esl/*t<etil/r 230 diameter = d<isl/*<acr/m"<esl/*t<etil/r
231 diagonal = d<isl/*<acr/g"<osl/*n<ait/l 231 diagonal = d<isl/*<acr/g"<osl/*n<ait/l
232 232
233 233
234 <ocr/ short o (o with a crescent [breve] above it) 234 <ocr/ short o (o with a crescent [breve] above it)
235 colossus = k<osl/*l<ocr/s"s<ucr/s 235 colossus = k<osl/*l<ocr/s"s<ucr/s
236 commute = k<ocr/m*m<umac/t" 236 commute = k<ocr/m*m<umac/t"
237 237
238 <omac/ o-macron (long o, stressed) (o with a macron above it) 238 <omac/ o-macron (long o, stressed) (o with a macron above it)
239 boat = b<omac/t 239 boat = b<omac/t
240 colt = k<omac/lt 240 colt = k<omac/lt
241 comb = k<omac/m 241 comb = k<omac/m
242 combing = k<omac/m"<icr/ng 242 combing = k<omac/m"<icr/ng
243 commode = k<ocr/m*m<omac/d" 243 commode = k<ocr/m*m<omac/d"
244 course = k<omac/rs 244 course = k<omac/rs
245 245
246 <ocir/ o-circumflex ("only in syllables closed by r") 246 <ocir/ o-circumflex ("only in syllables closed by r")
247 orb = <ocir/rb 247 orb = <ocir/rb
248 lord = l<ocir/rd 248 lord = l<ocir/rd
249 lordship = l<ocir/rd"sh<icr/p 249 lordship = l<ocir/rd"sh<icr/p
250 lorn = l<ocir/rn 250 lorn = l<ocir/rn
251 cord = k<ocir/rd 251 cord = k<ocir/rd
252 commorse = k<ocr/m*m<ocir/rs" 252 commorse = k<ocr/m*m<ocir/rs"
253 deform = d<esl/*f<ocir/rm" 253 deform = d<esl/*f<ocir/rm"
254 deformed = d<esl/*f<ocir/rmd" 254 deformed = d<esl/*f<ocir/rmd"
255 dehortative = d<esl/*h<ocir/rt"<adot*t<icr/v 255 dehortative = d<esl/*h<ocir/rt"<adot*t<icr/v
256 256
257 <osl/ "o semilong" (long o, unstressed) 257 <osl/ "o semilong" (long o, unstressed)
258 diagonal = d<isl/*<acr/g"<osl/*n<ait/l 258 diagonal = d<isl/*<acr/g"<osl/*n<ait/l
259 dejectory = d<esl/*j<ecr/k"t<osl/*r<ycr/ 259 dejectory = d<esl/*j<ecr/k"t<osl/*r<ycr/
260 260
261 <oomac/ oo-macron (an oo with a macron above both o's) 261 <oomac/ oo-macron (an oo with a macron above both o's)
262 boom = b<oomac/m 262 boom = b<oomac/m
263 boot = b<oomac/t 263 boot = b<oomac/t
264 boost = b<oomac/st 264 boost = b<oomac/st
265 commove = k<ocr/m*m<oomac/v" 265 commove = k<ocr/m*m<oomac/v"
266 266
267 <oomcr/ oo-crescent (an oo with a crescent [breve] above both o's) 267 <oomcr/ oo-crescent (an oo with a crescent [breve] above both o's)
268 foot = f<oocr/t 268 foot = f<oocr/t
269 cook = k<oocr/k 269 cook = k<oocr/k
270 270
271 <umac/ u macron (long u) 271 <umac/ u macron (long u)
272 commute = k<ocr/m*m<umac/t" 272 commute = k<ocr/m*m<umac/t"
273 definitude = d<esl/*f<icr/n"<icr/*t<umac/d 273 definitude = d<esl/*f<icr/n"<icr/*t<umac/d
274 communicant = k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt 274 communicant = k<ocr/m*m<umac/"n<icr/*k<ait/nt
275 defuse = d<esl/*f<umac/z" 275 defuse = d<esl/*f<umac/z"
276 276
277 <ucr/ short u (u with a crescent [breve] above it) 277 <ucr/ short u (u with a crescent [breve] above it)
278 come = k<ucr/m 278 come = k<ucr/m
279 color = k<ucr/l"<etil/r 279 color = k<ucr/l"<etil/r
280 colored = k<ucr/l"<etil/rd 280 colored = k<ucr/l"<etil/rd
281 Columbia = k<osl/*l<ucr/m"b<icr/*<adot/ 281 Columbia = k<osl/*l<ucr/m"b<icr/*<adot/
282 up = <ucr/p 282 up = <ucr/p
283 283
284 <ycr/ y-crescent (y with a crescent [breve] above it) 284 <ycr/ y-crescent (y with a crescent [breve] above it)
285 used mostly for y-endings (supposed to sound similar to <icr/!!) 285 used mostly for y-endings (supposed to sound similar to <icr/!!)
286 sounds to me like an unstressed long e 286 sounds to me like an unstressed long e
287 comedy = k<ocr/m"<esl/*d<ycr/ 287 comedy = k<ocr/m"<esl/*d<ycr/
288 comely = k<ucr/m"l<ycr/ 288 comely = k<ucr/m"l<ycr/
289 liberty = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<ycr/ 289 liberty = l<icr/b"<etil/r*t<ycr/
290 290
291 <ymac/ y-macron (y with a macron above it) 291 <ymac/ y-macron (y with a macron above it)
292 used to represent the long i (stressed) sound, but 292 used to represent the long i (stressed) sound, but
293 examples in pronunciations seem to be absent. It is 293 examples in pronunciations seem to be absent. It is
294 found in some foreign words in the etymologies. 294 found in some foreign words in the etymologies.
295 295
296 ou the common "ow" sound of "town", "browse" 296 ou the common "ow" sound of "town", "browse"
297 count = kount 297 count = kount
298 298
299 <nsm/ n-submacron (an n with a macron underneath) 299 <nsm/ n-submacron (an n with a macron underneath)
300 represents the "ng" sound when it occurs before a 300 represents the "ng" sound when it occurs before a
301 consonant 301 consonant
302 defunct = d<esl/*f<ucr/<nsm/kt" 302 defunct = d<esl/*f<ucr/<nsm/kt"
303 commingle = k<ocr/m*m<icr/<nsm/"g'l 303 commingle = k<ocr/m*m<icr/<nsm/"g'l
304 304
305 <th/ the "th" sound in "mother" 305 <th/ the "th" sound in "mother"
306 this is represented in the printed work by a th ligature 306 this is represented in the printed work by a th ligature
307 carouse = k<adot/*rouz" 307 carouse = k<adot/*rouz"
308 308
309 zh not a special character, but used to represent the 309 zh not a special character, but used to represent the
310 "si" sound in words like 310 "si" sound in words like
311 311
312 decision = d<esl/*s<icr/zh"<ucr/n 312 decision = d<esl/*s<icr/zh"<ucr/n
313 313
314 th the usual sound as in thing and thorn 314 th the usual sound as in thing and thorn
315 sh the usual as in ship 315 sh the usual as in ship
316 ch the usual as in chip 316 ch the usual as in chip
317 N (capital N) represents the nasal "n" sound of the French language 317 N (capital N) represents the nasal "n" sound of the French language
318 318
diff --git a/README.DIC b/README.DIC
index 780e0bb..edaa4f0 100644
--- a/README.DIC
+++ b/README.DIC
@@ -1,268 +1,268 @@
1File README.DIC 1File README.DIC
2 To accompany the GNU version of the set of files (cide.*) containing 2 To accompany the GNU version of the set of files (cide.*) containing
3 the electronic version of the 3 the electronic version of the
4 Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 4 Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
5 (called also GCIDE) 5 (called also GCIDE)
6 These files contain Version 0.46 (January 2002) 6 These files contain Version 0.46 (January 2002)
7 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 7 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
8 8
9The dictionary was derived from the 9The dictionary was derived from the
10 Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary 10 Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
11 Version published 1913 11 Version published 1913
12 by the C. & G. Merriam Co. 12 by the C. & G. Merriam Co.
13 Springfield, Mass. 13 Springfield, Mass.
14 Under the direction of 14 Under the direction of
15 Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D. 15 Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.
16 16
17and has been supplemented with some of the definitions from 17and has been supplemented with some of the definitions from
18 WordNet, a semantic network created by 18 WordNet, a semantic network created by
19 the Cognitive Science Department 19 the Cognitive Science Department
20 of Princeton University 20 of Princeton University
21 under the direction of 21 under the direction of
22 Prof. George Miller 22 Prof. George Miller
23 23
24and is being proof-read and supplemented by volunteers from 24and is being proof-read and supplemented by volunteers from
25around the world. This is an unfunded project, and future 25around the world. This is an unfunded project, and future
26enhancement of this dictionary will depend on the efforts of 26enhancement of this dictionary will depend on the efforts of
27volunteers willing to help build this free resource into a 27volunteers willing to help build this free resource into a
28comprehensive body of general information. New definitions 28comprehensive body of general information. New definitions
29for missing words or words senses and longer explanatory notes, 29for missing words or words senses and longer explanatory notes,
30as well as images to accompany the articles are needed. More 30as well as images to accompany the articles are needed. More
31modern illustrative quotations giving recent examples of 31modern illustrative quotations giving recent examples of
32usage of the words in their various senses will be very 32usage of the words in their various senses will be very
33helpful, since most quotations in the original 1913 dictionary 33helpful, since most quotations in the original 1913 dictionary
34are now well over 100 years old. 34are now well over 100 years old.
35 35
36 This electronic version is being maintained by World Soul, 36 This electronic version is being maintained by World Soul,
37a non-profit organization in Plainfield, NJ. For additional 37a non-profit organization in Plainfield, NJ. For additional
38information or if you are willing to assist construction of this 38information or if you are willing to assist construction of this
39data source, contact: 39data source, contact:
40 40
41=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= 41=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
42 Patrick J. Cassidy | TEL: (908) 561-3416 42 Patrick J. Cassidy | TEL: (908) 561-3416
43 World Soul | if no answer, (908) 668-5252 43 World Soul | if no answer, (908) 668-5252
44 735 Belvidere Ave. | FAX: (908) 668-5904 44 735 Belvidere Ave. | FAX: (908) 668-5904
45 Plainfield, NJ 07062-2054 45 Plainfield, NJ 07062-2054
46 pc@worldsoul.org or cassidy@micra.com 46 pc@worldsoul.org or cassidy@micra.com
47=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= 47=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
48 48
49 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 49 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
50 50
51GCIDE is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify 51GCIDE is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
52it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by 52it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
53the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) 53the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
54any later version. 54any later version.
55 55
56GCIDE is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, 56GCIDE is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
57but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of 57but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
58MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the 58MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
59GNU General Public License for more details. 59GNU General Public License for more details.
60 60
61You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License 61You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
62along with this copy of GCIDE; see the file COPYING. If not, write 62along with this copy of GCIDE; see the file COPYING. If not, write
63to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, 63to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
64Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA. 64Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
65 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 65 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
66 66
67STRUCTURE OF THE DICTIONARY 67STRUCTURE OF THE DICTIONARY
68--------------------------- 68---------------------------
69 When the archives are unpacked, the main dictionary text of 69 When the archives are unpacked, the main dictionary text of
70the GCIDE will be found in 26 files named "cide.*", where the 70the GCIDE will be found in 26 files named "cide.*", where the
71asterisk indicates which letter of the alphabet begins the 71asterisk indicates which letter of the alphabet begins the
72words in each file. For example, file "cide.b" contains words 72words in each file. For example, file "cide.b" contains words
73beginning with the letter "B". Additional information about the 73beginning with the letter "B". Additional information about the
74tagging conventions and special character symbols are contained in 74tagging conventions and special character symbols are contained in
75ancillary files in this directory more information below). The main 75ancillary files in this directory more information below). The main
76body of the 1913 dictionary was essentially identical to the edition 76body of the 1913 dictionary was essentially identical to the edition
77published in 1890, and was republished in 1913 with an appendix 77published in 1890, and was republished in 1913 with an appendix
78containing "New Words". The new words of that appendix have been 78containing "New Words". The new words of that appendix have been
79integrated into the main file in this version. However, it is important 79integrated into the main file in this version. However, it is important
80to keep in mind that the definitions in this dictionary are in most 80to keep in mind that the definitions in this dictionary are in most
81cases over 100 years old. Use them with caution! 81cases over 100 years old. Use them with caution!
82 At the bottom of each paragraph in this dictionary, there is a 82 At the bottom of each paragraph in this dictionary, there is a
83bracketed and tagged "source" indicated. This tells from where the 83bracketed and tagged "source" indicated. This tells from where the
84definition or other text in that paragraph came, as follows: 84definition or other text in that paragraph came, as follows:
85 85
86[<source>1913 Webster</source>] 86[<source>1913 Webster</source>]
87 = From the original 1890 dictionary. 87 = From the original 1890 dictionary.
88[<source>Webster 1913 Suppl.</source>] 88[<source>Webster 1913 Suppl.</source>]
89 = From the 1913 "New Words" supplement to the Webster. 89 = From the 1913 "New Words" supplement to the Webster.
90[<source>WordNet 1.5</source>] 90[<source>WordNet 1.5</source>]
91 = From the WordNet on-line semantic network. 91 = From the WordNet on-line semantic network.
92[<source>Century Dict. 1906.</source>] 92[<source>Century Dict. 1906.</source>]
93 = From the Century Dictionary published in 1906, especially from 93 = From the Century Dictionary published in 1906, especially from
94 the "proper Names" supplement (volume IX). 94 the "proper Names" supplement (volume IX).
95 published 95 published
96[<source>XXX</source>] 96[<source>XXX</source>]
97 = Added by one of the volunteers. 97 = Added by one of the volunteers.
98 98
99 The original definitions have been tagged and in some cases 99 The original definitions have been tagged and in some cases
100reformatted or slightly rearranged. If substantive information 100reformatted or slightly rearranged. If substantive information
101is added from a second source, usually the additional source is 101is added from a second source, usually the additional source is
102also noted, as in: 102also noted, as in:
103[<source>Webster 1913 Suppl.</source> + <source>WordNet 1.5</source>] 103[<source>Webster 1913 Suppl.</source> + <source>WordNet 1.5</source>]
104 104
105 A list of the ancillary files related to the GCIDE is appended at 105 A list of the ancillary files related to the GCIDE is appended at
106the bottom of this "readme.dic" file. 106the bottom of this "readme.dic" file.
107 This version is tagged with SGML-like tags of the form <pos>...</pos> 107 This version is tagged with SGML-like tags of the form <pos>...</pos>
108so that the original typography (italics, bold, block quotes) can be 108so that the original typography (italics, bold, block quotes) can be
109reproduced. A list of the most important tags for fields in the 109reproduced. A list of the most important tags for fields in the
110dictionary is given below. The tags also serve the more important 110dictionary is given below. The tags also serve the more important
111function of allowing the information content to be conveniently imported 111function of allowing the information content to be conveniently imported
112into computer programs or databases. The set of tags used is described 112into computer programs or databases. The set of tags used is described
113in the accompanying file "tagset.web". ***NOTE*** the paragraph tags 113in the accompanying file "tagset.web". ***NOTE*** the paragraph tags
114<p>...</p> do *not* always nest properly with certain other tags, such 114<p>...</p> do *not* always nest properly with certain other tags, such
115as <note> and <cs> ("collocation section"), which in some cases span 115as <note> and <cs> ("collocation section"), which in some cases span
116multiple paragraphs. If you are using a tag parser which detects 116multiple paragraphs. If you are using a tag parser which detects
117improper nesting, you should first either delete the paragraph 117improper nesting, you should first either delete the paragraph
118tags or convert them to non-tag symbols, or, if possible, set the 118tags or convert them to non-tag symbols, or, if possible, set the
119parser to ignore the <p>...</p> tags. 119parser to ignore the <p>...</p> tags.
120 The unusual characters (such as Greek or the European accented 120 The unusual characters (such as Greek or the European accented
121characters, as well as special characters used in the pronunciations) 121characters, as well as special characters used in the pronunciations)
122are described in the accompanying file "webfont.asc". Some information 122are described in the accompanying file "webfont.asc". Some information
123on the pronunciation system used may be found by viewing the files 123on the pronunciation system used may be found by viewing the files
124"wxxvii.jpg" and "pronunc.jpg" with a GIF viewer (or any web browser), 124"wxxvii.jpg" and "pronunc.jpg" with a GIF viewer (or any web browser),
125and additional explanations of pronunciation are in the file 125and additional explanations of pronunciation are in the file
126"pronunc.web". 126"pronunc.web".
127 Each paragraph of the original text is enclosed within tags of 127 Each paragraph of the original text is enclosed within tags of
128the form <p> . . . </p>. Within these paragraphs are no line 128the form <p> . . . </p>. Within these paragraphs are no line
129breaks, and some of the paragraphs are over 12,000 characters long. 129breaks, and some of the paragraphs are over 12,000 characters long.
130These lines are too long to be handled by the vi editor, and probably 130These lines are too long to be handled by the vi editor, and probably
131by some other text editors. At some points, embedded line breaks within 131by some other text editors. At some points, embedded line breaks within
132a "paragraph" are marked by a <br/ "entity". The file can therefore 132a "paragraph" are marked by a <br/ "entity". The file can therefore
133be converted, if necessary, to a form with shorter lines, and subsequently 133be converted, if necessary, to a form with shorter lines, and subsequently
134reconverted back to the form having one line per paragraph. 134reconverted back to the form having one line per paragraph.
135 135
136 If additional line breaks are added, then in order remove the 136 If additional line breaks are added, then in order remove the
137line breaks and reconstruct the original paragraphs, so that the 137line breaks and reconstruct the original paragraphs, so that the
138page width can be adjusted, perform the following manipulations: 138page width can be adjusted, perform the following manipulations:
139 (1) convert each line break (cr-lf combination) to a space. 139 (1) convert each line break (cr-lf combination) to a space.
140 (2) convert the string "</p> " (</p> followed by two spaces) 140 (2) convert the string "</p> " (</p> followed by two spaces)
141 to </p> followed by two line breaks (cr-lf combinations) 141 to </p> followed by two line breaks (cr-lf combinations)
142 (3) convert the string "<br/ " (<br/ followed by one space) 142 (3) convert the string "<br/ " (<br/ followed by one space)
143 to <br/ followed by one line break (cr-lf). 143 to <br/ followed by one line break (cr-lf).
144There will be some "lines" (paragraphs) with over 12,000 characters, 144There will be some "lines" (paragraphs) with over 12,000 characters,
145which may give trouble to some simple text editors. 145which may give trouble to some simple text editors.
146 A more sophisticated formatting of spaces within paragraphs may 146 A more sophisticated formatting of spaces within paragraphs may
147require the use of the fully-tagged master files. If you have 147require the use of the fully-tagged master files. If you have
148a need for these files, contact Patrick Cassidy: cassidy@micra.com. 148a need for these files, contact Patrick Cassidy: cassidy@micra.com.
149 The approximate beginning of each page is marked by an SGML 149 The approximate beginning of each page is marked by an SGML
150comment of the form <-- p. 345 -->. (The exact beginning was in some 150comment of the form <-- p. 345 -->. (The exact beginning was in some
151cases in the middle of a paragraph, which we decided was not a 151cases in the middle of a paragraph, which we decided was not a
152good location for these page-number comments, so the page number 152good location for these page-number comments, so the page number
153was usually moved to the next paragraph break). Pages which have 153was usually moved to the next paragraph break). Pages which have
154been proofread by volunteers (e.g., with initials VOL) will have a 154been proofread by volunteers (e.g., with initials VOL) will have a
155note within that page comment: <-- p. 345 pr=VOL -->. Pages which have 155note within that page comment: <-- p. 345 pr=VOL -->. Pages which have
156not been proofread yet (most of them) will have varying numbers of 156not been proofread yet (most of them) will have varying numbers of
157typographical errors in them. We still (January 2002) need 157typographical errors in them. We still (January 2002) need
158proofreaders to get the errors out of these dictionary files. 158proofreaders to get the errors out of these dictionary files.
159 159
160*********************************************************************** 160***********************************************************************
161** WARNING!!! ** 161** WARNING!!! **
162*********************************************************************** 162***********************************************************************
163 163
164 This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic 164 This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic
165errors, including errors in the field-marks. In addition, the user must 165errors, including errors in the field-marks. In addition, the user must
166keep in mind that this text is very old and will contain numerous 166keep in mind that this text is very old and will contain numerous
167obsolete, inaccurate, and perhaps offensive statements, which are 167obsolete, inaccurate, and perhaps offensive statements, which are
168included solely because this work is intended to reproduce accurately 168included solely because this work is intended to reproduce accurately
169this historically interesting classic reference work. This text should 169this historically interesting classic reference work. This text should
170not be relied upon as an accurate source of information, as in many 170not be relied upon as an accurate source of information, as in many
171cases it represents the state of knowledge around 1890. The text is 171cases it represents the state of knowledge around 1890. The text is
172provided "as is", and the user must accept responsibility for all 172provided "as is", and the user must accept responsibility for all
173consequences of its use. Please refer to the header of each file and 173consequences of its use. Please refer to the header of each file and
174the GNU public license. If these conditions of use are unacceptable, 174the GNU public license. If these conditions of use are unacceptable,
175please do not use these texts. 175please do not use these texts.
176************************************************************************ 176************************************************************************
177************************************************************************ 177************************************************************************
178 This electronic dictionary is also made available as a potential 178 This electronic dictionary is also made available as a potential
179starting point for development of a modern comprehensive encyclopedic 179starting point for development of a modern comprehensive encyclopedic
180dictionary, to be accessible freely on the internet, and developed by the 180dictionary, to be accessible freely on the internet, and developed by the
181efforts of all individuals willing to help build a large and freely 181efforts of all individuals willing to help build a large and freely
182available knowledge base. A large number of collaborators are needed to 182available knowledge base. A large number of collaborators are needed to
183bring this dictionary to a more accurate, more modern, and more useful 183bring this dictionary to a more accurate, more modern, and more useful
184state. Anyone willing to assist in any way in constructing such a 184state. Anyone willing to assist in any way in constructing such a
185knowledge base should contact Patrick Cassidy (see above). All reports 185knowledge base should contact Patrick Cassidy (see above). All reports
186of errors will be gratefully received, and should also be transmitted to 186of errors will be gratefully received, and should also be transmitted to
187PC at: pc@worldsoul.org. 187PC at: pc@worldsoul.org.
188 188
189In addition to the main text of the dictionary, additional 189In addition to the main text of the dictionary, additional
190explanatory material about this version of the dictionary is available 190explanatory material about this version of the dictionary is available
191in the ancillary files: 191in the ancillary files:
192 192
193===================================================================== 193=====================================================================
194COPYING 18,321 11-03-99 1:13a COPYING 194COPYING 18,321 11-03-99 1:13a COPYING
195README DIC 13,775 01-17-02 11:48p readme.dic 195README DIC 13,775 01-17-02 11:48p readme.dic
196WEBFONT ASC 35,234 12-12-01 3:27p WEBFONT.ASC 196WEBFONT ASC 35,234 12-12-01 3:27p WEBFONT.ASC
197TAGSET WEB 55,843 08-16-01 1:16p TAGSET.WEB 197TAGSET WEB 55,843 08-16-01 1:16p TAGSET.WEB
198PRONUNC WEB 14,312 06-18-00 3:02p PRONUNC.WEB 198PRONUNC WEB 14,312 06-18-00 3:02p PRONUNC.WEB
199PRONUNC JPG 2,569,796 06-18-00 3:11p PRONUNC.JPG 199PRONUNC JPG 2,569,796 06-18-00 3:11p PRONUNC.JPG
200SYMBOLS JPG 144,716 06-18-00 3:13p SYMBOLS.JPG 200SYMBOLS JPG 144,716 06-18-00 3:13p SYMBOLS.JPG
201WXXVII JPG 1,188,380 06-18-00 3:19p WXXVII.JPG 201WXXVII JPG 1,188,380 06-18-00 3:19p WXXVII.JPG
202================================================================== 202==================================================================
203 203
204 204
205Most important tags used in the GCIDE: 205Most important tags used in the GCIDE:
206<hw> tags the headword 206<hw> tags the headword
207<pr> pronunciation 207<pr> pronunciation
208<pos> part of speech 208<pos> part of speech
209<ety> etymology 209<ety> etymology
210<ets> "source" word within an <ety> field, usually foreign words 210<ets> "source" word within an <ety> field, usually foreign words
211<fld> field of knowledge (e.g. Med. = medicine) 211<fld> field of knowledge (e.g. Med. = medicine)
212<def> definition 212<def> definition
213<cs> collocation section (containing word combinations) 213<cs> collocation section (containing word combinations)
214<col> collocation entry (word combination) 214<col> collocation entry (word combination)
215<cd> collocation definition 215<cd> collocation definition
216<as> illustrations of usage (within a <def>. . . </def> field) 216<as> illustrations of usage (within a <def>. . . </def> field)
217<au> authority for a definition, or author of a quotation 217<au> authority for a definition, or author of a quotation
218<q> illustrative quotation -- in block quote format 218<q> illustrative quotation -- in block quote format
219<au> author of an illustrative <q> quotation 219<au> author of an illustrative <q> quotation
220<altname> alternative name for the headword -- essentially a synonym 220<altname> alternative name for the headword -- essentially a synonym
221<asp> alternative spelling of the headword 221<asp> alternative spelling of the headword
222<syn> list of synonyms for the headword 222<syn> list of synonyms for the headword
223<p> paragraph 223<p> paragraph
224<b> bold type 224<b> bold type
225<it> italic type 225<it> italic type
226 226
227For other tags, see the file "tagset.web" 227For other tags, see the file "tagset.web"
228 228
229 229
230============================================================ 230============================================================
231 OTHER VERSIONS OF THE DICTIONARY 231 OTHER VERSIONS OF THE DICTIONARY
232============================================================= 232=============================================================
233 233
234 There are several other derivative versions of this dictionary 234 There are several other derivative versions of this dictionary
235on the internet, in some cases reformatted or provided with an 235on the internet, in some cases reformatted or provided with an
236interface. Those that I am aware of are: 236interface. Those that I am aware of are:
237 237
238(1) Project Gutenberg 238(1) Project Gutenberg
239--------------------- 239---------------------
240 In the extext96 directory of Project Gutenberg (www.prairienet.org) 240 In the extext96 directory of Project Gutenberg (www.prairienet.org)
241there is a version of the original 1913 dictionary, which is in 241there is a version of the original 1913 dictionary, which is in
242the **public domain**. The main files are in the directory etext96, 242the **public domain**. The main files are in the directory etext96,
243and sre labeled pgw050**.***. The tags for that version are a subset 243and sre labeled pgw050**.***. The tags for that version are a subset
244of those used in this GNU version. 244of those used in this GNU version.
245 245
246(2) The DICT development group 246(2) The DICT development group
247------------------------------ 247------------------------------
248This group has created a program to index and search this dictionary. 248This group has created a program to index and search this dictionary.
249The program can be downloaded and used locally, but at present 249The program can be downloaded and used locally, but at present
250is available only in a Unix-compatible executable version. 250is available only in a Unix-compatible executable version.
251See their web site at http://www.dict.org. 251See their web site at http://www.dict.org.
252 252
253(3) The University of Chicago ARTFL project 253(3) The University of Chicago ARTFL project
254--------------------------------------------- 254---------------------------------------------
255Mark Olsen and Gavin LaRowe at the University of Chicago have 255Mark Olsen and Gavin LaRowe at the University of Chicago have
256converted the original 1913 dictionary to HTML and have provided an 256converted the original 1913 dictionary to HTML and have provided an
257interface allowing search of the headwords. When the supplemented 257interface allowing search of the headwords. When the supplemented
258version has developed sufficiently to warrant the effort, a 258version has developed sufficiently to warrant the effort, a
259similar searchable version may be posted there as well. The 259similar searchable version may be posted there as well. The
260search page is at: 260search page is at:
261 http://humanities.uchicago.edu/forms_unrest/webster.form.html 261 http://humanities.uchicago.edu/forms_unrest/webster.form.html
262 262
263That page will provide links to other ARTFL projects and contact 263That page will provide links to other ARTFL projects and contact
264information for the ARTFL group, who alone can provide information 264information for the ARTFL group, who alone can provide information
265about the HTML version or interface. 265about the HTML version or interface.
266 266
267 267
268 -- PJC 268 -- PJC
diff --git a/TAGSET.WEB b/TAGSET.WEB
index 5714751..1409569 100644
--- a/TAGSET.WEB
+++ b/TAGSET.WEB
@@ -1,1060 +1,1060 @@
1 FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE 1 FIELD MARKS FOR WEBSTER 1913 and CIDE
2 ===================================== 2 =====================================
3Tagset.web: 3Tagset.web:
4 Explanations of the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary 4 Explanations of the tags used to mark the Webster 1913 dictionary
5and the CIDE (Collaborative International Dictionary of English). 5and the CIDE (Collaborative International Dictionary of English).
6Note that the list of tags used to mark the public domain version 6Note that the list of tags used to mark the public domain version
7of this dictionary is shorter than the full set described here. 7of this dictionary is shorter than the full set described here.
8 If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the 8 If any tag is not listed here, it is either (1) one of the
9"point" (font size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be self-explanatory; or 9"point" (font size) or "type" (font style) tags, which should be self-explanatory; or
10 (2) Is a functional field with no effect on the typography. 10 (2) Is a functional field with no effect on the typography.
11 11
12Last modified March 12, 1999. 12Last modified March 12, 1999.
13 For questions, contact: 13 For questions, contact:
14 Patrick Cassidy cassidy@micra.com 14 Patrick Cassidy cassidy@micra.com
15 735 Belvidere Ave. 15 735 Belvidere Ave.
16 Plainfield, NJ 07062 16 Plainfield, NJ 07062
17 (908) 561-3416 or (908) 668-5252 17 (908) 561-3416 or (908) 668-5252
18------------------------------------------------------------- 18-------------------------------------------------------------
19A separate file, webfont.asc, contains the list of the individual 19A separate file, webfont.asc, contains the list of the individual
20non-ASCII characters represented by either higher-order hexadecimal 20non-ASCII characters represented by either higher-order hexadecimal
21character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags 21character marks (e.g., \'94, for o-umlaut) or by entity tags
22(e.g., <root/, for the square root symbol.) 22(e.g., <root/, for the square root symbol.)
23-------------------------------------------------------------- 23--------------------------------------------------------------
24 Use of tags: 24 Use of tags:
25 In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster, each part of 25 In the MICRA electronic version of the 1913 Webster, each part of
26the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no 26the entry headed by an entry word ("headword") is labeled so that no
27part of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found 27part of the entry except some punctuation marks should be found
28outside of all fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged 28outside of all fields, i.e. every character should be within some tagged
29field. In the following description, the word "segment" usually refers to 29field. In the following description, the word "segment" usually refers to
30a major part of an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a 30a major part of an entry such as an etymology or a definition or a
31collocation segment or a usage block, containing more than one field. 31collocation segment or a usage block, containing more than one field.
32The term "field" may also be used similarly to "segment", but may also 32The term "field" may also be used similarly to "segment", but may also
33denote single-word fields, such as an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>. 33denote single-word fields, such as an alternative spelling, labeled <asp>.
34 34
35 Note: The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags. Each 35 Note: The tags on this list are similar in structure to SGML tags. Each
36tag on this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between 36tag on this list marks a field; each field opens with a tagname between
37angle brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing 37angle brackets thus: <tagname>, and closes with a similar tag containing
38the forward slash thus: </tagname>. No tags are used without closing 38the forward slash thus: </tagname>. No tags are used without closing
39tags. Thus the HTML <BR> to indicate a line break is symbolized 39tags. Thus the HTML <BR> to indicate a line break is symbolized
40here as an entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>. 40here as an entity, <br/, and every <p> has a corresponding </p>.
41 The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag 41 The absence of an end-field tag, or the presence of an end-field tag
42without a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which 42without a prior begin-field tag constitutes a typographical error, of which
43there may be a significant number. Any errors detected should be brought 43there may be a significant number. Any errors detected should be brought
44to the attention of PJC or the appropriate editor. 44to the attention of PJC or the appropriate editor.
45 Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type, 45 Most of the tagged fields are presented in the text in italic type,
46with a number of exceptions. Where a word is contained within more than 46with a number of exceptions. Where a word is contained within more than
47one field, the innermost field determines the font to be used. Wherever 47one field, the innermost field determines the font to be used. Wherever
48recognizable functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the 48recognizable functional fields were found, an attempt was made to tag the
49field with a functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only 49field with a functional mark, but in many cases, words were italicised only
50to represent the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases, 50to represent the word itself as a discourse entity, and in some such cases,
51the "italic" mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality 51the "italic" mark <it> was used, implying nothing regarding functionality
52of the word. The base font is considered "plain". Where an italic field 52of the word. The base font is considered "plain". Where an italic field
53is indicated, parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised. 53is indicated, parentheses or brackets within the field are not italicised.
54 Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional 54 Where no font is specified for a tag, the tag is merely a functional
55division, and was printed in plain font unless otherwise tagged. This type 55division, and was printed in plain font unless otherwise tagged. This type
56of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be. 56of segment is marked by an asterisk (*) where the font name would be.
57 The size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for 57 The size of the "plain" font in the original text is about 1.6 mm for
58the height of capitalized letters. 58the height of capitalized letters.
59============================================================= 59=============================================================
60Explicit typographical tags: 60Explicit typographical tags:
61 These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to 61 These were used where the purpose of a different font was merely to
62distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional 62distinguish a word from the body of the text, and no explicit functional
63tag seemed apropriate. 63tag seemed apropriate.
64----------------------------------- 64-----------------------------------
65Tag Font 65Tag Font
66----------------------------------- 66-----------------------------------
67Explicit formatting tags: 67Explicit formatting tags:
68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69<plain> plain font (that used in the body of a definition) -- 69<plain> plain font (that used in the body of a definition) --
70 normally not marked, except within fields of 70 normally not marked, except within fields of
71 a different front. 71 a different front.
72<it> italic (in master files) 72<it> italic (in master files)
73<i> italic (for use in HTML presentation) 73<i> italic (for use in HTML presentation)
74<bold> bold (in master files) 74<bold> bold (in master files)
75<b> bold (for use in HTML presentation) 75<b> bold (for use in HTML presentation)
76<colf> bold, Collocation font. Same font as used in collocations. 76<colf> bold, Collocation font. Same font as used in collocations.
77 smaller This is used only in the list of "un-" words not 77 smaller This is used only in the list of "un-" words not
78 by 1 point actually defined in the dictionary. Probably could be 78 by 1 point actually defined in the dictionary. Probably could be
79 replaced by a segment mark for the entire list! 79 replaced by a segment mark for the entire list!
80 The "un-" words should be indexed as headwords. 80 The "un-" words should be indexed as headwords.
81 81
82<ct> bold Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used in 82<ct> bold Same as <colf>, a font similar to that used in
83 collocations. However, this tag is used in a table 83 collocations. However, this tag is used in a table
84 and could be set to a different font. 84 and could be set to a different font.
85 85
86<h1> * HTML tag -- largest heading font. 86<h1> * HTML tag -- largest heading font.
87 87
88<h2> * HTML tag -- second largest heading font. 88<h2> * HTML tag -- second largest heading font.
89 89
90<headrow> * Marks a Row title in a table. 90<headrow> * Marks a Row title in a table.
91 91
92<hwf> Font the same as the headword <hw>, though the field is 92<hwf> Font the same as the headword <hw>, though the field is
93 not a headword. Used only once. 93 not a headword. Used only once.
94 94
95<mitem> * Multiple items, a set of items in a table. 95<mitem> * Multiple items, a set of items in a table.
96<point ...> A series of point size markers, many unique. 96<point ...> A series of point size markers, many unique.
97<point1.5> * One of the tags of the form <point**> where ** 97<point1.5> * One of the tags of the form <point**> where **
98<point6> represents the typographic point size of the 98<point6> represents the typographic point size of the
99 enclosed text. 99 enclosed text.
100<pre> An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed text is 100<pre> An HTML tag indicating that the enclosed text is
101 of teletype form, preformatted in a uniform-spaced 101 of teletype form, preformatted in a uniform-spaced
102 font. 102 font.
103<sc> small caps (used mostly for "a. d.", "b. c.") 103<sc> small caps (used mostly for "a. d.", "b. c.")
104 This is the same font a <er>, but has no functional 104 This is the same font a <er>, but has no functional
105 or semantic significance 105 or semantic significance
106<str> group of table data elements in a table 106<str> group of table data elements in a table
107<sub> subscript, like <subs> 107<sub> subscript, like <subs>
108<subs> subscript 108<subs> subscript
109<sups> superscript 109<sups> superscript
110<supr> superscript 110<supr> superscript
111<sansserif> Sans-serif font 111<sansserif> Sans-serif font
112<stypec> Bold (collocation font) and also a subtype. 112<stypec> Bold (collocation font) and also a subtype.
113<tt> HTML tage -- teletype font 113<tt> HTML tage -- teletype font
114<universbold> A squared bold font without serifs approximating the 114<universbold> A squared bold font without serifs approximating the
115 "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4, slightly 115 "universe bold" font on the HP Laserjet4, slightly
116 larger than the capitals in a definition body. Used 116 larger than the capitals in a definition body. Used
117 in expositions describing shapes, such as 117 in expositions describing shapes, such as
118 "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F". 118 "Y", "T", "U", "X", "V", "F".
119<vertical> Vertically organized column. 119<vertical> Vertically organized column.
120<column1> Vertically organized column -- only part of a table 120<column1> Vertically organized column -- only part of a table
121 which needs to be completed. Used once. 121 which needs to be completed. Used once.
122<...type> A series of tags, many unique, designating certain 122<...type> A series of tags, many unique, designating certain
123 unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype" for 123 unusual fonts, such as "bourgeoistype" for
124 "bourgeois type", in the section on typography. 124 "bourgeois type", in the section on typography.
125 Most of these occur only once, in the section on fonts. 125 Most of these occur only once, in the section on fonts.
126<antiquetype> 126<antiquetype>
127<blacklettertype> 127<blacklettertype>
128<boldfacetype> 128<boldfacetype>
129<bourgeoistype> 129<bourgeoistype>
130<boxtype> 130<boxtype>
131<clarendontype> 131<clarendontype>
132<englishtype> 132<englishtype>
133<extendedtype> 133<extendedtype>
134<frenchelzevirtype> 134<frenchelzevirtype>
135<germantype> 135<germantype>
136<gothictype> 136<gothictype>
137<greatprimertype> 137<greatprimertype>
138<longprimertype> 138<longprimertype>
139<miniontype> 139<miniontype>
140<nonpareiltype> 140<nonpareiltype>
141<oldenglishtype> 141<oldenglishtype>
142<oldstyletype> 142<oldstyletype>
143<pearltype> 143<pearltype>
144<picatype> 144<picatype>
145<scripttype> 145<scripttype>
146<smpicatype> 146<smpicatype>
147<typewritertype> 147<typewritertype>
148 148
149============================================================= 149=============================================================
150Tags with semantic content: 150Tags with semantic content:
151. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
152<altsp> * Alternative spelling segment. Almost always 152<altsp> * Alternative spelling segment. Almost always
153 contained within square brackets after the main 153 contained within square brackets after the main
154 definition segment. Expository words 154 definition segment. Expository words
155 such as "Spelled also" are in plain font; 155 such as "Spelled also" are in plain font;
156 the actual alternative spelling is marked by 156 the actual alternative spelling is marked by
157 <asp> ... </asp> tags within this segment. 157 <asp> ... </asp> tags within this segment.
158 158
159<ant> italic Antonym. 159<ant> italic Antonym.
160 160
161<asp> italic Alternative spelling. The actual word which is an 161<asp> italic Alternative spelling. The actual word which is an
162 alternative spelling to the headword. These 162 alternative spelling to the headword. These
163 are functionally synonyms of the headword. In 163 are functionally synonyms of the headword. In
164 most cases these also occur as headwords, with 164 most cases these also occur as headwords, with
165 reference to the word where the actual definition 165 reference to the word where the actual definition
166 is found, but not all such words are listed 166 is found, but not all such words are listed
167 separately, particularly if the spelling is 167 separately, particularly if the spelling is
168 close enough to the headword to be found at the 168 close enough to the headword to be found at the
169 same point in the dictionary. Whether listed 169 same point in the dictionary. Whether listed
170 separately or not, these words should 170 separately or not, these words should
171 be indexed at this location, also. 171 be indexed at this location, also.
172 172
173<au> italic Authority or author. Used where an authority is 173<au> italic Authority or author. Used where an authority is
174 (may be right- given for a definition, and also used for the 174 (may be right- given for a definition, and also used for the
175 justified. See author, where a quotation within double quotes 175 justified. See author, where a quotation within double quotes
176 in the section is given in the same paragraph as the 176 in the section is given in the same paragraph as the
177 on formatting). definition. The double quotes are indicated 177 on formatting). definition. The double quotes are indicated
178 by the open-quote (\'bd) and close-quote 178 by the open-quote (\'bd) and close-quote
179 (\'b8). In both cases, it is typically 179 (\'b8). In both cases, it is typically
180 right-justified, almost always fitting on 180 right-justified, almost always fitting on
181 the same line with the last line of the 181 the same line with the last line of the
182 definition or quotation. 182 definition or quotation.
183 Within collocation segments, it is usually 183 Within collocation segments, it is usually
184 used only after quotations, and is not right- 184 used only after quotations, and is not right-
185 justified, except occasionally where it 185 justified, except occasionally where it
186 would be close to the right margin, and then 186 would be close to the right margin, and then
187 apparently is is right-justified. We have 187 apparently is is right-justified. We have
188 not explicitly marked those which are 188 not explicitly marked those which are
189 right-justified, but they can be 189 right-justified, but they can be
190 recognized because they are on a line by 190 recognized because they are on a line by
191 themselves, preceded by two carriage returns. 191 themselves, preceded by two carriage returns.
192 192
193<bio> * Marks a biography. Should be longer than 193<bio> * Marks a biography. Should be longer than
194 a short mention of who a person was, which 194 a short mention of who a person was, which
195 is typically included as a definition. 195 is typically included as a definition.
196 196
197<biography> * Same as <bio> 197<biography> * Same as <bio>
198 198
199<booki> italic Marks the name of a book, pamphlet, or similar 199<booki> italic Marks the name of a book, pamphlet, or similar
200 document. 200 document.
201 201
202<branchof> * A field of knowledge which of which the headword 202<branchof> * A field of knowledge which of which the headword
203 is a division. 203 is a division.
204 204
205<caption> * Caption of a figure or table. 205<caption> * Caption of a figure or table.
206 206
207<cas> * tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) registry 207<cas> * tags the CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) registry
208 number for a chemical substance. 208 number for a chemical substance.
209 209
210<causes> italic tags the infectious disease caused by the headword. 210<causes> italic tags the infectious disease caused by the headword.
211 Implied type of the agent is a microorganism, and 211 Implied type of the agent is a microorganism, and
212 the tag must mark a disease. 212 the tag must mark a disease.
213 213
214<causesp> * Same as <causes> without the italic type. 214<causesp> * Same as <causes> without the italic type.
215<causedbyp> * Same as <causedby> without the italic type. 215<causedbyp> * Same as <causedby> without the italic type.
216 216
217<causedby> italic inverse of causes: tags the causative agent of an 217<causedby> italic inverse of causes: tags the causative agent of an
218 infectious disease, which is the headword . 218 infectious disease, which is the headword .
219 the tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or 219 the tag must mark a microorganism, virus, or
220 prion, and the implied type of the headword is 220 prion, and the implied type of the headword is
221 a disease. 221 a disease.
222 222
223<centered> Used only for The single letter in the headers to each 223<centered> Used only for The single letter in the headers to each
224 letter of the alphabet. 224 letter of the alphabet.
225 225
226<city> * marks the proper name of a city. Used only 226<city> * marks the proper name of a city. Used only
227 occasionally and not consistently at this stage. 227 occasionally and not consistently at this stage.
228 228
229<cnvto> italic Converted to: used to tag substances which are 229<cnvto> italic Converted to: used to tag substances which are
230 products prepared by conversion from the 230 products prepared by conversion from the
231 headword. Usually chemicals or complex 231 headword. Usually chemicals or complex
232 products from mnatuarl materials. Rarely used 232 products from mnatuarl materials. Rarely used
233 up to 1998. 233 up to 1998.
234 234
235<colheads> * List of heads for the columns of a table. 235<colheads> * List of heads for the columns of a table.
236 236
237<coltitle> * Title of a column in a table. 237<coltitle> * Title of a column in a table.
238 238
239<comm> * Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line with 239<comm> * Comment -- differs from <note> in being in-line with
240 the definition paragraph. Provides a little 240 the definition paragraph. Provides a little
241 additional information. 241 additional information.
242 242
243<company> * Name of a company (commercial firm). Compare <org> 243<company> * Name of a company (commercial firm). Compare <org>
244 244
245<compof> italic Composed of. Tags a substance of which the 245<compof> italic Composed of. Tags a substance of which the
246 headword is at least partly composed. The 246 headword is at least partly composed. The
247 substance may be particulate, such as 247 substance may be particulate, such as
248 diatoms composing diatomaceous earth. 248 diatoms composing diatomaceous earth.
249 249
250<contains> * marks an object contained within the headword. 250<contains> * marks an object contained within the headword.
251 251
252<contr> italic Contrasting word. Not exactly an antonym, which 252<contr> italic Contrasting word. Not exactly an antonym, which
253 is marked <ant>, but a contrasting word which is 253 is marked <ant>, but a contrasting word which is
254 often introduced as "opposite to" or "contrasts 254 often introduced as "opposite to" or "contrasts
255 with". 255 with".
256 256
257<country> * Name of a country (nation) of the world. 257<country> * Name of a country (nation) of the world.
258 258
259<cref> italic Collocation reference. A reference to a collocation. 259<cref> italic Collocation reference. A reference to a collocation.
260 Each such collocation should have its own entry, 260 Each such collocation should have its own entry,
261 marked by <col> ... </col> tags, and these 261 marked by <col> ... </col> tags, and these
262 references should function as hypertext buttons 262 references should function as hypertext buttons
263 to access that entry. 263 to access that entry.
264 264
265<date> * A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>. 265<date> * A Date, of any type, e.g. <date>Dec. 25</date>.
266 266
267<datey> * Date-with-year tags a date containing a year. 267<datey> * Date-with-year tags a date containing a year.
268 268
269<def> * definition. The definition may have subfields, 269<def> * definition. The definition may have subfields,
270 particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase 270 particularly <as> (an illustrative phrase
271 starting with "as" or "thus" and containing 271 starting with "as" or "thus" and containing
272 the headword (or a morphological derivative). 272 the headword (or a morphological derivative).
273 The <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and 273 The <mark>, \'bd...\'b8 quotations (left and
274 right double quotes) and <au> fields may be 274 right double quotes) and <au> fields may be
275 found within a definition field, but should 275 found within a definition field, but should
276 and usually are located outside the definition 276 and usually are located outside the definition
277 proper. The marking macro was 277 proper. The marking macro was
278 inconsistent in this placement, and the 278 inconsistent in this placement, and the
279 exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and quotations 279 exclusion of the <mark>, <au> and quotations
280 needs to be completed by the proof-readers. 280 needs to be completed by the proof-readers.
281 Certain definitions contain <pos> 281 Certain definitions contain <pos>
282 fields within them, where the headword is 282 fields within them, where the headword is
283 an irregular derivative of another headword. 283 an irregular derivative of another headword.
284 In these cases, the <pos> field follows 284 In these cases, the <pos> field follows
285 immediately after the <def> tag, and these 285 immediately after the <def> tag, and these
286 entries do not have a separate <pos> field. 286 entries do not have a separate <pos> field.
287 In such cases, the <pos> field is italic, as 287 In such cases, the <pos> field is italic, as
288 usual. 288 usual.
289 289
290<divof> * Division of the headword, usually an organization. 290<divof> * Division of the headword, usually an organization.
291 E. g. a faculty or department of a university, 291 E. g. a faculty or department of a university,
292 or a United Nations agency. 292 or a United Nations agency.
293 293
294<edi> * Marks an education institution, a subtype of 294<edi> * Marks an education institution, a subtype of
295 organization. 295 organization.
296 296
297<emits> * tags a physical object or form of radiation 297<emits> * tags a physical object or form of radiation
298 emitted by the headword 298 emitted by the headword
299 299
300<figure> Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom used. 300<figure> Just a place-holder for illustrations, but seldom used.
301 301
302<film> italic Marks the name of a movie film. 302<film> italic Marks the name of a movie film.
303 303
304<fld> italic Field of specialization. Most often used for 304<fld> italic Field of specialization. Most often used for
305 Zoology and Botany, but many "fields of 305 Zoology and Botany, but many "fields of
306 specialization" are marked for technical 306 specialization" are marked for technical
307 terms. The parentheses are usually within this 307 terms. The parentheses are usually within this
308 field, but are not themselves in italics. 308 field, but are not themselves in italics.
309 309
310<geog> * Name of a geograpahical region of any size; 310<geog> * Name of a geograpahical region of any size;
311 if applicable, the more specific <city>, 311 if applicable, the more specific <city>,
312 <state>, or <country> are preferred. 312 <state>, or <country> are preferred.
313 313
314<hypen> * Hyperym. Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5 314<hypen> * Hyperym. Points to the hypernym from WordNet 1.5
315 Initially, used only for entries extracted 315 Initially, used only for entries extracted
316 from WordNet 1.5. Not present in the original 316 from WordNet 1.5. Not present in the original
317 1913 version. 317 1913 version.
318 318
319<illu> * Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and placed 319<illu> * Illustrative usage -- mostly from WordNet, and placed
320 outside the definition, in contrast to <as> usage. 320 outside the definition, in contrast to <as> usage.
321 These should be converted to <as>...</as> illustrative 321 These should be converted to <as>...</as> illustrative
322 usage format for consistency. 322 usage format for consistency.
323 323
324<illust> * Illustration place-holder. Seldom used. 324<illust> * Illustration place-holder. Seldom used.
325<img> * HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually 325<img> * HTML usage -- points to an image file, usually
326 .gif or .jpg. These have no closing tag, and 326 .gif or .jpg. These have no closing tag, and
327 will appear as errors in parsing. 327 will appear as errors in parsing.
328<intensi> * Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified 328<intensi> * Points to a word whose meaning is an intensified
329 form of the headword. Taken from WordNet 329 form of the headword. Taken from WordNet
330 tags, used with some adjectives from WordNet 330 tags, used with some adjectives from WordNet
331<item> * Designates one item in a row of a table. Used only when 331<item> * Designates one item in a row of a table. Used only when
332 intervening spaces do not serve properly as natural 332 intervening spaces do not serve properly as natural
333 field separaters. 333 field separaters.
334<itran> italic Translation into a foreign (non-English) language 334<itran> italic Translation into a foreign (non-English) language
335 of the previous word in the text -- italic font. 335 of the previous word in the text -- italic font.
336 (<sig> is a translation into English) 336 (<sig> is a translation into English)
337<itrans> italic Same as <itran> 337<itrans> italic Same as <itran>
338<jour> * Title of a journal (periodical). 338<jour> * Title of a journal (periodical).
339<matrix> * Always a filled rectangular array. 339<matrix> * Always a filled rectangular array.
340<matrix2x5> * A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns). 340<matrix2x5> * A 2x5 matrix (2 rows by 5 columns).
341<mstypec> * Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in 341<mstypec> * Multiple synonymous subtypes -- used in
342 def. of "grass". 342 def. of "grass".
343<mtable> * Multiple table, encloses <table> figures. 343<mtable> * Multiple table, encloses <table> figures.
344<musfig> * Music figure. Only in a note under the entry "Figure", 344<musfig> * Music figure. Only in a note under the entry "Figure",
345 the two numbers of each such field 345 the two numbers of each such field
346 are bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction with 346 are bold, 20 point type, stacked as in a fraction with
347 a bar between them, but also having a horizontal stroke 347 a bar between them, but also having a horizontal stroke
348 midway through each numeral. Unique to this entry. 348 midway through each numeral. Unique to this entry.
349<p> * paragraph tag, used always in pairs. Line breaks may 349<p> * paragraph tag, used always in pairs. Line breaks may
350 be embedded inside the paragraphs. 350 be embedded inside the paragraphs.
351<person> * marks the proper name of a person. Used only 351<person> * marks the proper name of a person. Used only
352 occasionally, but should be used more frequently 352 occasionally, but should be used more frequently
353 for cases where first names are abbreviated, 353 for cases where first names are abbreviated,
354 to reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic 354 to reduce ambiguity of the period for automatic
355 analysis. Where a title is given, prefixed 355 analysis. Where a title is given, prefixed
356 or postfixed, it is included in this tag. 356 or postfixed, it is included in this tag.
357 357
358<persfn> * marks the name of a person, when only one name 358<persfn> * marks the name of a person, when only one name
359 (usually the last name) is given. Not used 359 (usually the last name) is given. Not used
360 consistently where it should be. 360 consistently where it should be.
361 361
362<publ> * Marks the name of a publication other than book, 362<publ> * Marks the name of a publication other than book,
363 which is marked by <booki>. It is often a 363 which is marked by <booki>. It is often a
364 magazine or journal. 364 magazine or journal.
365<qpers> * Tags the name of a person who is speaking, 365<qpers> * Tags the name of a person who is speaking,
366 within a quotation. 366 within a quotation.
367<qperson> Same as <qpers> 367<qperson> Same as <qpers>
368<cp> * Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases that 368<cp> * Collocation, plain text -- used to tag phrases that
369 should be parsed as a unit, but has no typographical 369 should be parsed as a unit, but has no typographical
370 significance. 370 significance.
371<qau> italic Always right-justified, as described for <au>. 371<qau> italic Always right-justified, as described for <au>.
372<ref> * A reference to a word in the vocabulary. 372<ref> * A reference to a word in the vocabulary.
373<refs> * Marks the set of references used for a longer article 373<refs> * Marks the set of references used for a longer article
374 such as a biography. 374 such as a biography.
375<river> * Marks the name of a river -- a proper name 375<river> * Marks the name of a river -- a proper name
376<rj> * Right justified 376<rj> * Right justified
377<row> * Designates a row in a table. 377<row> * Designates a row in a table.
378<state> * Name of a geopolitical state, the first subdivision of 378<state> * Name of a geopolitical state, the first subdivision of
379 a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian provinces. 379 a country. Includes, e.g. Canadian provinces.
380<subtypes> * Lists subtypes of the headword. 380<subtypes> * Lists subtypes of the headword.
381<sup> * superscript 381<sup> * superscript
382<supr> * Supra. The two parts of each such field 382<supr> * Supra. The two parts of each such field
383 are stacked, one over the other, *without* a 383 are stacked, one over the other, *without* a
384 horizontal bar between (as in a fraction). 384 horizontal bar between (as in a fraction).
385 Used only in one entry, for a musical notation. 385 Used only in one entry, for a musical notation.
386<table> * Always a filled rectangular array, having <row> and <item> 386<table> * Always a filled rectangular array, having <row> and <item>
387 elements. 387 elements.
388<td> * Table datum - one cell in a table 388<td> * Table datum - one cell in a table
389<th> * Table header 389<th> * Table header
390<tradename> * Tags a commercial Trade name 390<tradename> * Tags a commercial Trade name
391<ttitle> * Table title (Larger than normal font) 391<ttitle> * Table title (Larger than normal font)
392==================================================================== 392====================================================================
393 393
394Functional Tags 394Functional Tags
395-------------------------------------------------------------------- 395--------------------------------------------------------------------
396Tag Font Meaning 396Tag Font Meaning
397 (Comparatives are relative to the plain font.) 397 (Comparatives are relative to the plain font.)
398----------------------------------------------------------------------- 398-----------------------------------------------------------------------
399<-- --> * Comment, not a tag. These segments should be deleted 399<-- --> * Comment, not a tag. These segments should be deleted
400 from the written or printed text. 400 from the written or printed text.
401 Page numbers of the original text are indicated 401 Page numbers of the original text are indicated
402 within such comments; these may be left in, if 402 within such comments; these may be left in, if
403 desired. 403 desired.
404 404
405<! !> * HTML-style comment. Used to indicate page numbers 405<! !> * HTML-style comment. Used to indicate page numbers
406 in the public domain version. 406 in the public domain version.
407 407
408<adjf> small caps Tags for the actual adjective or adverb 408<adjf> small caps Tags for the actual adjective or adverb
409 comparatives or superlatives. Should be 409 comparatives or superlatives. Should be
410 indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and 410 indexed. See also conjf (verbs) and
411 decf (nouns). 411 decf (nouns).
412 412
413<altname> italic Alternative name. Usually for plants or animals, 413<altname> italic Alternative name. Usually for plants or animals,
414 but also used for other cases where words 414 but also used for other cases where words
415 are introduced by "also called", "called also", 415 are introduced by "also called", "called also",
416 "formerly called". These are functionally 416 "formerly called". These are functionally
417 *synonyms* for that word-sense. 417 *synonyms* for that word-sense.
418 418
419<altnpluf> italic Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a 419<altnpluf> italic Same as <altname>, but the marked word is a
420 plural form, whereas the headword is singular. 420 plural form, whereas the headword is singular.
421 421
422<amorph> * Adjective morphological segment, primarily 422<amorph> * Adjective morphological segment, primarily
423 the comparative and superlative forms. 423 the comparative and superlative forms.
424 The occasional adverb morphology is 424 The occasional adverb morphology is
425 also tagged this way. 425 also tagged this way.
426 426
427<as> * A segment occurring within the definitional 427<as> * A segment occurring within the definitional
428 sentence, providing an example of usage of 428 sentence, providing an example of usage of
429 the headword. Not conceptually a part of the 429 the headword. Not conceptually a part of the
430 actual definition. 430 actual definition.
431 431
432<cd> smaller spacing Collocation definition. Similar in structure 432<cd> smaller spacing Collocation definition. Similar in structure
433 to headword definitions (the <def> field). May 433 to headword definitions (the <def> field). May
434 contain an <as> field. Plain type, but with 434 contain an <as> field. Plain type, but with
435 closer spacing than main definitions. 435 closer spacing than main definitions.
436 436
437<col> bold, Collocation. A word combination containing the 437<col> bold, Collocation. A word combination containing the
438 smaller by headword (or a morphological derivative). 438 smaller by headword (or a morphological derivative).
439 1 point The collocations do not have an explicitly 439 1 point The collocations do not have an explicitly
440 marked part of speech. 440 marked part of speech.
441 See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations. 441 See also <ecol>, tagging embedded collocations.
442 442
443<colp> Collocation, no typographic significance. 443<colp> Collocation, no typographic significance.
444 Used to mark a word combination defined in 444 Used to mark a word combination defined in
445 the dictionary without affect on font. 445 the dictionary without affect on font.
446 446
447<conjf> small caps The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of 447<conjf> small caps The conjugated (non-infinitive) forms of
448 verbs. imp. & p. p. is common, as well as 448 verbs. imp. & p. p. is common, as well as
449 p. pr. & vb. n. Irregular variants of 449 p. pr. & vb. n. Irregular variants of
450 these are less common. Words in this 450 these are less common. Words in this
451 field perhaps should be indexed. 451 field perhaps should be indexed.
452 452
453<cs> smaller Collocation segment. The font and size is 453<cs> smaller Collocation segment. The font and size is
454 vertical normal in a cs, but the spacing between lines 454 vertical normal in a cs, but the spacing between lines
455 spacing is smaller (0.9 mm between lower-case letters, 455 spacing is smaller (0.9 mm between lower-case letters,
456 rather than 1.1 mm in the main body of the 456 rather than 1.1 mm in the main body of the
457 definition). For an on-line dictionary, 457 definition). For an on-line dictionary,
458 reproducing this typography is probably 458 reproducing this typography is probably
459 pointless. 459 pointless.
460 460
461<decf> small caps The actual morphological variants of nouns or 461<decf> small caps The actual morphological variants of nouns or
462 pronouns. Should be indexed. 462 pronouns. Should be indexed.
463 463
464<ecol> * Embedded Collocation. A word combination 464<ecol> * Embedded Collocation. A word combination
465 containing the headword (or a morphological 465 containing the headword (or a morphological
466 derivative, embedded within a definition 466 derivative, embedded within a definition
467 without a separate definitin of its own. 467 without a separate definitin of its own.
468 These collocations should be defined 468 These collocations should be defined
469 implicitly by the text of the definition in 469 implicitly by the text of the definition in
470 which they are embedded. 470 which they are embedded.
471 See also <col>, tagging explicitly defined 471 See also <col>, tagging explicitly defined
472 collocations. 472 collocations.
473<er> Small Caps Entry reference. References to headwords 473<er> Small Caps Entry reference. References to headwords
474 within the "etymology" section are in small 474 within the "etymology" section are in small
475 caps. Such references also occur 475 caps. Such references also occur
476 in the body of definitions, and in "usage" 476 in the body of definitions, and in "usage"
477 segments. 477 segments.
478 Such entry references should function as hypertext 478 Such entry references should function as hypertext
479 buttons to access that entry. 479 buttons to access that entry.
480 480
481<ety> * Etymology. Always contained within square 481<ety> * Etymology. Always contained within square
482 brackets. Normal type is used for explanatory 482 brackets. Normal type is used for explanatory
483 comments, and italics for the actual words 483 comments, and italics for the actual words
484 (marked <ets>) considered as etymological 484 (marked <ets>) considered as etymological
485 sources. 485 sources.
486 486
487<ets> italic Etymological source. Words from which the 487<ets> italic Etymological source. Words from which the
488 headword was derived, or to which it is related. 488 headword was derived, or to which it is related.
489 The Greek words within an etymology segment 489 The Greek words within an etymology segment
490 are invariably etymology sources, and should 490 are invariably etymology sources, and should
491 be marked as such, but are not so marked, 491 be marked as such, but are not so marked,
492 even in the rare cases where the Greek word 492 even in the rare cases where the Greek word
493 transliteration has been written in. 493 transliteration has been written in.
494 494
495<etsep> italic Etymological source, being the name of a person 495<etsep> italic Etymological source, being the name of a person
496 or geographical location which is the eponym 496 or geographical location which is the eponym
497 for the concept. This is used to distinguish 497 for the concept. This is used to distinguish
498 eponymous etymologies from others, and can also 498 eponymous etymologies from others, and can also
499 be found in the body of a definition or note, 499 be found in the body of a definition or note,
500 not only in the etymology field. Very few 500 not only in the etymology field. Very few
501 of the names that should be marked this way 501 of the names that should be marked this way
502 have actually been so marked, as of version 502 have actually been so marked, as of version
503 0.42. In cases where such eponymous names 503 0.42. In cases where such eponymous names
504 have not yet been thus marked, they will 504 have not yet been thus marked, they will
505 usually be marked by <xex>, the non-semantic 505 usually be marked by <xex>, the non-semantic
506 italic-font marker, or, in etymologies, by 506 italic-font marker, or, in etymologies, by
507 <ets>. 507 <ets>.
508 508
509<ex> italic Example. An example of usage of the headword, 509<ex> italic Example. An example of usage of the headword,
510 usually found within an <as> or <note> segment. 510 usually found within an <as> or <note> segment.
511 511
512<fr> * Frequency of use, ordinal rank. This is used for 512<fr> * Frequency of use, ordinal rank. This is used for
513 WordNet entries, in which the synonyms 513 WordNet entries, in which the synonyms
514 were ranked in order of frequency of use. 514 were ranked in order of frequency of use.
515 <fr>1</fr> indicates that the headword is the 515 <fr>1</fr> indicates that the headword is the
516 first word on the list of synonyms. 516 first word on the list of synonyms.
517 517
518<fu> * First use. A date at or around which the first 518<fu> * First use. A date at or around which the first
519 use of this word in writing is recorded. 519 use of this word in writing is recorded.
520 Not in the original 1913 Webster, and usu. 520 Not in the original 1913 Webster, and usu.
521 taken from a recent dictionary. Only a few 521 taken from a recent dictionary. Only a few
522 such fields have been entered as of version 522 such fields have been entered as of version
523 0.41 523 0.41
524 524
525<grk> transliteration Greek. The Greek words have been transliterated 525<grk> transliteration Greek. The Greek words have been transliterated
526 using the equivalents explained in the 526 using the equivalents explained in the
527 file "webfonts.asc". In most cases, the 527 file "webfonts.asc". In most cases, the
528 transliterations are typical for Greek 528 transliterations are typical for Greek
529 letters, except for theta (transl = q), 529 letters, except for theta (transl = q),
530 phi (transl. = f), eta (transl. = h), and 530 phi (transl. = f), eta (transl. = h), and
531 upsilon (transl. = y, whether pronounced 531 upsilon (transl. = y, whether pronounced
532 as y or u). This was to eliminate any 532 as y or u). This was to eliminate any
533 ambiguity. These words occur primarily 533 ambiguity. These words occur primarily
534 in etymologies, and to conform to the 534 in etymologies, and to conform to the
535 usage of <ets> should also be marked 535 usage of <ets> should also be marked
536 by <ets>, but as of version 0.41 they 536 by <ets>, but as of version 0.41 they
537 are not usually thus marked. 537 are not usually thus marked.
538 538
539<hw> bold, headword. Each main entry begins with the <hw> 539<hw> bold, headword. Each main entry begins with the <hw>
540 larger by mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark. The 540 larger by mark, and ends at the next <hw> mark. The
541 2 points main entries are not otherwise explicitly 541 2 points main entries are not otherwise explicitly
542 marked as a distinctive field. 542 marked as a distinctive field.
543 The same word may appear as a headword 543 The same word may appear as a headword
544 several times, usually as different parts 544 several times, usually as different parts
545 of speech, but sometimes with different 545 of speech, but sometimes with different
546 entries as the same part of speech, presumably 546 entries as the same part of speech, presumably
547 to indicate a different etymology. 547 to indicate a different etymology.
548 Within the hw field the heavy accent is 548 Within the hw field the heavy accent is
549 represented by double quote ("), the 549 represented by double quote ("), the
550 light accent by open-single-quote (`), 550 light accent by open-single-quote (`),
551 and the short dash separating syllables by 551 and the short dash separating syllables by
552 an asterisk (*). A hyphen (-) is used to 552 an asterisk (*). A hyphen (-) is used to
553 represent the hyphen of hyphenated words. 553 represent the hyphen of hyphenated words.
554 554
555<mark> italic, Usage mark. Almost always within square 555<mark> italic, Usage mark. Almost always within square
556 brackets, occasionally in parentheses or 556 brackets, occasionally in parentheses or
557 without any bracketing. 557 without any bracketing.
558 but The most common usage marks, 558 but The most common usage marks,
559 explanatory "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." = 559 explanatory "Obs." = obsolete "R." = rare, "Colloq." =
560 may be plain. colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England, 560 may be plain. colloquial, "Prov. Eng." = Provincial England,
561 etc. are in italics. Some usage notes are also 561 etc. are in italics. Some usage notes are also
562 marked with <mark>, but are in plain. For 562 marked with <mark>, but are in plain. For
563 simplicity, all words in this field may be 563 simplicity, all words in this field may be
564 italic, until additional explicit marks are 564 italic, until additional explicit marks are
565 added. 565 added.
566 566
567<markp> * A usage mark in plain type (not italic). Found 567<markp> * A usage mark in plain type (not italic). Found
568 within a definition, when there are more than 568 within a definition, when there are more than
569 one sense-number listed. "Fig." at the head 569 one sense-number listed. "Fig." at the head
570 of an entry is the most common case. 570 of an entry is the most common case.
571 571
572<mcol> * Multiple collocation. Similar to multiple 572<mcol> * Multiple collocation. Similar to multiple
573 headword, when two or more collocations share 573 headword, when two or more collocations share
574 one definition; however, the two collocations 574 one definition; however, the two collocations
575 are in-line, rather than stacked or justified. 575 are in-line, rather than stacked or justified.
576 There may be "or" or "and" words 576 There may be "or" or "and" words
577 (italicised), or an "etc." (plain type) 577 (italicised), or an "etc." (plain type)
578 within this field. In many cases, the 578 within this field. In many cases, the
579 <or/ and <and/ entities are used to 579 <or/ and <and/ entities are used to
580 signify the change of font for these words. 580 signify the change of font for these words.
581 581
582<mhw> * Multiple headword. This field is used where 582<mhw> * Multiple headword. This field is used where
583 more than one headword shares a single 583 more than one headword shares a single
584 definition. In the dictionary, the 584 definition. In the dictionary, the
585 (usually) two headwords are left-justified 585 (usually) two headwords are left-justified
586 one below the other in the column, and are 586 one below the other in the column, and are
587 tied together on the right side of the 587 tied together on the right side of the
588 headwords by a long right curly brace. 588 headwords by a long right curly brace.
589 This division is strictly functional, 589 This division is strictly functional,
590 for analytical purposes, and does not 590 for analytical purposes, and does not
591 affect the typography. 591 affect the typography.
592 592
593<nmorph> * Noun morphology section. Rarely used, mostly 593<nmorph> * Noun morphology section. Rarely used, mostly
594 for irregular personal pronouns. 594 for irregular personal pronouns.
595 595
596<note> * Explanatory note. No explicit font is indicated. 596<note> * Explanatory note. No explicit font is indicated.
597 These segments may be separate, as in the 597 These segments may be separate, as in the
598 separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/, 598 separate paragraphs starting <note><hand/,
599 or they may just be further explanation within 599 or they may just be further explanation within
600 (or more usually, following) the main 600 (or more usually, following) the main
601 definition paragraph. Typographically, 601 definition paragraph. Typographically,
602 the notes following the main definition may 602 the notes following the main definition may
603 not be distinguishable from additional 603 not be distinguishable from additional
604 sentences appended to the first sentence 604 sentences appended to the first sentence
605 of a definition. 605 of a definition.
606 606
607<plu> * Plural. The "plural" segment starts with a 607<plu> * Plural. The "plural" segment starts with a
608 "pl." which is italicised, but in this 608 "pl." which is italicised, but in this
609 segment is not otherwise marked as 609 segment is not otherwise marked as
610 italicised. Other words occurring in this 610 italicised. Other words occurring in this
611 segment are plain type. The "pl." can be 611 segment are plain type. The "pl." can be
612 easily explicitly marked if necessary. 612 easily explicitly marked if necessary.
613 613
614<pos> italic Part of speech. Always an abbreviation: e.g., 614<pos> italic Part of speech. Always an abbreviation: e.g.,
615 n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep. 615 n.; v. i.; v. t.; a.; adv.; pron.; prep.
616 Combinations may occur, as "a. & n.". 616 Combinations may occur, as "a. & n.".
617 617
618<plw> small caps Plural word. The actual plural form of the word, 618<plw> small caps Plural word. The actual plural form of the word,
619 found within a <plu> segment. 619 found within a <plu> segment.
620 620
621<pr> * pronunciation. The default font is normal, but 621<pr> * pronunciation. The default font is normal, but
622 many non-ASCII characters are used. 622 many non-ASCII characters are used.
623 The pronunciation field may have more than 623 The pronunciation field may have more than
624 one pronunciation, separated by an "<or/". 624 one pronunciation, separated by an "<or/".
625 (An "or" here is in italic, and usually is 625 (An "or" here is in italic, and usually is
626 represented by the entity <or/). 626 represented by the entity <or/).
627 There may also be some commentary, such as 627 There may also be some commentary, such as
628 "Fr."(French pronunciation) or "archaic". 628 "Fr."(French pronunciation) or "archaic".
629 The commentaries are typically italic, and 629 The commentaries are typically italic, and
630 should be marked as such. In certain 630 should be marked as such. In certain
631 pronunciations there is a numbered reference 631 pronunciations there is a numbered reference
632 to a root form explained in an introductory 632 to a root form explained in an introductory
633 section on pronunciation. 633 section on pronunciation.
634 Very few of the pronunciation fields have 634 Very few of the pronunciation fields have
635 been filled in. The pronunciation markings use 635 been filled in. The pronunciation markings use
636 a more complicated method than more modern 636 a more complicated method than more modern
637 dictionaries. It would be interesting to have 637 dictionaries. It would be interesting to have
638 these fields filled in, if there are any 638 these fields filled in, if there are any
639 volunteers willing to do it. 639 volunteers willing to do it.
640 640
641<q> smaller by Quotation. No bracketing quotation marks, 641<q> smaller by Quotation. No bracketing quotation marks,
642 two points, though occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur 642 two points, though occasionally \'bd-\'b8 quotations occur
643 centered, within these quotations. These quotations 643 centered, within these quotations. These quotations
644 Separate tend to be more complete sentences, rather 644 Separate tend to be more complete sentences, rather
645 paragraph than just phrases, such as are contained 645 paragraph than just phrases, such as are contained
646 within quotation marks within the definition 646 within quotation marks within the definition
647 paragraph. 647 paragraph.
648 648
649<qau> italic, Quotation author. Used only for the quotations 649<qau> italic, Quotation author. Used only for the quotations
650 right justified marked with <q> that are centered in their 650 right justified marked with <q> that are centered in their
651 own paragraphs. 651 own paragraphs.
652 652
653<qex> italic Quotation example. An example of usage of 653<qex> italic Quotation example. An example of usage of
654 the headword, within quotations marked 654 the headword, within quotations marked
655 by <q>..</q> tags. 655 by <q>..</q> tags.
656 656
657<sd> italic Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc. THese are 657<sd> italic Subdefinition, marked (a), (b), (c), etc. THese are
658 finer distinctions of word senses, used 658 finer distinctions of word senses, used
659 within numbered word-sense (for main entries), 659 within numbered word-sense (for main entries),
660 and also used for subdefinitions within 660 and also used for subdefinitions within
661 collocation segments, which have no numbering of 661 collocation segments, which have no numbering of
662 senses. The letter is italic, the parentheses 662 senses. The letter is italic, the parentheses
663 are not. This tag is also used to indicate the 663 are not. This tag is also used to indicate the
664 lettered subdefinition when it is referred to 664 lettered subdefinition when it is referred to
665 at another point in the text. 665 at another point in the text.
666 666
667<ship> italic The name of a ship. Rarely used. 667<ship> italic The name of a ship. Rarely used.
668 668
669<sing> * Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but more 669<sing> * Singular. Analogous to the <plu> segment, but more
670 rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which 670 rarely used, mostly for Indian tribes, which
671 are listed in the plural form. 671 are listed in the plural form.
672 672
673<singw> small caps Singular word. The singular form of the 673<singw> small caps Singular word. The singular form of the
674 plural-form headword. 674 plural-form headword.
675 675
676<sn> bold, Sense number. A headword may have over 20 676<sn> bold, Sense number. A headword may have over 20
677 larger by different sense numbers. Within each numbered 677 larger by different sense numbers. Within each numbered
678 2 points sense there may be lettered sub-senses. See 678 2 points sense there may be lettered sub-senses. See
679 the <sd> (sub-definition) field. 679 the <sd> (sub-definition) field.
680 680
681<source> italic Source. The author of the definition. Used only 681<source> italic Source. The author of the definition. Used only
682 for definitions not originally present in 682 for definitions not originally present in
683 Webster 1913, and not present in the original 683 Webster 1913, and not present in the original
684 version intended to mimic the 1913 printed 684 version intended to mimic the 1913 printed
685 dictionary. This source is used for each 685 dictionary. This source is used for each
686 word sense, and may differ for different 686 word sense, and may differ for different
687 senses of a word, especially where a Web1913 687 senses of a word, especially where a Web1913
688 definition was substantially modified, or a 688 definition was substantially modified, or a
689 new word sense was added to a previously 689 new word sense was added to a previously
690 defined word. 690 defined word.
691 691
692<syn> plain Synonyms. A list of synonyms, sometimes followed 692<syn> plain Synonyms. A list of synonyms, sometimes followed
693 by a <usage> segment. 693 by a <usage> segment.
694 694
695<usage> narrower Comparisons of word usage for words which are 695<usage> narrower Comparisons of word usage for words which are
696 spacing sometimes confused. As with collocation segments, 696 spacing sometimes confused. As with collocation segments,
697 font is plain, but spacing is smaller than 697 font is plain, but spacing is smaller than
698 normal definition spacing. This seems pointlessly 698 normal definition spacing. This seems pointlessly
699 complicating for an on-line display. 699 complicating for an on-line display.
700 700
701<vmorph> * Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited 701<vmorph> * Verb morphology (conjugation) segment, delimited
702 by square brackets. 702 by square brackets.
703 703
704<wordforms> * Morphological derivatives not contained in the 704<wordforms> * Morphological derivatives not contained in the
705 bracketed segments, as above. For nouns 705 bracketed segments, as above. For nouns
706 derived from adjectives, adverbs from 706 derived from adjectives, adverbs from
707 adjectives, etc. This segment is usually 707 adjectives, etc. This segment is usually
708 found at the end of the main entry. The 708 found at the end of the main entry. The
709 adverbial and nominalized derivatives at the 709 adverbial and nominalized derivatives at the
710 end of a main entry are usually introduced 710 end of a main entry are usually introduced
711 by an em dash [represented as two hyphens (--)]. 711 by an em dash [represented as two hyphens (--)].
712 712
713<wf> bold, Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable 713<wf> bold, Same font as <hw>, with accents and syllable
714 larger by breaks marked as in the headword. 714 larger by breaks marked as in the headword.
715 2 points Marks the actual morphological forms within 715 2 points Marks the actual morphological forms within
716 a <wordforms> segment; typically, adverbial or 716 a <wordforms> segment; typically, adverbial or
717 nominalized form of an adjective. 717 nominalized form of an adjective.
718 718
719 719
720<def2> * Second definition (occasionally, a third definition is 720<def2> * Second definition (occasionally, a third definition is
721 present). This is used where a second or third 721 present). This is used where a second or third
722 part of speech with the same orthography is 722 part of speech with the same orthography is
723 placed under one headword. Within this segment, 723 placed under one headword. Within this segment,
724 there will be a <pos> field, and sometimes 724 there will be a <pos> field, and sometimes
725 a <mark> and/or a quotation. 725 a <mark> and/or a quotation.
726 726
727<specif> * "Specifically:" Used to mark the words "specifically", 727<specif> * "Specifically:" Used to mark the words "specifically",
728 "Hence", "as" which are used to introduce a second 728 "Hence", "as" which are used to introduce a second
729 definition typically more specific than the first, 729 definition typically more specific than the first,
730 but in general derived by extension of the initial 730 but in general derived by extension of the initial
731 definition. This functions as a warning of multiple 731 definition. This functions as a warning of multiple
732 definitions where the sense-numbers are not explicitly 732 definitions where the sense-numbers are not explicitly
733 used. It is also useful in separate senses, to 733 used. It is also useful in separate senses, to
734 tag polysemous definitions which may be 734 tag polysemous definitions which may be
735 specializations or generalizations of the preceding 735 specializations or generalizations of the preceding
736 definition. 736 definition.
737 737
738<pluf> italic. Plural form. 738<pluf> italic. Plural form.
739 Used exclusively to mark the "pl." abbreviation, 739 Used exclusively to mark the "pl." abbreviation,
740 which introduces a definition for the headword, 740 which introduces a definition for the headword,
741 *when used in the plural form*. Not related to 741 *when used in the plural form*. Not related to
742 <plu>, which spells out the plural form, but does 742 <plu>, which spells out the plural form, but does
743 define it. 743 define it.
744 744
745<uex> italic Usage example. Used only a few times, within 745<uex> italic Usage example. Used only a few times, within
746 <usage> segments. 746 <usage> segments.
747 747
748<isa> italic supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and 748<isa> italic supertype (hypernym) the inverse of <stype> and
749 identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet. 749 identical to <hypen> but not derived from WordNet.
750 750
751<chform> plain, Chemical formula. The letters are plain font, 751<chform> plain, Chemical formula. The letters are plain font,
752 numbers but the numbers are subscript. This is mostly 752 numbers but the numbers are subscript. This is mostly
753 subscript useful as a functional mark to pinpoint 753 subscript useful as a functional mark to pinpoint
754 chemicals. 754 chemicals.
755 755
756<chformi> plain, Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not 756<chformi> plain, Chemical formula same as <chform>, but not
757 processed specially by the tag-converter program. 757 processed specially by the tag-converter program.
758 The letters are plain font, but the numbers are 758 The letters are plain font, but the numbers are
759 subscript. 759 subscript.
760 Used in place of <chform> when the formula has 760 Used in place of <chform> when the formula has
761 a tag inside, which cannot now be processed by the 761 a tag inside, which cannot now be processed by the
762 <chform> processing routine. 762 <chform> processing routine.
763 763
764<chname> * chemical name. Used to allow a IUPAC chemical 764<chname> * chemical name. Used to allow a IUPAC chemical
765 name to be processed as a unit in spite of 765 name to be processed as a unit in spite of
766 embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas. 766 embedded dashes, parentheses, and commas.
767 767
768<see> * "see" reference to related words, outside of the 768<see> * "see" reference to related words, outside of the
769 main <def>definition</def> field. 769 main <def>definition</def> field.
770 770
771<mathex> italic Mathematical expression. In this dictionary, 771<mathex> italic Mathematical expression. In this dictionary,
772 essentially all letters (used as variable labels) 772 essentially all letters (used as variable labels)
773 in math expressions are in italic font. 773 in math expressions are in italic font.
774 The "+" and "-" may also appear typographically 774 The "+" and "-" may also appear typographically
775 different from elsewhere in the dictionary. 775 different from elsewhere in the dictionary.
776 776
777<ratio> italic Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and 777<ratio> italic Also a mathematical expression, but the colon and
778 double colon may have a different typography 778 double colon may have a different typography
779 than usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio> 779 than usual., as in <ratio>a:b</ratio>
780 780
781<singf> italic Singular form. Analogous to <pluf>, to define 781<singf> italic Singular form. Analogous to <pluf>, to define
782 the singular word where the headword is the 782 the singular word where the headword is the
783 plural form. ** only modifies the word "sing." 783 plural form. ** only modifies the word "sing."
784 784
785<mord> * Morphological derivation. Used to mark the 785<mord> * Morphological derivation. Used to mark the
786 entry-reference portions of those 786 entry-reference portions of those
787 entries which are defined as morphological 787 entries which are defined as morphological
788 derivatives (plural, p. p., imp.) of other 788 derivatives (plural, p. p., imp.) of other
789 headwords. Used just as an attempt to 789 headwords. Used just as an attempt to
790 mark and regularize the entry format. 790 mark and regularize the entry format.
791 May be ignored typographically. 791 May be ignored typographically.
792 792
793<fract> a stack, Fraction. Used for non-numerical fractions 793<fract> a stack, Fraction. Used for non-numerical fractions
794 with which cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style 794 with which cannot be expressed as a <frac12/-style
795 numerator, entity. The forward slash "/" is to be 795 numerator, entity. The forward slash "/" is to be
796 horizontal interpreted as a horizontal line separating 796 horizontal interpreted as a horizontal line separating
797 bar, and the numerator and denominator. 797 bar, and the numerator and denominator.
798 denominator 798 denominator
799 799
800<exp> superscript, Exponential. Used in mathematical expressions. 800<exp> superscript, Exponential. Used in mathematical expressions.
801 smaller 801 smaller
802 font. 802 font.
803 803
804<xlati> italic Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a 804<xlati> italic Translation (e.g. of Greek), in the body of a
805 definition or etymology. Used only twice. 805 definition or etymology. Used only twice.
806 806
807<tran> italic Word translated: the word in italic is translated 807<tran> italic Word translated: the word in italic is translated
808 by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies, where 808 by a subsequent word. Usually in etymologies, where
809 the word translated is not actually etymologically 809 the word translated is not actually etymologically
810 related to the headword. The translated word 810 related to the headword. The translated word
811 is not necessarily English. 811 is not necessarily English.
812 812
813<tr> italic translation of the preceding word (or of the 813<tr> italic translation of the preceding word (or of the
814 headword) into English. 814 headword) into English.
815 815
816<fexp> * Functional expression (math). The function names are 816<fexp> * Functional expression (math). The function names are
817 in plain type, the variables are italic. 817 in plain type, the variables are italic.
818 818
819<iref> italic Illustration reference. Used ony occasionally, not 819<iref> italic Illustration reference. Used ony occasionally, not
820 yet (v. 0.41) consistently. 820 yet (v. 0.41) consistently.
821 821
822<figref> italic Figure reference. 822<figref> italic Figure reference.
823 823
824<figcap> * Figure caption. 824<figcap> * Figure caption.
825 825
826<figtitle> * Figure title. 826<figtitle> * Figure title.
827 827
828<funct> * tags a mathematical function or expression. 828<funct> * tags a mathematical function or expression.
829 829
830<chreact> * Chemical reaction. Similar to chemical formulas (which 830<chreact> * Chemical reaction. Similar to chemical formulas (which
831 are contained but not explicitly marked), with 831 are contained but not explicitly marked), with
832 some other symbols. 832 some other symbols.
833 833
834<ptcl> italic Verb Particle. Only a few particles were actually 834<ptcl> italic Verb Particle. Only a few particles were actually
835 marked, but in a future version more may be. 835 marked, but in a future version more may be.
836 836
837<tabtitle> ? Table Title. Used only once. 837<tabtitle> ? Table Title. Used only once.
838 838
839<title> italic Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical 839<title> italic Title of a literary work, movie, opera, musical
840 composition, etc. Used rarely but should be 840 composition, etc. Used rarely but should be
841 used in every case, except in <au> references. 841 used in every case, except in <au> references.
842 842
843<root> * Square root -- differs from the entity <root/, 843<root> * Square root -- differs from the entity <root/,
844 which is a square root sign that does not extend 844 which is a square root sign that does not extend
845 beyond the number following it. The <root> 845 beyond the number following it. The <root>
846 field has a bar (vinvulum) over the expression 846 field has a bar (vinvulum) over the expression
847 within the field, as well as the square root symbol 847 within the field, as well as the square root symbol
848 preceding the expression in the field. Used only 848 preceding the expression in the field. Used only
849 once. 849 once.
850 850
851<vinc> * Vinculum. In a mathematical expression, a bar 851<vinc> * Vinculum. In a mathematical expression, a bar
852 extending over the expression within the field. 852 extending over the expression within the field.
853 Used only once. This apparently serves the same 853 Used only once. This apparently serves the same
854 function as a parentheses, of causing the 854 function as a parentheses, of causing the
855 expression within the field to be evaluated 855 expression within the field to be evaluated
856 and the result used as the (mathematical) value 856 and the result used as the (mathematical) value
857 of the field. 857 of the field.
858 858
859<nul> plain Nultype. An older version of <plain>. 859<nul> plain Nultype. An older version of <plain>.
860 860
861<cd2> * Second collocation definition. Somewhat similar to 861<cd2> * Second collocation definition. Somewhat similar to
862 <def2>. Purely a mark to reduce functional ambiguity, 862 <def2>. Purely a mark to reduce functional ambiguity,
863 with no effect on the typography. 863 with no effect on the typography.
864 864
865<hypen> * Hypernym. Mark introduced for the World Wide Webster, 865<hypen> * Hypernym. Mark introduced for the World Wide Webster,
866 when adding words from WordNet. In most cases, this 866 when adding words from WordNet. In most cases, this
867 tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for nouns and verbs). 867 tag marks the WordNet hypernym (for nouns and verbs).
868 Where the <au> mark is PJC or includes a +PJC, the 868 Where the <au> mark is PJC or includes a +PJC, the
869 hypernym may not be the same as in WordNet. The words 869 hypernym may not be the same as in WordNet. The words
870 marked by this tag need to be bracketed in some way, 870 marked by this tag need to be bracketed in some way,
871 but this is deferred until the definitions included 871 but this is deferred until the definitions included
872 with the hypernyms have been deleted, and other 872 with the hypernyms have been deleted, and other
873 disambiguating marks substituted. 873 disambiguating marks substituted.
874 874
875<stype> italic Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which 875<stype> italic Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which
876 are conceptually subtypes of the headword. 876 are conceptually subtypes of the headword.
877 877
878<styp> * Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which 878<styp> * Subtype. A functional mark, to point out words which
879 are conceptually subtypes of the headword, but 879 are conceptually subtypes of the headword, but
880 with no *typographical* significance. 880 with no *typographical* significance.
881 881
882<simto> * Similar-to. A semantic relational mark for 882<simto> * Similar-to. A semantic relational mark for
883 closely related words which are not quite 883 closely related words which are not quite
884 synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms. Introduced 884 synonyms, nor hypernyms, nor hyponyms. Introduced
885 with WordNet data. 885 with WordNet data.
886 886
887<conseq> * Consequence. For adjectives, is an attribute which 887<conseq> * Consequence. For adjectives, is an attribute which
888 or is a consequence of possessing the headword attribute. 888 or is a consequence of possessing the headword attribute.
889<hascons> Introduced with WordNet data. 889<hascons> Introduced with WordNet data.
890 890
891<consof> * Consequence of. For adjectives, an attribute which 891<consof> * Consequence of. For adjectives, an attribute which
892 implies the headword as a natural consequence. 892 implies the headword as a natural consequence.
893 893
894<part> italic Part. Marks a word designating something which is 894<part> italic Part. Marks a word designating something which is
895 conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely used. 895 conceptually a part of the headword. Rarely used.
896 896
897<parts> italic Part, plural form. Same as <part>, but marks the 897<parts> italic Part, plural form. Same as <part>, but marks the
898 name of the part in its plural form. 898 name of the part in its plural form.
899 899
900<partof> * Marks a word designating something of which the headword 900<partof> * Marks a word designating something of which the headword
901 is conceptually a part. Inverse of <part>. 901 is conceptually a part. Inverse of <part>.
902 This is very broad, and may mean constituent or 902 This is very broad, and may mean constituent or
903 separable part. 903 separable part.
904 Rarely used. 904 Rarely used.
905 905
906<contxt> * Context. Used only for introductions to definitions, 906<contxt> * Context. Used only for introductions to definitions,
907 giving the context of usage, which are not part 907 giving the context of usage, which are not part
908 of the definition proper, as: 908 of the definition proper, as:
909 <contxt>when used of a person:</contxt> 909 <contxt>when used of a person:</contxt>
910 910
911<grp> * Marks the name of a group of people not formally 911<grp> * Marks the name of a group of people not formally
912 organized. 912 organized.
913 913
914<membof> italic marks a group of which the headword is a member. 914<membof> italic marks a group of which the headword is a member.
915 This is rarely used, but should be indexed as 915 This is rarely used, but should be indexed as
916 an entry word or phrase. 916 an entry word or phrase.
917 917
918<member> italic marks a member of a group defined by the headword. 918<member> italic marks a member of a group defined by the headword.
919 This is rarely used, but should be indexed as 919 This is rarely used, but should be indexed as
920 an entry word or phrase. 920 an entry word or phrase.
921 921
922<members> italic Same as <member>, but marks a plural word, 922<members> italic Same as <member>, but marks a plural word,
923 designating the name of the members in its plural form, 923 designating the name of the members in its plural form,
924 for lack of ambiguity. 924 for lack of ambiguity.
925 925
926<method> * Designates a special type of definition which 926<method> * Designates a special type of definition which
927 describes a method for achieving the headword, 927 describes a method for achieving the headword,
928 928
929 used only once for the word "amend". The 929 used only once for the word "amend". The
930 subdefinitions begin with "by". 930 subdefinitions begin with "by".
931 931
932<corpn> * Name of a business company, corporation, or partnership. 932<corpn> * Name of a business company, corporation, or partnership.
933 Started using November 1988. Rare. 933 Started using November 1988. Rare.
934 934
935<corr> italic Correlative. A word intimately associated with the 935<corr> italic Correlative. A word intimately associated with the
936 headword in a manner such that one cannot 936 headword in a manner such that one cannot
937 appear without the other. NOt exactly an inverse. 937 appear without the other. NOt exactly an inverse.
938 938
939<qperson> italic marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue. 939<qperson> italic marks the name of a person, quoted in a dialogue.
940 Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45. 940 Used only in <q> blockquotes as of vers. 0.45.
941 941
942<org> * marks the name of an organization; sometimes used 942<org> * marks the name of an organization; sometimes used
943 for the names of groups of people not 943 for the names of groups of people not
944 formally organized *see also <grp>. 944 formally organized *see also <grp>.
945 945
946<prod> italic produces. Designates a substance produced by 946<prod> italic produces. Designates a substance produced by
947 a living organism. Rarely used. 947 a living organism. Rarely used.
948 948
949<prodp> * produces (plainfont). Designates a substance 949<prodp> * produces (plainfont). Designates a substance
950 produced by a living organism. Same as <prod>, 950 produced by a living organism. Same as <prod>,
951 but does not affect font. Rarely used. 951 but does not affect font. Rarely used.
952 952
953<prodby> * produced by. Designates a living organism which 953<prodby> * produced by. Designates a living organism which
954 produces the headword substance. Rarely used. 954 produces the headword substance. Rarely used.
955 955
956<prodmac> italic produces. Designates an object or substance produced 956<prodmac> italic produces. Designates an object or substance produced
957 by a machine or process. Rarely used. 957 by a machine or process. Rarely used.
958 958
959<stage> italic life stage of an organism. Used to indicate 959<stage> italic life stage of an organism. Used to indicate
960 variant forms of an organism defined by the 960 variant forms of an organism defined by the
961 headword. Rarely used. 961 headword. Rarely used.
962 962
963<stageof> * an organism one of whose life stages is the headword. 963<stageof> * an organism one of whose life stages is the headword.
964 Inverse (correlative) of <stage>. Rarely used. 964 Inverse (correlative) of <stage>. Rarely used.
965 965
966<inv> italic inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository 966<inv> italic inversely related to headword -- e.g. depository
967 is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse of 967 is the inverse of depositor; buyer is the inverse of
968 seller. Called "correlative" in the Webster 1913 and 968 seller. Called "correlative" in the Webster 1913 and
969 the CIDE. Rarely used. 969 the CIDE. Rarely used.
970 970
971<methodfor> italic is a method to accomplish the action defined by 971<methodfor> italic is a method to accomplish the action defined by
972 the headword. Rarely used, and only in the 972 the headword. Rarely used, and only in the
973 supplemental section. 973 supplemental section.
974 974
975<examp> italic example or instance of the headword, where the 975<examp> italic example or instance of the headword, where the
976 tagged and emphasized word is not a proper subtype. 976 tagged and emphasized word is not a proper subtype.
977-------------------------------------- 977--------------------------------------
978<p><hw>Pa*ron"y*mous</hw> <p><sn>2.</sn> <def>Having a similar sound, but different orthography and different meaning; -- said of certain words, as <examp>all</examp> and <examp>awl</examp>; <examp>hair</examp> and <examp>hare</examp>, etc.</def><br/ 978<p><hw>Pa*ron"y*mous</hw> <p><sn>2.</sn> <def>Having a similar sound, but different orthography and different meaning; -- said of certain words, as <examp>all</examp> and <examp>awl</examp>; <examp>hair</examp> and <examp>hare</examp>, etc.</def><br/
979[<source>1913 Webster</source>]</p> 979[<source>1913 Webster</source>]</p>
980------------------------------------- 980-------------------------------------
981 981
982<sfield> * subfield of the headword, which must be a field 982<sfield> * subfield of the headword, which must be a field
983 of study or of knowledge 983 of study or of knowledge
984<stage> italic a stage of life of the headword -- for living things, 984<stage> italic a stage of life of the headword -- for living things,
985 such as insects, whose life stages may take different 985 such as insects, whose life stages may take different
986 names. 986 names.
987 987
988<unit> italic a unit of measure, usually preceded by a number. 988<unit> italic a unit of measure, usually preceded by a number.
989 Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is the 989 Also used to tag the unit of a measure which is the
990 headword. 990 headword.
991 991
992<uses> italic tags a tool or method used by the headword, 992<uses> italic tags a tool or method used by the headword,
993 which is usually some process. 993 which is usually some process.
994 994
995<usedfor> * tags a method or process for which the headword 995<usedfor> * tags a method or process for which the headword
996 is a tool. 996 is a tool.
997 997
998<usedby> italic tags a tool or method which uses the headword, 998<usedby> italic tags a tool or method which uses the headword,
999 which is usually a physical object. 999 which is usually a physical object.
1000 1000
1001<perf> italic performs -- tags a word which is a process or 1001<perf> italic performs -- tags a word which is a process or
1002 activity performed by the headword. 1002 activity performed by the headword.
1003 1003
1004<recipr> italic reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged word 1004<recipr> italic reciprocal -- used for cases where the tagged word
1005 is a reciprocal participant in an action, such as 1005 is a reciprocal participant in an action, such as
1006 donor and recipient. The difference between this and 1006 donor and recipient. The difference between this and
1007 <inv> inverse has not yet been systematically settled. 1007 <inv> inverse has not yet been systematically settled.
1008 Used seldom, and mostly in the supplemented version. 1008 Used seldom, and mostly in the supplemented version.
1009 1009
1010<sig> italic significance, meaning -- used in definitions where the 1010<sig> italic significance, meaning -- used in definitions where the
1011 actual meaning is prefixed with commentary explaining 1011 actual meaning is prefixed with commentary explaining
1012 usage or other attributes of the word, as with 1012 usage or other attributes of the word, as with
1013 prefixes or suffixes. 1013 prefixes or suffixes.
1014 1014
1015<wns> italic WordNet sense. Where known, the correspondence of the 1015<wns> italic WordNet sense. Where known, the correspondence of the
1016 sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6 is 1016 sense of an entry with that of WordNet 1.6 is
1017 given after the definition, in a tag of the 1017 given after the definition, in a tag of the
1018 form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number 1018 form: <wns>[wns=3]</wns>, in which the number
1019 is the numbered sense in WordNet. 1019 is the numbered sense in WordNet.
1020 1020
1021<w16ns> italic WordNet version 1.6 sense. See <wns> for 1021<w16ns> italic WordNet version 1.6 sense. See <wns> for
1022 explanation. 1022 explanation.
1023<wnote> * A note related to usage in the corresponding 1023<wnote> * A note related to usage in the corresponding
1024 WordNet definition. 1024 WordNet definition.
1025 ============================================================= 1025 =============================================================
1026Biological classifications: 1026Biological classifications:
1027--------------------------- 1027---------------------------
1028<spn> italic Species name. Used to mark the taxonomic names 1028<spn> italic Species name. Used to mark the taxonomic names
1029 of living things which are represented in 1029 of living things which are represented in
1030 italic font in the original printed version. 1030 italic font in the original printed version.
1031 Originally, not only species, but genera, orders and 1031 Originally, not only species, but genera, orders and
1032 families were also thus marked. The conversion from 1032 families were also thus marked. The conversion from
1033 <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord> is not completed, and 1033 <spn> to <fam>, <gen>, or <ord> is not completed, and
1034 <spn> may stil be found marking such groups. 1034 <spn> may stil be found marking such groups.
1035 However, orders and families are also frequently 1035 However, orders and families are also frequently
1036 mentioned in the original in normal font, and in such 1036 mentioned in the original in normal font, and in such
1037 cases are not marked with any tag. So, this mark 1037 cases are not marked with any tag. So, this mark
1038 is not a reliable indicator of all mentions of 1038 is not a reliable indicator of all mentions of
1039 taxonomic names. 1039 taxonomic names.
1040<kingdom> italic Taxonomic biological Kingdom name. 1040<kingdom> italic Taxonomic biological Kingdom name.
1041<phylum> italic Taxonomic phylum name. 1041<phylum> italic Taxonomic phylum name.
1042<subphylum> italic Taxonomic subphylum name. 1042<subphylum> italic Taxonomic subphylum name.
1043<class> italic Taxonomic class name. 1043<class> italic Taxonomic class name.
1044<subclass> italic Taxonomic subclass name. 1044<subclass> italic Taxonomic subclass name.
1045<ord> italic Taxonomic order name. 1045<ord> italic Taxonomic order name.
1046 Also used for suborders, initially. 1046 Also used for suborders, initially.
1047<subord> italic Taxonomic suborder name. 1047<subord> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
1048<suborder> italic Taxonomic suborder name. 1048<suborder> italic Taxonomic suborder name.
1049<fam> italic Taxonomic family name. Also used to tag "tribes". 1049<fam> italic Taxonomic family name. Also used to tag "tribes".
1050<subfam> italic Taxonomic subfamily name. 1050<subfam> italic Taxonomic subfamily name.
1051<gen> italic Taxonomic genus name. 1051<gen> italic Taxonomic genus name.
1052<var> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below 1052<var> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below
1053 the level of species in living organism systematic 1053 the level of species in living organism systematic
1054 names. 1054 names.
1055 1055
1056<varn> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below 1056<varn> italic Variety. Used to mark subspecies or varities below
1057 the level of species in living organism systematic 1057 the level of species in living organism systematic
1058 names. Duplicative variant of <var> 1058 names. Duplicative variant of <var>
1059 1059
1060 1060
diff --git a/WEBFONT.ASC b/WEBFONT.ASC
index 591de89..198c0e0 100644
--- a/WEBFONT.ASC
+++ b/WEBFONT.ASC
@@ -1,603 +1,603 @@
1 WEBSTER FONTS 1 WEBSTER FONTS
2 ============= 2 =============
3 3
4 Fonts for the Webster 1913 Dictionary. 4 Fonts for the Webster 1913 Dictionary.
5 For version 0.50 5 For version 0.50
6 Last edit May 5, 2001 6 Last edit May 5, 2001
7 ______________________________________ 7 ______________________________________
8 (This file contains some extended ASCII characters, and should be 8 (This file contains some extended ASCII characters, and should be
9transmitted in binary mode) 9transmitted in binary mode)
10---------------------------------------------------------------------- 10----------------------------------------------------------------------
11 11
12 This file describes a modified font for use in visualizing the 12 This file describes a modified font for use in visualizing the
13text of the 1913 "Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary" (W1913), 13text of the 1913 "Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary" (W1913),
14usable for the DOS operating system of IBM-compatible personal computers. 14usable for the DOS operating system of IBM-compatible personal computers.
15The electronic version of that dictionary and this font were prepared by 15The electronic version of that dictionary and this font were prepared by
16MICRA, Inc., Plainfield NJ, and are copyrighted (C) 1996 by MICRA, Inc. 16MICRA, Inc., Plainfield NJ, and are copyrighted (C) 1996 by MICRA, Inc.
17For details of permissions and restrictions on using these files, see 17For details of permissions and restrictions on using these files, see
18the accompanying file "readme.web". 18the accompanying file "readme.web".
19 The special characters used in the electronic version of the Webster 19 The special characters used in the electronic version of the Webster
201913 are required for visualizing unusual characters used in the 201913 are required for visualizing unusual characters used in the
21etymology and pronunciation fields of the dictionary, in a form 21etymology and pronunciation fields of the dictionary, in a form
22comparable to the way they appear in the original. Since there are 22comparable to the way they appear in the original. Since there are
23more than 256 characters used in that dictionary, not all can be 23more than 256 characters used in that dictionary, not all can be
24represented by single-byte codes, and are instead represented by 24represented by single-byte codes, and are instead represented by
25SGML-style "short-form" symbols. (rather than the "entity" format 25SGML-style "short-form" symbols. (rather than the "entity" format
26"&xx;" The ampersand is used frequently, and we prefer to leave 26"&xx;" The ampersand is used frequently, and we prefer to leave
27the "<" as the only "escape" character) of the type <x/ where x 27the "<" as the only "escape" character) of the type <x/ where x
28is a specific code for the symbol in the dictionary. 28is a specific code for the symbol in the dictionary.
29See the "Short Form" section below for details about such characters. 29See the "Short Form" section below for details about such characters.
30Note that the symbols used here are in some cases abbreviations 30Note that the symbols used here are in some cases abbreviations
31(for compactness) of the ISO 8879 recommended symbols. If necessary, 31(for compactness) of the ISO 8879 recommended symbols. If necessary,
32the table below allows simple replacement by alternate encodings. 32the table below allows simple replacement by alternate encodings.
33 This symbol font can be loaded in IBM-compatible (x86) computers 33 This symbol font can be loaded in IBM-compatible (x86) computers
34running the DOS operating system by using the "font.bat" command file 34running the DOS operating system by using the "font.bat" command file
35in the "utils" directory. The fonts files for 8x14 and 8x16 fonts are 35in the "utils" directory. The fonts files for 8x14 and 8x16 fonts are
36"web14.fnt" and "web16.fnt" respectively. 36"web14.fnt" and "web16.fnt" respectively.
37 For those loading the Webster onto some machine other than an 37 For those loading the Webster onto some machine other than an
38IBM-compatible running DOS, it will be necessary to provide a 38IBM-compatible running DOS, it will be necessary to provide a
39translation table, to convert these characters into a code that 39translation table, to convert these characters into a code that
40can be handled by that computer. For this reason, I attach an 40can be handled by that computer. For this reason, I attach an
41"explanation" for each character, for those who cannot view 41"explanation" for each character, for those who cannot view
42the original DOS font. 42the original DOS font.
43 The DOS-loadable font does not contain all of the characters needed 43 The DOS-loadable font does not contain all of the characters needed
44to depict the etymologies or the pronunciations. In addition to an 44to depict the etymologies or the pronunciations. In addition to an
45absence of several characters used in the pronunciations, no Greek letters are 45absence of several characters used in the pronunciations, no Greek letters are
46included. The Greek words appearing in the etymologies, 46included. The Greek words appearing in the etymologies,
47when they are included, will be typed in a 47when they are included, will be typed in a
48roman-letter transcription (See section on Greek transcription, below). 48roman-letter transcription (See section on Greek transcription, below).
49Only a very few Greek words have been thus transcribed as of the 49Only a very few Greek words have been thus transcribed as of the
50present version (version 0.41). 50present version (version 0.41).
51 Wherever the typists did not know the character to use, they 51 Wherever the typists did not know the character to use, they
52usually inserted a reverse-video question mark (decimal 176). 52usually inserted a reverse-video question mark (decimal 176).
53This appears in full-ASCII versions as <?/. This mark was used both for 53This appears in full-ASCII versions as <?/. This mark was used both for
54characters in non-ASCII fonts, and for unreadable characters (i.e., 54characters in non-ASCII fonts, and for unreadable characters (i.e.,
55characters smeared in the original or distorted in the copies available 55characters smeared in the original or distorted in the copies available
56to the typists. The type in the original was in many places smeared and 56to the typists. The type in the original was in many places smeared and
57illegible at the left and right page margins; occasionally, small 57illegible at the left and right page margins; occasionally, small
58parts of words were blotted out by plain white space). 58parts of words were blotted out by plain white space).
59 A character table for the high-order characters appears below. 59 A character table for the high-order characters appears below.
60Under that is a list and description of most of the special characters 60Under that is a list and description of most of the special characters
61used in the Webster files. 61used in the Webster files.
62 Note that there are yet some characters used in the etymologies, 62 Note that there are yet some characters used in the etymologies,
63and some other symbols, which are not in this list. For example, the 63and some other symbols, which are not in this list. For example, the
64vowels with a double dot *underneath*, e.g. a (as in all) have no representation 64vowels with a double dot *underneath*, e.g. a (as in all) have no representation
65in this character set, and, where explicitly entered in the dictionary, 65in this character set, and, where explicitly entered in the dictionary,
66are represented by <xdd/ where "x" is the letter, as in "<add/". 66are represented by <xdd/ where "x" is the letter, as in "<add/".
67 67
68ITALICS 68ITALICS
69------- 69-------
70 In most places, italic font is represented by the tags <it>...</it> 70 In most places, italic font is represented by the tags <it>...</it>
71surrounding the italic text, or by some other tag which also implies 71surrounding the italic text, or by some other tag which also implies
72italic font. In the pronunciations, however, where italicized vowels 72italic font. In the pronunciations, however, where italicized vowels
73are used among non-italic and other special characters to indicate 73are used among non-italic and other special characters to indicate
74pronunciation, the special codes <ait/, <eit/, <iit/, <oit/, <uit/, 74pronunciation, the special codes <ait/, <eit/, <iit/, <oit/, <uit/,
75are also used to indicate the italicized vowel. 75are also used to indicate the italicized vowel.
76 76
77DIACRITICS 77DIACRITICS
78------------- 78-------------
79 The European grave and acute accents are represented by the 79 The European grave and acute accents are represented by the
80standard (IBM PC) high-order codes. Other characters with diacritics 80standard (IBM PC) high-order codes. Other characters with diacritics
81are represented by special "entity" codes, and in some cases also 81are represented by special "entity" codes, and in some cases also
82are found in this special WEB1913 font, described below. 82are found in this special WEB1913 font, described below.
83 Vowels with a circle above (as in Swedish) are coded <xring/ 83 Vowels with a circle above (as in Swedish) are coded <xring/
84(x with a ring, or "degrees" mark over it); vowels with tilde over them 84(x with a ring, or "degrees" mark over it); vowels with tilde over them
85are represented by <xtil/, where "x" is the vowel, as in <etil/ (<atil/ 85are represented by <xtil/, where "x" is the vowel, as in <etil/ (<atil/
86also has code 238); letters with a dot above are represented by <xdot/ 86also has code 238); letters with a dot above are represented by <xdot/
87-- letter with a dot below are represented by <xsdot/ ("subdot"); 87-- letter with a dot below are represented by <xsdot/ ("subdot");
88vowels with the semi-long mark (a macron with a short perpendicular 88vowels with the semi-long mark (a macron with a short perpendicular
89vertical stroke attached above) are represented by <xsl/; the 89vertical stroke attached above) are represented by <xsl/; the
90circumflex vowels have codes on this list, but may also be represented 90circumflex vowels have codes on this list, but may also be represented
91as <xcir/; vowels with macrons above are <xmac/ (including <oomac/, 91as <xcir/; vowels with macrons above are <xmac/ (including <oomac/,
92the "oo" with an unbroken macron above the two letters, <aemac/ = the 92the "oo" with an unbroken macron above the two letters, <aemac/ = the
93ligature ae with a macron [also 214 = \'d6], and <oemac/ the ligature 93ligature ae with a macron [also 214 = \'d6], and <oemac/ the ligature
94oe with a macron [also 215 = \'d7]); vowels with umlauts or a crescent 94oe with a macron [also 215 = \'d7]); vowels with umlauts or a crescent
95(breve) above have codes in this list, but may also be represented by 95(breve) above have codes in this list, but may also be represented by
96<xum/ and <xcr/ respectively. There is an occasional hacek or caron mark 96<xum/ and <xcr/ respectively. There is an occasional hacek or caron mark
97(an inverted circumflex) in the original; such letters are coded <xcar/. 97(an inverted circumflex) in the original; such letters are coded <xcar/.
98The o with a caron has code 213, but no others are in this font list. 98The o with a caron has code 213, but no others are in this font list.
99The diaeresis is treated typographically as identical to the umlaut. 99The diaeresis is treated typographically as identical to the umlaut.
100 A special modification, used only for poetry (see entry "saturnian verse" 100 A special modification, used only for poetry (see entry "saturnian verse"
101under "saturnian") is a vowel with a macron, in which the macron is lighter 101under "saturnian") is a vowel with a macron, in which the macron is lighter
102than the usual macron, signifying a stressed syllable which has a short 102than the usual macron, signifying a stressed syllable which has a short
103vowel sound. This is represented by <xsmac/ ("short mac"). 103vowel sound. This is represented by <xsmac/ ("short mac").
104 Another special character used in pronunciations is an "n" with an underline (like 104 Another special character used in pronunciations is an "n" with an underline (like
105a macron, but below the letter), used to represent the "ng" sound. This is coded 105a macron, but below the letter), used to represent the "ng" sound. This is coded
106<nsm/ ("n sub-macron"). The ligated th used in pronunciations to depict the 106<nsm/ ("n sub-macron"). The ligated th used in pronunciations to depict the
107"th" sound of "the" is coded as <th/. 107"th" sound of "the" is coded as <th/.
108 NOTE: the letter combinations "fi" and "fl" are invariably printed as the 108 NOTE: the letter combinations "fi" and "fl" are invariably printed as the
109ligatures &filig; and &fllig;, but these ligatures are not marked as such 109ligatures &filig; and &fllig;, but these ligatures are not marked as such
110in this transcription, and the two letters are left as individuals. 110in this transcription, and the two letters are left as individuals.
111 111
112SPECIAL SYMBOLS 112SPECIAL SYMBOLS
113 The dagger <dag/, double dagger <ddag/, and paragraph mark <para/ are rarely used. 113 The dagger <dag/, double dagger <ddag/, and paragraph mark <para/ are rarely used.
114 The double prime, or "seconds" of a degree is sometimes represented by 114 The double prime, or "seconds" of a degree is sometimes represented by
115a double "light accent" (code 183 = \'b7). In other places, and in later 115a double "light accent" (code 183 = \'b7). In other places, and in later
116versions, it is represented by <sec/ = hex a9, in the webfont. 116versions, it is represented by <sec/ = hex a9, in the webfont.
117 The symbols "greater than" <gt/ and "less than" are encountered only 117 The symbols "greater than" <gt/ and "less than" are encountered only
118once, but are distinguished from the right- and left-angle brackets 118once, but are distinguished from the right- and left-angle brackets
119(> and <) because of possible typographical differences in some fonts. 119(> and <) because of possible typographical differences in some fonts.
120 The schwa is symbolized by <schwa/. It is not used in the 120 The schwa is symbolized by <schwa/. It is not used in the
121pronunciations, but is mentioned as a symbol. 121pronunciations, but is mentioned as a symbol.
122 The right-pointing arrow is <rarr/, consistent with ISO 8879. 122 The right-pointing arrow is <rarr/, consistent with ISO 8879.
123 123
124---------------------------------- 124----------------------------------
125Table 1 125Table 1
126---------------------------------- 126----------------------------------
127Numbers 127Numbers
128 Hex codes 128 Hex codes
1291   1291  
13011   (12 is a hard page break, 13 CR, 14 sect break) 13011   (12 is a hard page break, 13 CR, 14 sect break)
13121   13121  
13231  !"# $%&'( 13231  !"# $%&'(
133121 yz{|} ~ 79-7d 7e-82 133121 yz{|} ~ 79-7d 7e-82
134131 83-87 88-8c 134